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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bartning, Inge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Erman, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. English department, Stockholm.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Föremålet för inlärning [kap. 3]2014In: avancerad andraspråksanvändning: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag , 2014, no 2, p. 20-46, article id M2005-0459Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    De romanska språken som L32016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 115-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    From research to dictionary. Open questions on the pre-dictionary process2006In: Progetto dizionario italiano-svedese. Atti del primo colloquio, Stoccolma, 10–12 febbraio 2005, Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm , 2006, p. 23-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Il progetto InterIta: l'apprendimento dell’italiano L2 in un contesto svedese2004In: Second language acquisition and usage, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 2004, p. 11-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages. Italienska avdelningen.
    Il ruolo del lessico e dei dizionari in aree diverse dell’italianistica2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Influssi translinguistici sul lessico dell’italiano L32005In: Copenhagen Studies in Language, no 31, p. 377-387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    La connaissance d’une langue étrangère romane favorise-t-elle l’acquisition d’une autre langue romane?: influences translinguistiques dans la syntaxe d’une L32006In: AILE : Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère, ISSN 1243-969X, Vol. 24, p. 149-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers cross-linguistic influence from previously acquired second languages (L2) into L3 syntax. The object under study is the acquisition of the pre-verbal placement of sentence negation in Italian L3. Data was collected from a group of 16 year-old learners of Italian in a Swedish high school; all were native speakers of Swedish, a language with post-verbal negation in the main clause. One third of the learners only had knowledge of Germanic background languages (Swedish L1, English and German L2), while the other two thirds had studied French or Spanish, instead of German. Since negation is positioned differently in all the previously acquired non-native languages (English, German, French and Spanish), and Spanish is the only of these languages that precisely reflects the pre-verbal placement of negation in the TL, sentence negation offers an interesting opportunity to test the role of the different L2s in relation to the typology factor. The results point at positive transfer from Spanish L2 into Italian L3: the group that had studied Spanish produced only pre-verbal negation, while the students who only had experience of Germanic languages (Swedish, English and German) before learning Italian, produced mainly post-verbal negation together with non thematic verbs. Post-verbal negation was also found among students that had studied French, however to a lesser extent than among those who only had experience of Germanic languages.

  • 8.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lexical cross-linguistic influence in third language development2015In: Transfer effects in multilingual language development / [ed] Hagen Peukert, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Recension av Giacalone Ramat, A. (ed), Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Etrangère 51996In: The Clarion, Vol. 2, no 11Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Språkens ställning i vårt utbildningssystem - några klargöranden2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Syntactic Transfer in L3 Learning: What Do Models and Results Tell Us About Learning and Teaching a Third Language?2019In: Cross-Linguistic Influence: From Empirical Evidence to Classroom Practice / [ed] M. Juncal Gutierrez-Mangado, María Martínez-Adrián, Francisco Gallardo-del-Puerto, Springer, 2019, p. 101-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, five theoretical models of syntactic transfer in third language (L3) learning are presented together with results from studies that examine the role of the background languages (L1 and L2) in L3 syntax. The models are the Cumulative Enhancement Model (CEM, Flynn, Foley, & Vinnitskaya 2004), the L2 status factor hypothesis (Bardel & Falk, 2007, 2012), the Typological Primacy Model (TPM, Rothman, 2011, 2015), the scalpel model (Slabakova, 2017), and the Linguistic Proximity Model (LPM, Westergaard, Mitrofanova, & Mykhaylyk, 2017). With these models, L3 syntax has recently and quickly become a debated issue in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The models deal with various factors that are held to play particularly important roles in the initial stages of L3 learning. The factors are, above all, Universal Grammar, typological relations between languages or between structures, the learner’s perception of similarities between languages, and the level of metalinguistic knowledge and proficiency in the involved languages. Empirical data tend to point in different directions regarding the significance of these factors. The overall results point at the dynamic nature of multilingualism in that they indicate that both the L1 and the L2(s) may act as transfer sources in L3 syntax, but questions concerning which factors lead to transfer from which background language, and of which particular structures, remain unsolved. This chapter surveys the five models and their attempts to answer the question of how previously acquired or learned languages play a role in the learning of L3 syntax. It ends with a discussion of what this line of research can offer language teachers.

