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  • 1.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    English-medium instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2016In: Journal of Immersion and Content Based Language Education, ISSN 2212-8433, E-ISSN 2212-8441, Vol. 4, no 1, 108-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a multi-site and multi-method doctoral dissertation study of English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools. The research explores the status of EMI, reasons schools offer EMI, beliefs about EMI, and implementation of EMI in classrooms. The educational context is studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. The results indicate that the few Swedish schools teaching content through another language tend to offer EMI — not content and language integrated learning (CLIL). Neither language learning nor 100% English instruction are the main goals of the schools.Translanguaging is abundant, affording both pedagogic and non-pedagogic functions. The study concludes that a development of definitions and practices of both EMI and CLIL in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

  • 2.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    From Policy to Practice: Intercultural Competence in Swedish Teacher Education2016In: Fifth international conference on the development and assessment of intercultural competence: From traditions to transitions, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish education ideology is summarized in the motto: One school for all. The growing number of multilingual pupils from diverse cultural backgrounds in the Swedish school system is, however, presenting new challenges, giving intercultural competence as a specific skill for teachers increasing importance. The present research is part of an ongoing project investigating the relationship between Swedish education policy and teacher training programs, focusing on the concept of intercultural competence, especially in relation to multilingualism and the notion of pluralism.

    The examination of the connection between official policies at a macro level and the perspectives of teacher trainers and teacher students at a micro level is accomplished through three sub-studies: 1) an analysis of the discourse of Swedish education policy; 2) an analysis of selected teacher training programs at Swedish universities; and 3) semi-structured interviews at the same universities with teacher educators, student teachers in pre-service training and mentor teachers who guide the student teachers during their practical work experience in the classroom. The first sub-study concentrates on the Swedish school law from 2010 (Skollagen, updated 2015) and the Swedish national curriculum from 2011, the unifying legal documents by which all schools must abide. The second sub-study targets teacher education at both a large university with a broad national intake of students and a smaller university with a primarily regional intake. In the third sub-study, the three informant groups offer views on whether the concept of intercultural competence is apparent throughout each step of the process from the university classroom to the student perspective to the compulsory school classroom.  Of special interest are the approaches employed by teacher educators in equipping teacher students with skills to effectively meet potential challenges and the practices promoted as appropriate for the classroom by the mentor teachers during training. The triangulation of methods allows for a deeper understanding of how intercultural competence is represented both explicitly and implicitly in teacher education in response to national policy as well as the attitudes of individual teachers and students in response to the multilingual and multicultural classroom.

    This poster will present the preliminary results of work in progress. Although the focus is on the Swedish context, how and why intercultural competence skills are being explored in teacher education is of interest to other educators as well as to researchers and practitioners involved in creating education policy for compulsory schools in other multilingual contexts. 

  • 3.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Preparing teachers to meet linguistic diversity in the Swedish compulsory school2017In: 11th ISB: 2017 International Symposium on Bilingualism, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish compulsory school today, at least 140 languages are spoken by students—a situation entailing both challenges and opportunities for teachers. This paper presents an investigation of how teachers are prepared to meet these students, who may be either newly arrived and fairly new speakers of Swedish or students born in Sweden with other languages at home. The focus is on how ideological and implementational spaces for supporting linguistic diversity in the classroom are created and accessed in pre-service teacher training. First, the national curriculum for the compulsory school as well as the education plans and syllabi of obligatory pre-service teacher training courses were analysed, with an aim to identity spaces for multilingualism in these educational policies. Second, a study of teacher educators and pre-service teachers from four national universities was conducted, with semi-structured interviews to elicit their perspectives and experiences. The results reveal a lack of explicit emphasis in the national curriculum on students as a diverse population, with ideological spaces for multilingualism only implicit. Likewise, teacher educators and pre-service teachers generally feel that preparation for how to support linguistic diversity in the mainstream classroom is deficient in teacher education and could be afforded greater attention. With a lack of clear directives in policy and a lack of focus in pre-service training, there are risks of inconsistent interpretation and implementation of practices supporting linguistic diversity in the compulsory school.

