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  • 1.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hylland, Ketil
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berntssen, Marc H. G.
    Beyer, Jonny
    Jonsson, Grete
    Melbye, Alf
    Grung, Merete
    Torstensen, Bente E.
    Borseth, Jan Fredrik
    Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Klungsoyr, Jarle
    Biomarkers in Natural Fish Populations Indicate Adverse Biological Effects of Offshore Oil Production2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 5, p. e19735-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Methods and principal findings: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. Conclusion: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  • 2.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hägerroth, Per-Ake
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hanson, Marsha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mörner, Torsten
    Sundberg, Henrik
    Wild birds of declining European species are dying from a thiamine deficiency syndrome.2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 29, p. 12001-12006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds of several species are dying in large numbers from an idiopathic paralytic disease in the Baltic Sea area. Here, we demonstrate strong relationships between this disease, breeding failure, and thiamine (vitamin B(1)) deficiency in eggs, pulli, and full-grown individuals. Thiamine is essential for vertebrates, and its diphosphorylated form functions as a cofactor for several life sustaining enzymes, whereas the triphosphorylated form is necessary for the functioning of neuronal membranes. Paralyzed individuals were remedied by thiamine treatment. Moreover, thiamine deficiency and detrimental effects on thiamine-dependent enzymes were demonstrated in the yolk, liver, and brain. We propose that the mortality and breeding failure are part of a thiamine deficiency syndrome, which may have contributed significantly to declines in many bird populations during the last decades.

  • 3.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hägerroth, Per-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Ström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Utrecht University, Germany.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Collier, Tracy K.
    Börjeson, Hans
    Mörner, Torsten
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  • 4.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Center for Gender Studies.
    Spinning around the ”lycra-lout”2009In: Centrum med många riktningar : en vänbok till Gunilla Bjerén / [ed] Birgitta Ney, Stockholm: Centrum för genusstudier, Stockholms universitet , 2009, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barsiene, Janina
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Linderoth, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Stembeck, John
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Bengt Dahlgren Stockholm AB, Sweden.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden)2014In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Malaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of Sigma PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea.

  • 6.
    Hansson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hansen, Wenche
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Biomarker Investigations in Adult Female Perch (Perca fluviatilis) From Industrialised Areas in Northern Sweden in 20032014In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the new millennium, a notion has developed in certain parts of society that environmental pollutants and their associated effects are under control. The primary objective of this investigation, performed in 2003, was to test whether this was actually the case in an industrialised region in the County of Vasternorrland in northern Sweden with well-documented environmental pollution from past and present activities. This was performed by measuring a moderate battery of simple biomarkers in adult female perch at several stations. The point sources included sewage-treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, as well as other industries. The biomarkers included growth, somatic indices, gonad maturation status, gonad pigmentation, fin erosion, skin ulcers, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver. The results showed that the environmental pollutants and their associated effects were not under control. In fact, the health of the perch was impaired at all of the polluted stations. Many responses were unspecific with respect to underlying cause, whereas some effects on EROD activity and gonad maturation status were attributed to historical creosote pollution and current kraft pulp mill effluents, respectively. The data presented may also be used as reference values for future investigations of health effects in perch.