  • 12.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The lexicon of advanced L2 learners2016In: Advanced proficiency and exceptional ability in second languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages. italienska.
    Un nuovo dizionario italiano–svedese2008In: Languages of Italy.: Histories and Dictionaries, Longo Editore, Ravenna , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    De Meo, Anna
    Parler les langues romanes2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Erickson, Gudrun
    Granfeldt, Jonas
    Rosén, Christina
    Offering research education for in-service language teachers2017In: Language Teaching, ISSN 0261-4448, E-ISSN 1475-3049, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 290-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2008, the Swedish government has launched occasional offers of funding for graduate schools aimed at practising teachers. The fundamental purpose of this initiative is to enhance quality in the Swedish school system by implementing what is stated in the Education Act, namely that education at all levels should be based upon scientific knowledge and evidence-based experience.

  • 16.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Erickson, Gudrun
    Österberg, Rakel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Learning, teaching and assessment of second foreign languages in Swedish lower secondary school – dilemmas and prospects2019In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of second foreign language (SFL) education in Sweden, especially at lower secondary level. It offers a survey of the historical development of the study of other languages than English as well as a reflection over the current state of the subject. Currently, there is a shortage of research on the circumstances and conditions of the learning, teaching and assessment of the Swedish school subject Modern languages, as well as on young people’s proficiency in other languages than English in Sweden. In order to contribute to a knowledge base for further research, the current paper reviews work considering the Swedish context concerning: a) frame factors, policy issues and organization of SFL studies b) attitudes towards plurilingualism and SFL motivation, c) teacher education and recruitment policies, and d) levels of attainment at the end of compulsory school. Throughout the paper, the European context is also taken into account. The paper ends with a discussion of the general status of the subject Modern languages in Swedish school and society, the fact that this subject is not mandatory, and the consistently high dropout rate that characterizes the current situation.

  • 17.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Erman, BrittStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language and Gender from Linguistic and Textual Perspectives2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages. Italienska avdelningen.
    Falk, Ylva
    Recension av Extra, G. & Gorter, D. (eds), The other languages of Europe: demographic, sociolinguistic and educational perspectives2004In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 71-73Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Falk, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The L2 status factor and the declarative/procedural distinction2012In: Third language acquisition in adulthood / [ed] Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer, Flynn, Suzanne & Rothman, Jason, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Falk, Ylva
    The role of the second language in third language acquisition: the case of Germanic syntax2007In: Second Language Research, ISSN 0267-6583, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 459-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe that such influence generalizes to morphosyntactic aspects of the grammar. For example, Håkansson et al. (2002) introduce the Developmentally Moderated Transfer Hypothesis (DMTH), which incorporates transfer in Processability Theory (PT). They argue against syntactic transfer from L2 to L3. The present study presents counter-evidence to this hypothesis from two groups of learners with different L1s and L2s acquiring Swedish or Dutch as L3. The evidence clearly indicates that syntactic structures are more easily transferred from L2 than from L1 in the initial state of L3 acquisition. The two groups behave significantly differently as to the placement of negation, a difference that can be attributed to the L2 knowledge of the learners in interaction with the typological relationship between the L2 and the L3.

