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  • 1. de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe
    et al.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia R.
    Dreij, Kristian
    DNA damage signaling and genotoxic effects induced by complex mixtures of PAHs generated by biomass burning air particulate matter in human lung cells2019In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 314, no SI, p. S132-S133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research concerning the effects of air pollutants on human health focuses on urban centers and on the role of vehicular and industrial emissions as major sources of pollution. However, approximately 3 billion people world-wide are exposed to air pollution from biomass burning [1]. Herein, particulate matter (PM) emitted from artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide [2,3], was investigated. This study focused on: i) chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxy-PAH derivatives; ii) time-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling and genotoxic effects, and iii) differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair using A549 lung cells. Among the PAHs, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene showed the highest concentrations (7.8-10 ng/m3), while among oxy-PAHs, benzanthrone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant. Testing of PM extracts was based on B[a]P equivalent doses (B[a]Peq). IC50 values for viability was 5.7 and 3.0 nM B[a]Peq at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Based on this, all other experiments were conducted at doses up to 2 nM B[a]Peq. At these low doses, we observed a dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling (phosphorylation of Chk1) and genotoxicity (double strand breaks). In comparison, effects of B[a]P alone was observed at micromolar range. To our knowledge, no other study has demonstrated an activation of pChk1, a biomarker used to estimate the carcinogenic potency of PAHs in vitro [4], in lung cells exposed to biomass burning extracts. Persistent increased gene expression of several important stress response mediators of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), inflammation (IL-8, TNF-α), cell cycle arrest (CDKN1A), and DNA repair (DDB2) was also identified. In conclusion, our data show high potency of biomass burning PM to induce cellular stress including genotoxicity, and more potently so when compared to B[a]P alone. Our study provides new data that will help elucidate the mechanism of lung cancer development associated with biomass burning. In addition, the results of this study support the establishment of new guidelines for human health protection in regions strongly impacted by biomass burning.

  • 2. de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe
    et al.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina
    Dreij, Kristian
    Genotoxicity and DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in biomass burning particulate matter from cashew nut roasting2020In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 256, article id 113381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 3 billion people world-wide are exposed to air pollution from biomass burning. Herein, particulate matter(PM) emitted from artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic activity worldwide, was investigated. This study focused on: i) chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated (oxy-) PAHs; ii) intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); iii) genotoxic effects and time- and dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling, and iv) differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, using A549 lung cells. Among the PAHs, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene showed the highest concentrations (7.8–10 ng/m3), while benzanthrone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant oxy-PAHs. Testing of PM extracts was based on B[a]P equivalent doses (B[a]Peq). IC50 values for viability were 5.7 and 3.0 nM B[a]Peq at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. At these low doses, we observed a time- and dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of ROS, genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks) and DNA damage signaling (phosphorylation of the protein checkpoint kinase 1 – Chk1). In comparison, effects of B[a]P alone was observed at micromolar range. To our knowledge, no previous study has demonstrated an activation of pChk1, a biomarker used to estimate the carcinogenic potency of PAHs in vitro, in lung cells exposed to cashew nut roasting extracts. Sustained induction of expression of several important stress response mediators of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), ROS and pro-inflammatory response (IL-8, TNF-α, IL-2,COX2), and DNA damage response (CDKN1A and DDB2) was also identified. In conclusion, our data show high potency of cashew nut roasting PM to induce cellular stress including genotoxicity, and more potently when compared to B[a]P alone. Our study provides new data that will help elucidate the toxic effects of low-levels of PAH mixtures from air PM generated by cashew nut roasting.

  • 3.
    Lim, Hwanmi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Dreij, Kristian
    Polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden: Occurrence, sources and genotoxic potential in vitro2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 755, article id 142709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children spend a significant amount of their day in preschool; thus, environmental quality at preschools may have an impact on children’s health. In the present study, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including PAHs, alkylated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter (PM10) and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden. There were significant correlations between PAC levels in outdoor and indoor PM10, with in general higher PAC levels outdoors. Fluoranthene and pyrene were detected at highest levels in all sample types, although phenanthrene and methylated phenanthrene derivatives also were found at high levels in indoor dust. In addition, the highly carcinogenic PAHs 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benz[j]aceanthrylene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were detected in some samples. Benzanthrone was the most prevalent OPAH in PM10 samples and 9,10-anthraquinone in indoor dust. Based on diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization we identified vehicle emission and biomass burning as important PAC sources for all samples analyzed. However, poor correlation between PAC levels in indoor PM10 and indoor dust suggested additional sources for the latter. Measuring activation of DNA damage signaling in human cells exposed to organic extracts of the samples indicated substantial genotoxic potential of outdoor PM10 and indoor dust. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents demonstrated that the highly potent PAHs benz[j]aceanthrylene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene contributed more than 20% to the total carcinogenic potency of the samples. We conclude that PAC levels at Stockholm preschools are relatively low but that outdoor air quality may impact on the indoor environment.

  • 4. Maselli, Bianca S.
    et al.
    Giron, Macelle C. G.
    Lim, Hwanmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dreij, Kristian
    Watanabe, Tetsushi
    Cardoso, Arnaldo A.
    Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.
    Kummrow, Fabio
    Comparative mutagenic activity of atmospheric particulate matter from limeira, stockholm, and kyoto2019In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) organic fractions from urban centers are frequently mutagenic for the Salmonella/microsome assay. This mutagenicity is related to both primary and secondary pollutants, and meteorological conditions have great influence on the secondary pollutant's formation. Our objective was to compare the mutagenicity of atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) from three cities with marked different meteorological conditions and TSP concentrations: Limeira (Brazil) with 99.0 mu g/m(3), Stockholm (Sweden) with 6.2 mu g/m(3), and Kyoto (Japan) with 28.0 mu g/m(3). For comparison, we used the same batch of filters, sample extraction method, and Salmonella/microsome testing protocol with 11 strains of Salmonella with and without metabolic activation. Samples were collected during winter and pooled into one single extract representing each city. All samples were mutagenic for all tested strains, except for TA102. Based on the strain's selectivity, nitroarenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic amines play a predominant role in the mutagenicity of these samples. The mutagenic potencies expressed by mass of extracted organic material (EOM; revertants/mu g EOM) were similar (similar to twofold difference) among the cities, despite differences in meteorological conditions and pollution sources. In contrast, the mutagenic potencies expressed by air volume (rev/m(3)) varied similar to 20-fold, with Limeira > Kyoto approximate to Stockholm. These results are the first systematic assessment of air mutagenicity from cities on three continents using the same protocols. The results confirm that the mutagenic potency expressed by EOM mass is similar regardless of continent of origin, whereas the mutagenic potency expressed by air volume can vary by orders of magnitude. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2019.

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