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  • 1.
    Hill, Jason
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rastas, Pasi
    Hornett, Emily A.
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Clark, Nathan
    Morehouse, Nathan
    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Carnicer Cols, Jofre
    Dircksen, Heinrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Functional Morphology.
    Meslin, Camille
    Keehnen, Naomi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Pruisscher, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Sikkink, Kristin
    Vives, Maria
    Vogel, Heiko
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics. New York University, USA.
    Boggs, Carol L.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Unprecedented reorganization of holocentric chromosomes provides insights into the enigma of lepidopteran chromosome evolution2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 6, article id eaau3648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromosome evolution presents an enigma in the mega-diverse Lepidoptera. Most species exhibit constrained chromosome evolution with nearly identical haploid chromosome counts and chromosome-level gene collinearity among species more than 140 million years divergent. However, a few species possess radically inflated chromosomal counts due to extensive fission and fusion events. To address this enigma of constraint in the face of an exceptional ability to change, we investigated an unprecedented reorganization of the standard lepidopteran chromosome structure in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi). We find that gene content in P. napi has been extensively rearranged in large collinear blocks, which until now have been masked by a haploid chromosome number close to the lepidopteran average. We observe that ancient chromosome ends have been maintained and collinear blocks are enriched for functionally related genes suggesting both a mechanism and a possible role for selection in determining the boundaries of these genome-wide rearrangements.

  • 2.
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pruisscher, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pruisscher Keehnen, Naomi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wheat, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A dark melanic morph of Pieris napi shares its origins with other dark morphs of LepidopteraManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A functional genomic investigation of an alternative life history strategy: The Alba polymorphism in Colias croceus2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history traits affect the timing and pattern of maturation, reproduction, and survival during an organism’s lifecycle and are the major components influencing Darwinian fitness. Co-evolved patterns of these traits are known as life history strategies (LHS) and variation occurs between individuals, populations, and species. The polymorphisms underlying LHS are important targets of natural selection, yet the underlying genes and physiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Mapping the genetic basis of a LHS and subsequently unraveling the associated physiological mechanisms is a challenging task, as complex phenotypes are often polygenic. However, in several systems discrete LHS are maintained within the population and are inherited as a single locus with pleiotropic effects. These systems provide a promising starting point for investigation into LHS mechanisms and this thesis focuses on one such strategy - the Alba polymorphism in Colias butterflies. Alba is inherited as a single autosomal locus, expressed only in females, and simultaneously affects development rate, reproductive potential, and wing color. Alba females are white, while the alternative morph is yellow/orange. About 28 of 90 species exhibit polymorphic females, though whether the Alba mechanism and associated tradeoffs are conserved across the genus remains to be determined. In this thesis I primarily focus on the species Colias croceus and integrate results from lipidomics, transcriptomics, microscopy, and genomics to gain insights to the proximate mechanisms underlying Alba and Alba’s evolution within the genus. Lipidomics confirm that, consistent with findings in New World species, C. croceus Alba females have larger abdominal lipid stores than orange, an advantage which is temperature dependent and arises primarily due to mobilized lipids. Gene expression data suggests differences in resource allocation, with Alba females investing in reproduction rather than wing color, consistent with previous findings in other Colias species. Additionally, I identify a morphological basis for Alba’s white wing color. Alba females from C. croceus, an Old World species, and Colias eurytheme, a New World species both exhibit a significant reduction in pigment granules, the structures within the wing scale that contain pigment. This is a trait that seems to be unique to Colias as other white Pierid butterflies have an abundance of pigment granules, similar to orange females. I also map the genetic basis of Alba to a single genomic region containing an Alba specific, Jockey-like transposable element insertion. Interestingly this transposable element​ is located downstream of BarH-1, a gene known to affect pigment granule formation in Drosophila. Finally, I construct a phylogeny using a global distribution of 20 Colias species to facilitate investigations of Alba’s evolution within the genus.