  • 21.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Falk, YlvaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.Lindqvist, Christina
    Tredjespråksinlärning2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Developing Lexical Complexity in Oral Production: Limitations and Possibilities of the Advanced L2 Learner2018In: High-level language proficiency in second language and multilingual contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 120-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages. Italienska avdelningen.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages. Italienska avdelningen.
    InterIta – un corpus dell’italiano parlato da studenti universitari svedesi: problemi di trascrizione e di annotazione morfologica2008In: La comunicazione parlata: atti del congresso internazionale Napoli 23-25 febbraio, 2006, Tomo 3 / [ed] Massimo Pettorino, Antonella Giannini, M. Vallone, R. Savy, Napoli: Liguore , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Aspects of lexical sophistication in advanced learners' oral production vocabulary acquisition and use in l2 french and italian2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 269-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the design and use of a profiler for lexical sophistication (i.e., use of advanced vocabulary), which was created to assess the lexical richness of intermediate and advanced Swedish second language (L2) learners' French and Italian. It discusses how teachers' judgments (TJs) of word difficulty can contribute to the methodology for lexical profiling and compares two methods, one purely frequency based and one modified on the basis of TJs of word difficulty. It has been suggested elsewhere that factors other than frequency play an important role in vocabulary acquisition. Here it is argued that cognates and thematic vocabulary related to teaching materials, although infrequent in target language (TL) corpora, should not necessarily be considered advanced and that analyses of learners' lexical sophistication would benefit from integrating these aspects. In this study, the frequency-based method normally used in lexical profiling was modified by recategorizing some low-frequency words considered easy by many teachers. On the basis of the TJs, a basic vocabulary, which consisted mainly of high-frequency words but also of cognates and thematic words, was defined, which was based on the fact that teachers judged certain low-frequency cognates and thematic words as relatively easy. Using the modified method, learners' lexical profiles were found to be more homogeneous within groups of learners at specific proficiency levels. The superiority of the new method over the purely frequency-based one was shown when comparing effect sizes. It is argued that this method gives a more correct picture of advanced L2 lexical profiles.

  • 25.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Nystedt, Jane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Il lessico nella produzione orale dell’italiano L2 e il vocabolario di base: studio pilota su due apprendenti universitari svedesi messi a confronto con un parlante nativo2007In: Linguistica e Letteratura, ISSN 0392-6915 ; E-ISSN: 1724-0522, no 1/2, p. 151-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to privilege the text, analyzed in all its inner characteristics, in its relationships with other literary works and other languages, like those used by reviewers and in visual arts ground. An interdisciplinary approach will be emphasized as wider as possible, in order to reach the intertextuality and interexpressivity levels, and search the comparison with textualities and different codes from scientific and tecnological culture.

  • 26.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Approaches to third language acquisition2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Developing a lexical profiler for spoken French and Italian L2: The role of frequency, cognates and thematic vocabulary2011In: EUROSLA Yearbook, ISSN 1568-1491, E-ISSN 1569-9749, Vol. 11, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a follow-up to Lindqvist et al. (to press), where we investigated lexical frequency profiles of learners of French and Italian at different proficiency levels. By analyzing the proportion of low-frequency words used by the learners, we could distinguish proficiency levels that differ significantly at group level and correspond to morphosyntactic proficiency levels. However, some individual results within the groups indicated a need to analyze individual profiles in order to get a better picture of the actual quality of the learner’s vocabulary knowledge. The present study focuses on thematic vocabulary and cognates among the low-frequency words used by learners at different proficiency levels. We suggest that investigating qualitative aspects of learners’ word knowledge is a fruitful complement to traditional lexical profiling analysis. Such a combination can lead to a more complete picture of learners’ lexical profiles. Although we are aware that word frequency is known to be a powerful factor in vocabulary acquisition, our on-going research aims at developing a more general lexical profiler that integrates additional aspects that we have found to be relevant for learnability.

  • 28.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    The role of proficiency and psychotypology in lexical cross-linguistic influence. A study of a multilingual learner of Italian L32007In: Atti del VI Congresso Internazionale dell’Associazione Italiana di Linguistica Applicata, Napoli, 9-10 febbraio 2006, Guerra Editore, Perugia , 2007, p. 123-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaLaufer, Batia
    L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use: New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is intended for researchers and students in the field of second language (L2) acquisition. As its title suggests, the book discusses L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, and examines them from the perspectives of assessment and corpus analysis. The chapters also address some additional central research issues: the role of word frequency in the input, the difference between single words and multi-word units, and the distinction between vocabulary of oral and written language. The first three chapters of the book present critical reviews of different aspects of vocabulary acquisition. The other four chapters contain empirical studies that relate to the central themes of the book. The data in the studies draw on a variety of source and target languages: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Hebrew and Japanese. The book offers some new insights into the field of vocabulary and suggests avenues of research.

  • 30.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Sánchez, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The L2 status factor hypothesis revisited: The role of metalinguistic knowledge, working memory, attention and noticing in third language learning2017In: L3 Syntactic Transfer: Models, New Developments and Implications / [ed] Tanja Angelovska, Angela Hahn, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 85-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a nuanced view of the L2 status factor model, emphasizing explicit metalinguistic knowledge as the key factor governing transfer, together with individual differences in working memory and the operations associated with it. We argue that individual differences regarding the degree of explicit metalinguistic knowledge attained either in L1 or in L2 and differences when it comes to working memory, attention and noticing should be taken in consideration when accounting for transfer from previously acquired or learned languages in L3 learning.