     

  • 4.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Spaces for multilingualism in the Swedish school: Affordances and constraints in the national curriculum and teacher education2016In: Education and migration: Language foregrounded, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish education ideology is captured in the motto: One school for all. However, growing numbers of multilingual pupils from diverse cultural backgrounds in the Swedish school system are presenting new challenges to both teacher educators and teacher students. With approximately 20% of Sweden’s population comprised of immigrants and at least 140 languages spoken by pupils in the compulsory school system, questions of affordances and constraints for multilingualism in the school are highly relevant today. While the official response to linguistic diversity is positive, with provisions for both mother tongue tuition and minority language instruction, the question is how spaces for multilingualism are being created in general policy and practice.

    The present research is part of an ongoing project investigating multilingualism and interculturality in the Swedish compulsory school, through analyses of the discourse of education policy and selected teacher training programs, together with semi-structured interviews with teacher educators, student teachers in pre-service training and working teachers. The triangulation of methods allows for a deeper understanding of how the concepts multilingualism and interculturality are represented: on the one hand, explicitly and implicitly in teacher education in relation to national policy, and on the other hand, in the attitudes of individual teachers and students in response to the multilingual and multicultural classroom.

    This paper will present two aspects of the current study of ideological and implementational spaces for multilingual education. The first part is an analysis of the development of the national curricula from 1994 to 2011 (with addenda 2015), focusing on the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of multilingualism in the texts; and the second part is an exploration of educators’ perspectives on spaces for multilingualism in their own teacher training programs. The affordances or constraints these spaces offer are fundamental to our possibilities to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. Although the focus is on the Swedish context, the present research is of interest to other educators as well as to researchers and practitioners involved in creating education policy for compulsory schools in other multilingual contexts.

     

  • 5.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Translanguaging and Education: New perspectives from the field2017In: AAAL, Portland 2017: ON-SITE PROGRAM, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The colloquium “Translanguaging and Education: New perspectives from the field” is comprised of recent research that is included in the forthcoming volume with the same name (Multilingual Matters). While studies of translanguaging in bilingual, immersion, heritage, and minority education have become more widespread in recent years, much of the current research centers on contexts in which one of the languages is English and the others are minority or heritage languages. This colloquium, however, contributes to an understanding of diversity in European schools, in which languages other than English are in focus. We include three of the eleven empirical studies in the volume from diverse European school settings (France, Belgium, and Sweden), allowing for an exploration of multilingual educational issues of today.

     

    With an aim to stimulate an active discussion on the notion of translanguaging as applied in current educational research, the emphasis will be on the possibilities the concept offers as both a theoretical lens for educational research and as a pedagogy in the classroom, as seen in the three papers. The first paper presents a study of how a French pre-school teacher creates safe spaces through translanguaging with emergent bilingual learners in a multilingual classroom of three- and four-year-old children. The second paper offers comparative case studies from two diverse elementary school classrooms in Belgium, with an investigation into how translanguaging practices may provide pedagogical scaffolding for learning. The third paper presents a comparative study of language practices in Swedish mother tongue instruction (state-funded teaching of minority languages) and the ideologies expressed by the mother tongue teachers, offering a discussion of pedagogical translanguaging. To conclude the colloquium, we will open the floor for a discussion of the applicability of the concept of translanguaging in educational research in diverse settings. 

  • 6.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Wedin, Åsa
    Epilogue2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, 226-230 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Rosén, JennyStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.Straszer, BoglárkaWedin, Åsa
    New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited collection explores the immense potential of translanguaging in educational settings and highlights teachers and students negotiating language ideologies in their everyday communicative practices. It makes a significant contribution to scholarship on translanguaging and considers the need for pedagogy to reflect and embrace diversity. The chapters provide rich empirical research and document translanguaging in varied educational contexts, with studies from pre-school to adult education in different, mainly European, countries, where English is not the dominant language. Together they expand our understanding of translanguaging and how it can be applied to a variety of settings. This book will be of interest to students and researchers, especially in education, language education and applied linguistics, as well as to professionals and policymakers.

  • 8.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Wedin, Åsa
    Perspectives on Translanguaging in Education2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, 10-19 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Rosén, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    New speakers in a multilingual Sweden: Policy in practice2017In: 11th ISB: 2017 International Symposium on Bilingualism, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a multilingual country: in 2014, 23.8% of students in compulsory schools spoke languages in addition to Swedish. Over 160,000 individuals applied for asylum in Sweden in 2015 many of them children aged 7-16 with the right to education during the asylum-seeking process (Swedish Migration Agency, 2016). While Sweden has educational policies and programs in place to meet the needs of multilingual students, the exceptional numbers of recent arrivals has been a challenge to the educational system. In view of the changing linguistic landscape in educational settings, the aim of this colloquium is to critically analyze how new speakers in a range of educational contexts in Sweden are constructed in policy and practice.

