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  • 1. Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    et al.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Läsande och naturvetenskap - några resultat från den svenska PISA-undersökningen2004In: Naturfagenes didaktikk - en disiplin i forandring?: Det 7. nordiske forskersymposiet om undervisning i naturfag i skolen / [ed] Ellen K. Henriksen, Marianne Ødegaard, Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget i samarbeid med Høgskolen i Agder , 2004, 51-63 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi, för ett urval av PISA-uppgifter, detaljstuderat hög- respektive lågpresterande elever för att försöka förstå vilka faktorer som är avgörande för resultaten inom den naturvetenskapliga delen av PISA-undersökningen. Läsförståelse tycks vara av avgörande betydelse för elevernas resultat inom naturvetenskap. I synnerhet gäller detta för de uppgifter där eleverna ska formulera egna svar.

  • 2.
    Kjærnsli, Marit
    et al.
    Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Oslo universitet.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Scientific literacy: content knowledge and process skills2003In: Northern lights on PISA: Unity and diversity in the nordic countires in PISA 2000 / [ed] Svein Lie, Pirjo Linnakylä, Astrid Roe, Oslo: Department of teacher education and school development , 2003, 63-70 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Lindahl, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Kemiförsök i en tvåspråkig miljö: Ett samarbetsprojekt mellan en specialskola för döva och hörselskadade och Stockholms universitet om NO-undervisning med skolutvecklingsprogrammet NTA2011Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Joint discourses or disjointed courses: A study on learning in upper secondary school.1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate whether learning and ways of understanding subject content and structure differ between successful and less successful students—i.e. in terms of their grade point average—in upper secondary school. A second issue is whether different subjects and disciplines—i.e. science on the one hand and humanities/social sciences on the other—make different demands on students.

    Data were gathered through interviews with a total of 36 students in two classes at two periods of their schooling. Additional data were gathered from interviews with teachers in the two classes and a sample of the tests given to the classes. Both classes receive instruction in science as well as humanities/social sciences but in one class (N) the emphasis is on science whereas in the other (S) the emphasis is on humanities/social sciences.

    A common characteristic of successful students is that they adjust to the teacher’s way of structuring the subject by means of a deep approach and a pronounced cue-seeking. They also play a dominant role in classroom communication. Less successful students more frequently use a surface or procedural approach to learning, are less sensitive for cues, do not adjust to the structure of subjects as presented by the teachers and do not participate to the same extent in classroom communication. The characteristics for successful students are very stable over time. As for the less successful students, there is a difference between N- and S-students. A majority of the S-students who use a surface approach in the first year change towards a deep approach later in their schooling, whereas the procedural approach of N-students is stable.

    It is concluded that the stability shown by the successful students can be explained in that their deep approach reflects their understanding that subject structure may vary and cue-seeking for these students signifies an awareness of and subsequent adjustment to the particular structure presented by the teachers. By understanding the structure according to teachers’ intentions, successful students are able to participate in classroom communication, eventually establishing a joint discourse.

    The differences between a change of learning for S- and N-students could be interpreted in light of differences in subject structure and instruction between subjects. In humanities/social sciences, classroom communication and the presentation of alternative interpretations of subject matter play a prominent role in instruction, and students who initially use a surface approach might get guidance to alternative ways of understanding the subject matter and subject structure. In the science subjects in the N-programme, the presentation of alternative interpretations is not  as common. These subjects also have a hierarchical structure, and understanding the basic fundamentals is a prerequisite for understanding later topics. For the students who initially use a surface approach in these hierarchically ordered subjects, learning becomes a matter of memorising more and more disconnected facts in what might seem to be disjointed courses.

  • 5.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Halldén, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindahl, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Ambiguity – A tool or obstacle for joint productive dialogue activity in deaf and hearing students’ reasoning about ecology2010In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 49, no 1, 33-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambiguity of words and signs as a resource or obstacle in group discussions is studied.How deaf and hearing students aged 13–15 years elaborate on ecological concepts throughdialogue is described. Group interviews were conducted with 14 hearing and 18 deafstudents. Probes were used to initiate discussion about the different meanings ofecological concepts: producer, consumer, nutrients/nutriment, food-chain and cycles. Theresults show that the dialogues are less elaborated for deaf learners than for hearinglearners. It is argued that dialogues between hearing students have a greater chance ofbecoming ‘joint productive activity’, since words in Swedish pave the way for sharedmeaning-making. To deaf learners, differences in connotation between the Swedish wordsand the signs used lead to uncertainty and unproductive lines of reasoning. Oneimplication for instruction is that this bilingual communication needs to be taken intoconsideration to a much greater extent.