  • 31. Falk, Ylva
    et al.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Object pronouns in German L3 syntax: Evidence for the L2 status factor2011In: Second language research, ISSN 0267-6583, E-ISSN 1477-0326, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 59-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies on L3 lexicon, and recently also some on L3 syntax, have convincingly shown a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true L2 and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Some studies even indicate that L2 takes on a stronger role than L1 in the initial state of L3 syntax (e.g. Bardel and Falk, 2007; Rothman and Cabrelli Amaro, 2010). In this article we further investigate syntactic transfer from L1/L2 to L3 in learners at an intermediate level of proficiency in the target language. Data have been obtained from 44 learners of German as L3, testing the placement of object pronouns in both main and subordinate clauses in a grammaticality judgement/correction task (GJCT). The learners constitute two groups (both n = 22): One group has English as L1 and French as L2 and the other group has French as L1 and English as L2. This particular combination of background languages allows us to pinpoint the source of transfer, since object placement is pre-verbal in French and post-verbal in English, this being applied in both main and subordinate clauses. In target language (TL) German, however, the object placement varies between pre-verbal in the sub clause and post-verbal in the main clause. The two groups behave differently as to both acceptance and rejection of the test items (60 grammatical and ungrammatical main and sub clauses with object pronouns). This difference is significant and can be ascribed to their L2s, respectively. Our results thus show that the L2 transfers into the L3 even at an intermediate level, and on the basis of this we claim a strong role for the L2 status factor.

  • 32.
    Falk, Ylva
    et al.
    University of Nijmegen.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    The study of the role of the background languages in third language acquisition: the state of the art2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2/3, p. 185-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning cross-linguistic influence (CLI). Lexical CLI and syntactic transfer have in most cases been studied separately, but as we will see studies indicate that L3 learners seem to rely on both vocabulary and grammar from their background languages, at least to some extent. The role of the background languages in morphology and phonology has been less investigated in L3 studies, although there are a few studies that indicate that L3 performance can reflect activation of previously acquired languages at these linguistic levels too. The paper also includes a survey of neurolinguistic approaches to multilingualism and discusses how these findings can contribute to the understanding of transfer in L3 acquisition.

  • 33.
    Falk, Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The role of L1 explicit metalinguistic knowledge in L3 oral production at the initial state2015In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the role of explicit metalinguistic knowledge (MLK) of first language (L1) in the learning of a third language (L3). We compare the oral production of 40 participants with varying degrees of explicit MLK of the L1, who are exposed to a completely new L3. In accordance with the second language (L2) status factor, which is further motivated by the distinction between implicit competence and explicit knowledge (Bardel & Falk, 2012; Paradis, 2009), we hypothesize that the participants with low explicit MLK in their L1 will transfer from their L2, and that the participants with high explicit MLK in the L1 will transfer from their L1. The structure of interest is adjective placement, which is the same in the L1 and the L3 (but not in the participants' L2s). The results show that the degree of explicit MLK in the L1 plays a decisive role at the initial state of L3 learning.

  • 34.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Alvarez López, LauraStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.Bardel, CamillaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Romance Languages: Multilingualism and Language Acquisition2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains a collection of papers that deal with Romance linguistics from two broad perspectives: multilingualism and language acquisition. Some of the contributions investigate these phenomena in the light of language contact, language attitudes and code switching in multilingual societies or multilingual families. Others focus on the acquisition of rhythmic patterns, intonation or even emotions in a second language. Many of the contributions present themes related to oral production or speech. The book in itself is multilingual and includes papers written in Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and English.

  • 35.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Beyond Native-like? The Lexical Profile of a Cultural Migrant in Italy2015In: Cultural Migrants and Optimal Language Acquisition / [ed] Fanny Forsberg Lundell, Inge Bartning, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2015, p. 17-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Education in Languages and Language Development.
    Approaches to third language acquisition: Introduction2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 87-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about several papers discussed at a conference titled The Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. Romance Languages as L1, L2 or L3 which was held in Stockholm, Sweden on February 5, 2009 on third language (L3) acquisition is presented. Topics include Romance languages as background languages, research on vocabulary and syntax. The conference presented the works several language researchers including Christina Lindqvist, Rebekah Rast, and Jason Rothman.

