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  • 1.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Bossi, Rossana
    Dietz, Rune
    Dreyer, Annekatrin
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Garbus, Svend Erik
    Hellström, Peter
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Lohmann, Nina
    Roos, Anna
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Sonne, Christian
    Treu, Gabriele
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Eulaers, Igor
    Organohalogen compounds of emerging concern in Baltic Sea biota: Levels, biomagnification potential and comparisons with legacy contaminants2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 144, article id 106037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for Sigma OPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), for Sigma CPs from 110 to 640 ng g(-1) lw for Sigma HFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g(-1) lw, and for Sigma PFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g(-1) wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.

  • 2. Dietz, R.
    et al.
    Sonne, C.
    Jenssen, B. M.
    Das, K.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Harding, K. C.
    Siebert, U.
    Olsen, M. T.
    The Baltic Sea: An ecosystem with multiple stressors2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 147, article id 106324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory chapter to our Environment International VSI does not need an abstract and therefore we just include our recommendations below in order to proceed with the resubmission. Future work should examine waterbirds as food web sentinels of multiple stressors as well as Baltic Sea food web dynamics of hazardous substances and how climate change may modify it. Also, future work should aim at further extending the new frameworks developed within BALTHEALTH for energy and contaminant transfer at the population level (Des forges et al., 2018, Cervin et al., 2020/this issue Silva et al., 2020/this issue) and their long term effects on Baltic Sea top predators, such as harbour porpoises, grey seals ringed seals, and white-tailed eagles. Likewise, the risk evaluation conducted for PCB in connection with mercury on Arctic wildlife (Dietz et al., 2019, not a BONUS BALTHEALTH product) could be planned for Baltic Sea molluscs, fish, bird and marine mammals in the future. Finally, future efforts could include stressors not covered by the BONUS BALTHEALTH project, such as food web fluxes, overexploitation, bycatches, eutrophication and underwater noise.

  • 3. Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S.
    et al.
    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam
    Ramos-Madrigal, Jazmin
    de Manuel, Marc
    Pitulko, Vladimir V.
    Kuderna, Lukas
    Feuerborn, Tatiana R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. University of Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Greenland, Greenland; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Frantz, Laurent A. F.
    Vieira, Filipe G.
    Niemann, Jonas
    Castruita, Jose A. Samaniego
    Caroe, Christian
    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.
    Jordan, Peter D.
    Pavlova, Elena Y.
    Nikolskiy, Pavel A.
    Kasparov, Aleksei K.
    Ivanova, Varvara V.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Fredholm, Merete
    Wennerberg, Sanne Eline
    Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter
    Dietz, Rune
    Sonne, Christian
    Meldgaard, Morten
    Dalen, Love
    Larson, Greger
    Petersen, Bent
    Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas
    Bachmann, Lutz
    Wiig, Oystein
    Marques-Bonet, Tomas
    Hansen, Anders J.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Arctic-adapted dogs emerged at the Pleistocene-Holocene transitiond2020In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 368, no 6498, p. 1495-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an similar to 9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeological evidence for sled technology, and an similar to 33,000-year-old Siberian wolf. We found noteworthy genetic similarity between the ancient dog and modern sled dogs. We detected gene flow from Pleistocene Siberian wolves, but not modern American wolves, to present-day sled dogs. The results indicate that the major ancestry of modern sled dogs traces back to Siberia, where sled dog-specific haplotypes of genes that potentially relate to Arctic adaptation were established by 9500 years ago.