  • 7. Hylland, K.
    et al.
    Tollefsen, K.-E.
    Ruus, A.
    Jonsson, G.
    Sundt, R.C.
    Sanni, S.
    Røe Utvik, T.I.
    Johnsen, S.
    Nilssen, I.
    Pinturier, L.
    Balk, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Baršiene, J.
    Marigòmez, I.
    Feist, S.W.
    Børseth, J.F.
    Water column monitoring near oil installations in the North Sea 2001-20042008In: Mar. Pollut. Bull., Vol. 56, p. 414-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Linderoth, M.
    et al.
    Ledesma, M.
    Noaksson, E.
    Widell, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Seasonal testosterone UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and biliary steroids in Eurasian perch: Response to leachate exposure2007In: Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., Vol. 68, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Linderoth, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ledesma, Maria
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Sex steroids in the female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Effects of cyproterone acetate and leachate-contaminated sediment extract2006In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Molnbyggen, a leachate-contaminated lake in Sweden, effects on the reproductive system of perch included a decreased frequency of sexually mature female perch, reduced gonadosomatic index and decreased plasma levels of androstenedione and testosterone, but the contaminants responsible for these effects have not yet been identified. A biomarker-directed fractionation approach could be used to narrow the search for the compound(s) responsible for the adverse effects in Molnbyggen female perch. Thus, it is important to develop and test a suitable biomarker, which can be used in this type of approach. We evaluated if decreased concentrations of sex steroids could work as an in vivo end-point in female zebrafish fed an organic extract of bottom sediments from Molnbyggen. The responsiveness of zebrafish to endocrine alteration was evaluated using a positive control substance, cyproterone acetate (CA), which is known to inhibit steroid biosynthesis. After the 21-day exposure period the concentrations of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were successfully determined by HRGC/HRMS in whole-body homogenates of individual fish. Median T concentrations were 1.7 pmol/g fish in controls and were decreased after exposure both to CA (0.55 pmol/g fish) and Molnbyggen sediment extract (1.2–1.3 pmol/g fish). Median E2 concentrations were 5.3 pmol/g fish in controls and were decreased after CA exposure (2.3 pmol/g fish) and after exposure to Molnbyggen sediment extract (4.0–4.5 pmol/g fish). This suggests that sex steroid concentrations in zebrafish are responsive to endocrine alteration and indicates that compounds with endocrine altering potency are present in Molnbyggen sediments.

  • 10.
    Linderoth, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Norman, Anna
    Noaksson, Erik
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Norrgren, Leif
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Steroid biosynthetic enzyme activities in leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis) as biomarkers for endocrine disruption2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 2-6, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that adult female perch in a freshwater lake, Molnbyggen, Sweden, have a reproductive disorder caused by unidentified endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) leaching from a local refuse dump. The adverse effects include shallow open sores, low ratio of sexually mature individuals, low gonadosomatic index and low circulating levels of androgens. We hypothesised that the low androgen levels could be a result of impaired production and/or stimulated excretion of androgens by EDCs.

    From October 2000 to November 2001, at time-points important in the perch reproductive cycle, adult female perch were collected in Molnbyggen and in the reference lake, Djursjön. The activities of three key enzymes in androgen biosynthesis: 17α-hydroxylase (17OHlase), 17,20-lyase (lyase) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) were determined in head kidney or ovary. The relationship between enzyme activities and plasma steroid concentrations was examined. Ovarian histopathology and the determination of brain aromatase activity were also included in the study.

    Similar 17OHlase, 17βHSD and aromatase activities were found in Molnbyggen females and reference fish throughout the year. Head kidney 17OHlase showed a positive correlation to cortisol levels (r = 0.754; p < 0.001) but not to androgen levels. Molnbyggen females exhibited lower ovarian lyase activity during vitellogenesis than reference fish. Atretic oocytes were on most occasions more frequent in sexually immature than in sexually mature females. The results suggest that neither 17OHlase, 17βHSD nor aromatase is the target for EDCs disrupting the androgen homeostasis of exposed female perch. Further investigation is needed to establish the role of decreased ovarian lyase activity in endocrine homeostasis, but the possibility of increased excretion of androgens should also be examined.

  • 11. Mörner, Torsten
    et al.
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Le
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. University of Vigo, Spain.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mattsson, Roland
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Thiamine deficiency impairs common eider (Somateria mollissima) reproduction in the field2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 14451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation. An experiment with artificially incubated common eider eggs collected in the field revealed that thiamine treatment of pulli had a therapeutic effect on the thiamine status of the brain and prevented death. The mortality was 53% in untreated specimens, whereas it was only 7% in thiamine treated specimens. Inability to dive was also linked to brain damage typical for thiamine deficiency. Our results demonstrate how thiamine deficiency causes a range of symptoms in the common eider pulli, as well as massive die-offs a few days after hatch, which probably are the major explanation of the recent dramatic population declines.

  • 12. Noaksson, Erik
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Linderoth, Maria
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)2004In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjön and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjön coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes.