  • 4.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kawahara, Akito
    Warren, Andrew
    Chichvarkhin, Anton
    Wheat, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A phylogenetic analysis of butterflies in the genus ColiasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Maria, de la Paz Celorio Mancera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Hill, Jason
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Käkelä, Reijo
    Brattstrom, Oskar
    Wheat, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A transposable element insertion is associated with a female-limited, alternative life history strategyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Kakela, Reijo
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Physiological differences between female limited, alternative life history strategies: The Alba phenotype in the butterfly Colias croceus2018In: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 107, p. 257-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across a wide range of taxa, individuals within populations exhibit alternative life history strategies (ALHS) where their phenotypes dramatically differ due to divergent investments in growth, reproduction and survivorship, with the resulting trade-offs directly impacting Darwinian fitness. Though the maintenance of ALHS within populations is fairly well understood, little is known regarding the physiological mechanisms that underlie ALHS and how environmental conditions can affect the evolution and expression of these phenotypes. One such ALHS, known as Alba, exists within females of many species in the butterfly genus Colias. Previous works in New World species not only found that female morphs differ in their wing color due to a reallocation of resources away from the synthesis of wing pigments to other areas of development, but also that temperature played an important role in these trade-offs. Here we build on previous work conducted in New World species by measuring life history traits and conducting lipidomics on individuals reared at hot and cold temperatures in the Old World species Colias croceus. Results suggest that the fitness of Alba and orange morphs likely varies with rearing temperature, where Alba females have higher fitness in cold conditions and orange in warm. Additionally shared traits between Old and New World species suggest the Alba mechanism is likely conserved across the genus. Finally, in the cold treatment we observe an intermediate yellow morph that may have decreased fitness due to slower larval development. This cost may manifest as disruptive selection in the field, thereby favoring the maintenance of the two discrete morphs. Taken together these results add insights into the evolution of, and the selection on, the Alba ALHS.

  • 7.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Käkelä, Reijo
    Wheat, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Physiological differences between female limited, alternative life history strategies: the Alba phenotype in the butterfly Colias croceusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tunström, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Perry, Michael W.
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Brattström, Oskar
    Hill, Jason
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Käkelä, Reijo
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A transposable element insertion is associated with an alternative life history strategy2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tradeoffs affect resource allocation during development and result in fitness consequences that drive the evolution of life history strategies. Yet despite their importance, we know little about the mechanisms underlying life history tradeoffs. Many species of Colias butterflies exhibit an alternative life history strategy (ALHS) where females divert resources from wing pigment synthesis to reproductive and somatic development. Due to this reallocation, a wing color polymorphism is associated with the ALHS: either yellow/orange or white. Here we map the locus associated with this ALHS in Colias crocea to a transposable element insertion located downstream of the Colias homolog of BarH-1, a homeobox transcription factor. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, antibody staining, and electron microscopy we find white-specific expression of BarH-1 suppresses the formation of pigment granules in wing scales and gives rise to white wing color. Lipid and transcriptome analyses reveal physiological differences associated with the ALHS. Together, these findings characterize a mechanism for a female-limited ALHS.

  • 9.
    Woronik, Alyssa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Advances in finding Alba: the locus affecting life history and color polymorphism in a Colias butterfly2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 26-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although alternative life-history strategies exist within many populations, very little is known about their genetic basis and mechanistic insight into these traits could greatly advance the understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. Many species of butterfly within the genus Colias exhibit a sex-limited wing colour polymorphism, called Alba, which is correlated with an alternative life-history strategy. Here, we have taken the first steps in localizing the region carrying Alba in Colias croceus, a species with no genomic resources, by generating whole genome sequence of a single Alba mother and two sequencing pools, one for her Alba and another for her orange, offspring. These data were used in a bulk-segregant analysis wherein SNPs fulfilling the Mendelian inheritance expectations of Alba were identified. Then, using the conserved synteny in Lepidoptera, the Alba locus was assigned to chromosome 15 in Bombyx mori. We then identified candidate regions within the chromosome by investigating the distribution of Alba SNPs along the chromosome and the difference in nucleotide diversity in exons between the two pools. A region spanning similar to 5.7 Mbp at the 50 end of the chromosome was identified as likely to contain the Alba locus. These insights set the stage for more detailed genomic scans and mapping of the Alba phenotype, and demonstrate an efficient use of genomic resources in a novel species.

1 - 9 of 9
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