  • 4.
    Spaan, Kyra M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    van Noordenburg, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Schultes, Lara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Shaw, Susan
    Berger, Michelle
    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter
    Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu
    Granquist, Sandra M.
    Dietz, Rune
    Sonne, Christian
    Rigét, Frank
    Roos, Anna
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Fluorine Mass Balance and Suspect Screening in Marine Mammals from the Northern Hemisphere2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 4046-4058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that the similar to 20 routinely monitored perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) account for only a fraction of extractable organofluorine (EOF) occurring in the environment. To assess whether PFAS exposure is being underestimated in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere, we performed a fluorine mass balance on liver tissues from 11 different species using a combination of targeted PFAS analysis, EOF and total fluorine determination, and suspect screening. Samples were obtained from the east coast United States (US), west and east coast of Greenland, Iceland, and Sweden from 2000 to 2017. Of the 36 target PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) dominated in all but one Icelandic and three US samples, where the 7:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (7:3 FTCA) was prevalent. This is the first report of 7:3 FTCA in polar bears (similar to 1000 ng/g, ww) and cetaceans (<6-190 ng/g, ww). In 18 out of 25 samples, EOF was not significantly greater than fluorine concentrations derived from sum target PFASs. For the remaining 7 samples (mostly from the US east coast), 30-75% of the EOF was unidentified. Suspect screening revealed an additional 37 PFASs (not included in the targeted analysis) bringing the total to 63 detected PFASs from 12 different classes. Overall, these results highlight the importance of a multiplatform approach for accurately characterizing PFAS exposure in marine mammals.

  • 5. Wiig, Øystein
    et al.
    Henrichsen, Poul
    Sjøvold, Torstein
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Osteology Unit.
    Born, Erik W.
    Laidre, Kristin L.
    Dietz, Rune
    Sonne, Christian
    Aars, Jon
    Variation in non-metrical skull traits of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and relationships across East Greenland and adjacent subpopulations (1830-2013)2019In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 461-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of subpopulation identity including substructure is a prerequisite for sound management of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). It is not known whether the present catch of polar bears in the East Greenland subpopulation (EG) is sustainable. We used the Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) to examine geographical variation in non-metrical traits from 1414 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls collected in East Greenland (EG), Svalbard (SVA), Franz Josef Land (FJL), Davis Strait (DS), Baffin Bay (BB), and Kane Basin (KB), between 1830 and 2013. We focused on East Greenland with the goal of examining substructuring in the subpopulation. We did not find significant differences among samples across four areas of the EG subpopulation (i.e., offshore Fram Strait, NE, SE, and SW Greenland) using data from 1830 to 1983. Our analyses did not lend support to substructuring. However, we draw our conclusions with caution because skulls were sampled over a long time period and had low power due to small sample sizes. Also, comparisons were limited to pre-1980s skulls. The decrease in sea ice in EG since the 1990s due to climate change may have led to substructuring not detected with MMD. This study contributes to the current efforts by Greenland authorities to quantify connectivity of polar bears between southeast and northeast Greenland which is important information for the evaluation of the sustainability of the catch of bears from the EG subpopulation.

  • 6.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Roos, Anna Maria
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Sonne, Christian
    Garbus, Svend Erik
    Lind, Ylva
    Eulaers, Igor
    Hellström, Peter
    Dietz, Rune
    Persson, Sara
    Bossi, Rossana
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Accumulation of Short-, Medium-, and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine and Terrestrial Animals from Scandinavia2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 3526-3537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) have a wide range of physical-chemical properties, indicating their varying bioaccumulation tendencies in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. However, there are few empirical data to reveal such bioaccumulation tendencies. In this study, we analyzed SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from 18 species at both low and high trophic levels of marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the Scandinavian region collected during the past decade. These included fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and terrestrial birds and mammals. SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were present in all the species, with concentrations ranging from 26-1500, 30-1600, 6.0-1200 ng/g lipid, respectively. Although MCCPs and SCCPs predominated in species, many terrestrial species had generally higher concentrations of LCCPs than marine species. Terrestrial raptors in particular accumulated higher concentrations of LCCPs, including C-24/25-which are predominant among very-long-chain components. LCCP concentrations were highest and predominated (55% of total CPs) in peregrine falcons in this study, which is the first report where concentrations of LCCPs surpass those of SCCPs and MCCPs in wildlife. The results also indicate biomagnification of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in both marine and terrestrial food chains, but in-depth studies of specific food webs are needed.

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