  • 6.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Halldén, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindahl, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Ambiguity as a motor for communication – Differences between hearing and deaf students’ ways of reasoning about energy2007In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 46, no 6, 327-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambiguity in group discussions as a resource for communication is studied. How students, aged 13–15 years, elaborateon the concept energy through dialogue is described. Group interviews were conducted with 15 hearing and 20 deafstudents. Three probes were used to initiate discussions on different meanings of energy. The results show that thedialogues are less elaborated for deaf learners compared with hearing learners. It is argued that dialogues between hearingstudents have a greater chance of becoming ‘joint productive activity’, since the ambiguity of the word energy in Swedishlays the ground for shared meaning-making. To deaf learners, the ambiguity between the Swedish word and the signs usedproduces uncertainty and puts an end to further dialogue.

  • 7.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Halldén, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Norell, Kia
    Deaf pupils reasoning about scientific phenomena. Shool science as a framework for understanding or school science as fragments of factual knowledge.2001In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, no 6, 200-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been conducted on hearing pupils' understanding of science. Findings from these studies have been used as grounds for planning instruction in school science. This article reports findings from an interview study of how deaf pupils in compulsory school reason about phenomena in a science context. The results reveal that there is a variation in the extent to which pupils use scientific principles for reasoning about science phenomena. For some pupils, school science seems to have little to offer as a framework for reasoning. The results also generate questions about the need in school instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing pupils to consider the specific teaching and learning situations in a deaf environment.

  • 8.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Halldén, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedersen, Svend
    Understanding a Phenomenon in Two Domains as a Result of Contextualization.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 45, no 2, 115-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how contextualization influences students’ reasoning. An experiment on the properties of air was demonstrated with alternative design to two groups of primary students (n=45). Students’ written explanations to the observations show that an experiment in which science equipment and chemicals are used, signify a problem to these students, who have not yet been introduced to different disciplines of school science. We argue that the scientific arrangement of experiments might in fact obstruct students’ sound reasoning in explaining phenomena. In relation to the role as triggers for reasoning scientific equipment call for a more conscious utilization than is often the case in school science.

  • 9. Pedersen, Svend
    et al.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Att lära till lärare i naturvetenskap i teckenspråklig miljö2004In: Naturfagenes didaktikk - en disiplin i forandring?: Det 7. nordiske forskersymposiet om undervisning i naturfag i skolen / [ed] Ellen K. Henriksen, Marianne Ødegaard, Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget i samarbeid med Høgskolen i Agder , 2004, 635-651 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande arbete är en studie av en grupp studenters uppfattningar av att som lärande förstå, respektive som lärare göra naturvetenskapliga förklaringar begripliga i en teckenspråkig undervisningsmiljö. De aktuella studenterna, varav sex är döva och tre är hörande, genomgår grundskollärarutbildning med speciell inriktning mot att undervisa döva barn i matematik och naturvetenskap.

  • 10.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Zhao, Z
    Zhao, R
    Hu, J
    Science curriculum reform in China and Sweden: Comparing implementation of scientific literacy through inquiry based learning2012Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ünsal, Zeynep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Language Use in a Multilingual Class: a Study of the Relation Between Bilingual Students’ Languages and Their Meaning-Making in Science2017In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examine how bilingual students in elementary school use their languages and what this means for their meaning-making in science. The class was multilingual with students bilingual in different minority languages and the teacher monolingual in Swedish. The analysis is based on a pragmatic approach and the theory of translanguaging. The science content was electricity, and the teaching involved class instruction and hands-on activities in small groups. The findings of the study are divided into two categories, ‘students’ conversations with the teacher’ and ‘student’s conversations with each other’. Since the class was multilingual, the class instruction was carried out in Swedish. Generally, when the conversations were characterised by an initiation, response and evaluation pattern, the students made meaning of the activities without any language limitations. However, when the students, during whole class instruction, were engaged in conversations where they had to argue, discuss and explain their ideas, their language repertoire in Swedish limited their possibilities to express themselves. During hands-on activities, students with the same minority language worked together and used both of their languages as resources. In some situations, the activities proceeded without any visible language limitations. In other situations, students’ language repertoire limited their possibilities to make meaning of the activities despite being able to use both their languages. What the results mean for designing and conducting science lessons in a multilingual class is discussed. 