  • 37. Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Exploring the Impact of the Proficiency and Typology Factors: Two Cases of Multilingual Learners' L3 Learning2014In: Essential Topics in Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism: Studies in Honor of David Singleton / [ed] Mirosław Pawlak, Larissa Aronin, Cham: Springer, 2014, p. 253-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines lexical crosslinguistic influence (CLI) from L1 and L2 in two cases of L3 learning. It focuses on the role of the proficiency level of the background languages and of typological proximity in the activation of the background languages in L3 oral production. Earlier research has shown that both these factors play a role for CLI. Here we aim at further understanding the role of these factors, and how they are related to the proficiency level of the L3. The first case, which will be summarized briefly and used as a point of comparison in this chapter, concerns a Swedish learner of Italian L3, with English, French and Spanish as L2s (Bardel and Lindqvist 2007). The results showed that low-proficiency Spanish L2 was the background language that was most used in the beginning of the acquisition process of Italian, especially in code-switches of function words. High-proficiency French L2 was also used but in a different way, mostly in word construction attempts. Both the proficiency and the typology factor played a role, but their impact varied at different stages of development in the L3. The second case concerns a bilingual Swedish/Italian L1 speaker learning Spanish L3, with English and French as L2s. The data was gathered following the same procedure as in the first study, and consist of three recordings of interviews and retellings. The results indicate that the proficiency and typology factors are decisive for CLI here too, but in slightly different ways as compared to the first case. Italian L1 is used for both code-switches and word construction attempts, suggesting that a high-proficiency language may well be activated for both purposes, if it is similar enough to the target language. These results show that further investigation of both factors is necessary for our understanding of their interplay.

  • 38. Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Bardel, CamillaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The acquisition of French as a second language: new developmental perspectives2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 39. Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Lexical richness in the advanced learner’s oral production of French and Italian L22011In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 49, p. 221-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish learners' lexical richness in French and Italian L2. A frequency-based measure was used to compare the lexical richness of learners at different proficiency levels to that of native speakers. Frequency bands based on oral L1 data were created for both languages to serve as a benchmark. For French, the results show that there are differences between two groups of learners at different proficiency levels concerning lexical richness. Moreover, the most advanced learners have a lexical profile that is similar to that of a control group of native speakers, suggesting that these learners are native-like as far as lexical richness is concerned. The results for Italian also point at differences between the learner groups. However, the most advanced group does not reach the degree of lexical richness of the native speakers. The overall results support earlier proposals of a discriminating capacity of lexical frequency profiling methods for L2 proficiency.

  • 40. Lindqvist, Christina
    et al.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    A new approach to measuring lexical sophistication in L2 oral production2013In: L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use: New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Christina Lindqvist, Batia Laufer, EUROSLA - the European Second Language Association , 2013, p. 109-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aims of this chapter are a) to give a comprehensive description of a new tool for lexical profiling by reporting how it was developed, and b) to indicate possible areas of use and future developments of the tool. The tool has been used for measuring the lexical sophistication of Swedish learners of French and Italian. The different steps of development have partly been presented in previous studies (Bardel & Lindqvist, 2011; Bardel, Gudmundson & Lindqvist, 2012; Lindqvist, Bardel & Gudmundson, 2011) but are complemented here through a detailed account of the tool, in order to enable replication and use of the method with other languages. The outline of this chapter is as follows: first, as a background, we provide a survey of methods designed to measure lexical richness in L2 production. Then we discuss the inherent differences between written and spoken language and what these differences may imply when lexical richness is measured. Next, we present a new method for analyzing L2 learners’ lexical profiles in oral production data, giving a detailed technical description of the creation of the tool. We then discuss pros and cons with frequency-based measures in general and present our solutions to some of the problems brought up. Finally, we suggest some potential areas of use and discuss some possible improvements of the method.

