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  • 1.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?2012In: The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues / [ed] Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Book description: Is prejudice hard-wired or socially acquired? Is stigmatising the Other inevitable? Do we purposefully draw on stereotypes to provoke prejudice from others? Can we confront and correct our biases? From the judicial system to the marketplace, from women's intentional self-sexualisation to prison exonerees' stigma-by-association, this book offers a compelling and wide-ranging discussion and review of the latest scientific evidence of what prejudice is, how it emerges, what it does, and how the discrimination and stigma that ensue can be reduced.

  • 2.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components2011In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.

  • 3. Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism2011In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

  • 4. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a postmanipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality–prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality–prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 5. Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The compatibility of personality and social identity processes: the effect of gender identity on neuroticism2012In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study (N?=?186), we examined the effect of identity (gender versus personal) on participants' self-rated neuroticism and estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women. Self-rated neuroticism was measured before and after the identity salience manipulation. Following self-categorization theory, we predicted that identity salience would affect levels of self-rated neuroticism and the estimates (perceptions) of mean neuroticism for each sex. From a personality perspective, we expected substantial correlations between pre-manipulation and post-manipulation neuroticism scores in both identity conditions. The relation between participants' self-rated neuroticism and their estimates of mean neuroticism for their own sex was also examined. The effect of identity salience was unclear with regard to self-rated neuroticism levels, whereas the manipulation had apparent effects on estimated mean neuroticism levels for men and women. Also, self-rated neuroticism was found to predict estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women in the gender, but not personal, identity condition. Finally, in line with a personality perspective, the relative positions in self-rated neuroticism were highly stable in both conditions. The findings indicate a compatibility of self-categorization theory and personality perspectives and suggest that both are valuable to understand the changeability and stability of the self.

  • 6.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012In: Social Psychological and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 614-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 7.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Socialpsykologi2012In: Grunderna i Vår tids psykologi / [ed] Philip Hwang, Ingvar Lundberg & Ann-Charlotte Smedler (, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, 1, p. 273-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Grunderna i vår tids psykologi ger en gedigen grund till den moderna psykologin. Några av Sveriges främsta forskare har här samlat den mest aktuella psykologiska vetenskapen utifrån ledande svensk och internationell forskning. Tack vare författarnas omfattande undervisningserfarenhet blir framställningen begriplig, levande och nyanserad. Resultatet är en heltäckande skildring av de byggstenar som behövs för att gå vidare inom psykologins olika tillämpningsfält.

    Grunderna i vår tids psykologi är:

    Människokunskap blir vetenskap

    Biologisk psykologi

    Motivation och emotion

    Kognitionspsykologi

    Utvecklingspsykologi

    Personlighetspsykologi

    Socialpsykologi

    Boken riktar sig främst till psykologistuderande, men kan läsas på alla utbildningar där grundkunskaper i ämnet ingår. Den ger också en utmärkt introduktion till den som är nyfiken på vår tids psykologi.

  • 8.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Big-Five personality and prejudice2012In: Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning / [ed] N. M. Seel, Springer, 2012, p. 452-454Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article gives a brief presentation of the five-factor (Big-Five) personality theory and how the factors in this theory are related to prejudice.

  • 9.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Fördomar - mer personligt än vi trott2011In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 3-4, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a popular presentation of the theories and results from a research project supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council. Contrasting the explanatory power of social psychological versus personality theories for explaining prejudice, the empirical outcomes of the project show that personality variables most often outperform social-psychological variables. So, prejudice appears to be more based in core personality than most researchers in the area have thought.

  • 10.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Hedlund, Lars-Erik
    Yoshimura, Kimio
    Ono, Yutaka
    Ando, Juko
    Yamagata, Shinji
    The Generality of Personality Heritability: Big-Five Trait Heritability Predicts Response Time to Trait Items2010In: Journal of individual differences, ISSN 1614-0001, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examined the relationship between heritability and response time for the Big Five personality facets in three samples of adults and adolescents. We predicted that the larger the heritability of a facet the faster is the response to the items of that facet. In support of our predictions, the results showed that heritability and response time were indeed negatively correlated. The effect size of the relationship was small but systematic and statistically significant across all samples. The findings underline the generality of personality heritability and highlight the link between heritability and behavioral indicators. The potential usefulness of both heritability estimates and response time in research on personality is discussed.

  • 11. Marini, Maddalena
    et al.
    Sriram, Natarajan
    Schnabel, Konrad
    Maliszewski, Norbert
    Devos, Thierry
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiers, Reinout
    HuaJian, Cai
    Somogyi, Monika
    Shiomura, Kimihiro
    Schnall, Simone
    Neto, Felix
    Bar-Anan, Yoav
    Vianello, Michelangelo
    Ayala, Alfonso
    Dorantes, Gabriel
    Park, Jaihyun
    Kesebir, Selin
    Pereira, Antonio
    Tulbure, Bogdan
    Ortner, Tuulia
    Stepanikova, Irena
    Greenwald, Anthony G.
    Nosekl, Brian A.
    Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

1 - 11 of 11
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