  • 13. Noaksson, Erik
    et al.
    Linderoth, Maria
    Gustavsson, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Reproductive status in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) outside a sewage treatment plant processing leachate from a refuse dump2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 340, no 1-3, p. 97-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive failure and endocrine disruption in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), naturally exposed to toxic leachate from a municipal refuse dump, has raised concerns about the reproductive status in female fish outside the sewage treatment plant (STP), which now treats the same leachate. Female perch from the receiving water, Lake Siljan, were therefore sampled in a gradient from the STP in Fornby and Österviken and compared with reference females from Isunda or Sollerön. A high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating steroids in blood plasma: the sex steroids progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-oestradiol (E2), the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and the glucocorticoids 11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol (C). Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. The percentages of SM females found in Fornby on Oct 23 (83.8%) and in Österviken on May 14 (54.0%) were lower compared with Isunda (100%). The lack of differences in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) indicated a normal vitellogenesis in SM females from Fornby and Österviken. No differences in circulating levels of steroids were observed between the sites, except at the time of spawning, when elevated P and 17α-OHP levels in females from Österviken indicated a steroidogenic shift from the synthesis of sex steroids towards the production of the MIH 17α,20β-P. The significant peak-levels of both 17α,20β-P and 11-DC in female perch from Österviken at the same time suggest that both are involved in controlling final oocyte maturation in perch. The elevated levels of androgens (A and T) in females caught on the same occasion in Fornby implied that these females were at an earlier stage of oocyte maturation, prior to the steroidogenic shift towards MIH-production. This study confirms the results of an earlier study revealing low numbers of SM female perch outside the STP in Fornby. The lack of associated effects on organ indexes and circulating levels of steroids does not indicate exposure to endocrine disrupting substances (EDSs) from the treated sewage. The consistently high numbers of SM females in the northern part of Siljan suggest, however, that natural factors are not responsible for the reproductive failures in the southern part of the lake.

  • 14. Noaksson, Erik
    et al.
    Linderoth, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toxicological effects and reproductive impairments in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) exposed to leachate from Swedish refuse dumps2005In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 162-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously found that leachate from a Swedish refuse dump caused toxicological effects, including endocrine disruption and reproductive failures, in feral female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Molnbyggen and in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken. This raised concerns that leachate-induced toxicity might affect fish in other leachate-contaminated lakes. This study looks at female perch from three different regions in Sweden, focusing on toxicological biomarkers (skin lesions, liver-somatic index (LSI), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and DNA adducts) and reproductive biomarkers (number of mature females, gonadosomatic index (GSI), aromatase (P450arom), progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2)). Five out of seven contaminated locations had lower numbers of mature females and most of them exhibited higher frequencies of fin erosion relative to their comparable reference sites. Females from Lake Nedre Vättern exhibited these effects, as well as body sores, high EROD activity, high levels of DNA adducts in the liver and the intestinal mucosa, low GSI and low plasma levels of T and E2, similar to the anti-estrogenic effects earlier found in SM perch from Molnbyggen in 1997 and in brook trout from Vadbäcken. No effects on LSI, GSI, aromatase, or circulating steroids were found in mature females from Molnbyggen in this study. This indicated less leachate-contamination, but low numbers of mature females in Lake Siljan, at the sewage treatment plant which now processes the leachate that earlier contaminated Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken, suggested insufficient sewage treatment at this site. All females in Lake Simshyttsjön were mature, and their high GSI and LSI, low EROD activity, high level of 17α-OHP and low level of T, suggest an estrogenic rather than an anti-estrogenic effect. The results show that our earlier findings in Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken are not common, but neither are they unique. This study also shows that refuse dumps should be considered as potential point-sources for environmental pollutants, and that uncontrolled leachate-contamination of lakes and freshwater reservoirs could be a serious environmental hazard for both wildlife and humans.

  • 15. Schnell, S.
    et al.
    Schiedek, D.
    Schneider, R.
    Balk, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Vuorinen, P.
    Karvinen, H.
    Lang, T.
    Biological indications of contaminant exposure in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea2008In: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., Vol. 65, p. 1122-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hägerroth, Per-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Barsiene, Janina
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Genotoxicity in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland2010In: Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, ISSN 1383-5718, E-ISSN 1879-3592, Vol. 702, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult and young herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland were investigated with respect to DNA adducts, analysed with the nuclease-P1 version of the P-32-postlabelling method, and micronucleated erythrocytes. Three important aims were: (1) to estimate the degree of exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area and Iceland, (2) to evaluate the utility of the investigated biomarkers in birds, and (3) to investigate if there was any relationship between genotoxic effects and thiamine deficiency. The results demonstrate that both Swedish and Icelandic herring gulls are exposed to genotoxic pollution. Urban specimens have higher levels of DNA adducts than rural specimens, but background exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants, such as PAHs, is also significant. In the herring gull the general level of DNA adducts in the liver seems to be higher than in fish. DNA adducts were most abundant in the liver, followed by the kidney, intestinal mucosa, and whole blood, in decreasing order. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was probably slightly elevated in all the investigated sites, reflecting a significant background exposure. The level of DNA adducts was unrelated to the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, and both these variables were unrelated to symptoms of thiamine deficiency. The investigation confirmed the utility of DNA adducts, and probably also micronucleated erythrocytes, as biomarkers of genotoxicity in birds.