  • 41.
    Pauletto, Franco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Direi che: strategie di mitigazione nell'interazione di un'apprendente "quasi nativa"2015In: Les marqueurs du discours dans les langues romanes: une approche contrastive / [ed] Margarita Borreguero Zuloaga, Sonia Gómez-Jordana Ferary, Limoges: Lambert-Lucas, 2015, p. 425-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the cooperative strategies resorted to by an advanced learner of Italian L2 in a casual conversation with a native speaker, with a focus on discourse markers and other pragmatic and linguistic resources used with mitigating effects.

  • 42.
    Pauletto, Franco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Pointing backward and forward: Be’-prefaced responsive turns in Italian L1 and L22016In: Language, Interaction and Acquisition, ISSN 1879-7865, E-ISSN 1879-7873, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the kind of actions L1 and L2 speakers of Italian perform by prefacing their responsive turns with the discourse marker be’. As a baseline, the article begins with an analysis of how native speakers of Italian use be’. We then carry out a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of the use of be’ in a number of L2 learners at different proficiency levels from three data sets of different types of interactions between students and native speakers of Italian. In the qualitative analysis, we adopt a conversation analytic perspective. The results suggest that both native speakers and L2 speakers, at an intermediate to an advanced level, perform a variety of social actions by be’-prefacing their responsive turns.  

  • 43.
    Roberts, Leah
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute of Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaInst för moderna språk, Uppsala universitet.Bardel, CamillaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.Abrahamsson, NiclasStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    EUROSLA Yearbook 12 (2012)2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sánchez, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Cognitive factors, linguistic perceptions and transfer in third language learning2016In: Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, ISSN 1386-1204, E-ISSN 1875-368X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 123-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study attempts to investigate whether there is a relationship between individual differences in cognitive abilities, learners' perceptions about typology relations, and negative transfer in written production. To this aim, data were analyzed from Spanish/Catalan bilingual learners of L3 English (n= 47) aged 10-15, with German as L2. The cognitive abilities measured were working memory, attention control, and attention switching. Furthermore, proficiency in the L3 was also controlled, based on the results of the participants' performance in the Oxford Placement Test. It was found that learners with lower attentional abilities had a harder time in identifying areas of structural contrast between the L2 and the L3, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of transfer from this language.

  • 45.
    Sánchez, Laura
    et al.
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Psychotypology in L3 Acquisition: A Survey of (Dis)Similarity Perceptions in Non-Adult Learners2014In: Abstracts, York, UK: Eurosla 24 Organising Committee , 2014, p. 134-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we review the field of studies on psychotypology in L2 and L3 learning. We propose different definitions of the construct and discuss theories about learners’ perceptions of similarity that have been suggested in L2 and L3 research, from Kellerman’s (1983) notion to recent studies (e.g. García Mayo & Rothman 2012). Psychotypology involves similarity, and more importantly, perceived similarity. Intuitively, this is an attracting way of trying to explain CLI between similar languages, but it is not clear from the literature to what extent learners are aware of themselves perceiving similarity and of the possibility to draw on this process in additional language learning. Crucially, in the process of learning a new language, learners may be aided by their multilingual metalinguistic knowledge (cf. e.g. Jessner, 2008), but their conscious or unconscious knowledge of the similarity between two languages can also, in particular cases, mislead the learner (Bardel & Falk 2012, García Mayo & Rothman 2012).

  • 46.
    Sánchez, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Transfer from an L2 in third language learning2017In: L3 Syntactic Transfer: Models, New Developments and Implications / [ed] Tanja Angelovska, Angela Hahn, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 223-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the role of proficiency in a prior non-native language (L2 proficiency) on transfer in third language learning. It discusses some methodological considerations and gaps in previous research, while also bringing up conceptual difficulties in defining, operationalizing and measuring L2 proficiency. An empirical study is presented on the role played by overall proficiency in L2 German on the occurrence of transfer in L3 English written production in Spanish/ Catalan bilingual learners (n = 73). The statistical treatment of the data relied on an ANCOVA with number of transferred items as the dependent variable and L2 proficiency as the independent variable. Biological age and proficiency in the target language (L3 proficiency) were used as covariates in this analysis.

  • 47.
    Österberg, Rakel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Det andra främmande språket i svensk skola2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
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