  • 12.
    Ünsal, Zeynep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice2016In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science. Studies concerning bilingual students language use in science class have mainly been conducted in settings where both the teacher and the students speak the same minority language. In this study data was collected in a class consisting of students aged 13–14. All students had Turkish as their minority language, whereas the teacher’s minority language was Bosnian. The class was observed when they were working with acids and bases. In addition, the students were interviewed in groups.They were asked about how they use their languages during science lessons and then asked to describe and explain scientific phenomena and processes that had been a part of the observed lessons. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students’ everyday language repertoire may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher’s practice of facilitating and supporting students’ understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since the everyday words he used were not a part of the students’ language repertoire. The study also shows how the students used their minority language as a resource to translate words from Swedish to Turkish in order to proceed with the science activities. However, translating scientific concepts was problematic and led to the students’ descriptions of the concepts not being in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study also demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students’ achievements in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in classes where the teacher and the student do not share the same minority language. 

  • 13.
    Ünsal, Zeynep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Science education in a multilingual class: Problematizing a translational practice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine  how bilingual students construe relations between their everyday language in Swedish and Turkish, respectively, and the language of science in Swedish. The data collection consists of observations and group interviews in a multilingual science class with 13-14 years old students. For the analysis, Practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students' everyday language may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher's practice of facilitating and supporting students' understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since some everyday words he used were not a part of the students' language repertoire. The study also shows how the students translated everyday words from Swedish to Turkish to proceed with the activities. However, translating scientific concepts were more problematic and lead to that the students' descriptions of concepts were not in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students' achievments in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that are needed to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in multilingual classes.

  • 14.
    Ünsal, Zeynep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Gesticulating science: Emergent bilingual students’ use of gestures2018In: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, ISSN 0022-4308, E-ISSN 1098-2736, Vol. 55, no 1, 121-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how emergent bilingual students used gestures in science class, and the consequences of students’ gestures when their language repertoire limited their possibilities to express themselves. The study derived from observations in two science classes in Sweden. In the first class, 3rd grade students (9–10 years old) were involved in a unit concerning electricity. The second class consisted of 7th grade students (13–14 years old) working with acids and bases. Data were analyzed by using practical epistemological analysis (PEA). When students’ language proficiency limited their possibility to express themselves, using gestures resulted in the continuation of the science activities. Furthermore, both peers and teachers drew on the used gestures to talk about the science content. In some situations, the meaning of the gestures needed to be negotiated. Regardless, the gestures were always related to language. Both students and teachers participated in this process, but the teachers directed the communication towards the goal of the lessons: learning how to talk science. The study contributes to the field by showing the importance of paying attention to and valuing bilingual students’ use of gestures as a way to express scientific knowledge. In addition, it demonstrates how teachers might draw on students’ gestures to teach science and discusses the importance of creating multimodal learning environments. 

  • 15.
    Ünsal, Zeynep
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jakobson, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Molander, Bengt-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Jumping pepper and electrons in the shoe: Physical artefacts in a multilingual science classIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns how teachers can use physical artefacts as mediating means to support emergent bilingual students’ learning in science class. The data consist of non-participant observations in a Swedish 3rd grade (9-10 years old) science class. All students were bilingual, but in different minority languages, and the teacher was monolingual in Swedish. The study focused on four students, all of whom had Turkish as their minority language. During the observations, the science content was electricity and the lessons were conducted by using physical artefacts, such as wires, bulbs and batteries. The study takes its stance in the ideas of Dewey and sociocultural approaches, implying that students’ learning is viewed as situational. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis (PEA) was used. The teacher used physical artefacts in two different ways. First, the physical artefacts implied that the students experienced the science content by actually seeing it. The students talked about their observations in everyday language, which the teacher then drew on to introduce how the phenomena or process in question could be expressed in scientific language. Second, when students’ proficiency in the language of instruction limited their possibilities to make meaning, using physical artefacts enabled them to experience unfamiliar words being related to the science content and thus learn their meaning. The study findings contribute to knowledge concerning how teachers can create learning contexts where physical artefacts are used to mediate scientific meaning. 

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