  • 17. Sturve, Joachim
    et al.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Förlin, Lars
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 24, p. 13758-13768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Goteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Goteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during normal conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  • 18.
    Sundberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hanson, Marsha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Dredging Associated Effects: Maternally Transferred Pollutants and DNA Adducts in Feral Fish2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 2972-2977Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Sundberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ishaq, Rasha
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment to potential toxicity in early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2006In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1320-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments, we investigated the potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay. A previous study investigated abnormalities and hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae by exposing newly fertilized eggs to the total extract and to fractions separated by degree of aromaticity. A major part of the potential toxicity was isolated in a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, we prepared a synthetic PAC mixture with 17 commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The 17 PAHs, which included 11 of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority PAHs, were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects observed and could explain less than 4% of the total EROD induction. The lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction underlines the need for a battery of biomarkers for estimating environmental risk. These results reveal the limits of our knowledge regarding compounds responsible for potential toxicity in field situations.

  • 20.
    Widell, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Noaksson, Erik
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Simultaneous determination of several natural steroids in blood plasma from perch (Perca fluviatilis) by GC-HRMS2011In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 303-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of 18 endogenous steroid hormones in blood plasma from teleost fish has been developed. Proteins were removed by precipitation in methanol and lipids were removed by a liquid-liquid extraction. The protein and lipid free extract was further purified by using two successive solid phase extraction (SPE) methods (C18 and NH(2)). The isolated steroid hormones were silylated with a mixture of N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA): iodotrimethylsilane (TMSI): dithioerythritol (DTE) prior to determination with GC-HRMS working in selective ion recording mode. A volume of 200 mu L blood plasma was sufficient for accurate determination of the steroid hormone levels, which enabled determination in individual fish. The detection limits ranged from 0.0003 to 0.2 ng g(-1) blood plasma from perch (Perca fluviatilis), approximately 10 to 100 times lower then previously reported in this field. The recoveries for the entire procedure were in the range 58 to 150% with a variation, expressed as standard deviation (SD), below 10% with some exceptions. Despite the multi-step clean-up procedure, the intra-assay coefficient of variation, i.e. the within-day variation, for most steroid hormones was well below 14%. Finally, the procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of steroid hormones in blood plasma from female perch caught in two Swedish lakes.

  • 21.
    Widell, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Noaksson, Erik
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Simultaneous determination of several natural steroids in blood plasma from perch (Perca fluviatilis) by GC-HRMSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of 18 endogenous steroid hormones in blood plasma from teleost fish has been developed. Proteins were removed by precipitation in methanol and lipids were removed by a liquid-liquid extraction. The protein and lipid free extract was further purified by using two successive solid phase extraction (SPE) methods (C18 and NH2). The isolated steroid hormones were silylated with a mixture of N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA): iodotrimethylsilane (TMSI ):dithioerythritol (DTE) prior to determination with GC-HRMS working in selective ion recording mode. A volume of 200 mL blood plasma was sufficient for accurate determination of the steroid hormone levels, which enabled determination in individual fish. The detection limits ranged from 0.0003 to 0.2 ng/g blood plasma from perch (Perca fluviatilis), approximately 10 to 100 times lower then previously reported in this field. The recoveries for the entire procedure were in the range 58 to 150% with a variation, expressed as standard deviation (SD), below 10% with some exceptions. Despite the multi-step clean-up procedure, the intra-assay coefficient of variation, i.e. the within-day variation, for most steroid hormones was well below 14%. Finally, the procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of steroid hormones in blood plasma from female perch caught in two Swedish lakes.

1 - 21 of 21
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