    To frame the four studies, the colloquium begins with a presentation of language and education in the Swedish context. Following this, the first paper examines compulsory school teacher education, specifically researching how teachers are prepared to meet increasingly diverse student populations. The study considers the perspectives of teacher educators and pre-service teachers in order to understand the ideological and implementational spaces afforded multilingualism in teacher training policies. The second paper explores tensions between conceptualizations and regulations framing languages as "mother tongues" and approaches to teaching Kurdish through the subject of mother tongue instruction to children in lower secondary school. The findings contribute to understandings of the new and traditional speaker dichotomy—a relevant issue in research on heritage or multilingual language education in all contexts. The third paper focuses on other new speakers in a Swedish primary school, namely language minority students enrolled in an English-Swedish bilingual program. As new speakers of both languages of instruction, these students may encounter particular challenges with academic content learning. However, results reveal how students resist language separation policies and legitimize their own language practices in the classroom. Finally, the fourth paper moves the focus to literacy education for adult immigrants. The study utilizes a critical sociocultural perspective on literacy and language learning to investigate how the “illiterate learner” is constructed in Swedish adult education policy and how the conceptualization is subsequently related to understandings of these new speakers as the Other. With our presentations ranging from primary school to adult education, we expand the view of the new speaker, by exploring categorizations and conceptualizations of new speakers and their language practices in Sweden. 

    To conclude, the discussant will consider the themes presented by the four papers, focusing on the ways these empirical studies shed light on the range of issues surrounding new speakers in the Swedish context. This conceptual discussion will be briefly compared to similar challenges and possibilities in other contexts before we open the floor for a dialogue amongst the participating audience and the presenting speakers.

  • 10.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Agency and Affordance in Translanguaging for Learning: Case Studies from English-medium Instruction in Swedish Schools2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, 189-207 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives: Case Studies from English-Medium Instruction in Swedish Schools2016In: American Association for Applied Linguistics: Abstract summaries, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation addresses language alternation in English-medium instruction (EMI) lessons as related to the concept of translanguaging, with a focus on the practices and perspectives of teachers and students in two Swedish schools offering EMI. The research questions were as follows:

    1) What patterns of language alternation can be found in the EMI classroom?

    2) What are the functions of language alternation in the EMI classroom?

    3) How do teachers and students view the use of English and Swedish in these classrooms?

    The studies, based in linguistic ethnography, included classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students in one elementary school classroom and one high school classroom, as well as the collection of artifacts (e.g. lesson plans). In the thematic analysis of the rich data, key concepts emerged, including the notions of affordances and constraints, agency and translanguaging.

    The results indicate that language alternation is viewed as an affordance, allowing access to subject content and subject-specific language. Additionally, language choices reveal teacher and student agency in the EMI lessons. Teachers and students may use Swedish and English based on school policy as well as de facto classroom policies, although perspectives on language choice vary. In the elementary school, peer collaboration in Swedish provides support for comprehension and facilitates communication. Use of Swedish is, however, seen by the teacher as a constraint when it resists classroom policies. In the high school, the practice of translanguaging is not explicitly promoted, but is nonetheless a strategic feature of EMI. 

    While this multiple case study may not be generalizable to all EMI, the results suggest broader implications in terms of how both implicit and explicit language policies are implemented in classrooms. Awareness of the possibilities presented by the process of translanguaging may provide educators with a meaningful tool for the development of bilingual pedagogies.

  • 12.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    English-Medium Instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectives and practices in two schools. The research question is as follows: How and why is EMI offered, chosen, and practiced in the Swedish upper secondary school today? The aim is to explore the status of the educational option, the reasons for offering EMI to stakeholders, the stakeholders’ beliefs about and goals of EMI, and the implementation of EMI in the classroom.

    A survey of all upper secondary schools in Sweden was conducted to ascertain the spread of content teaching through a foreign language. The educational context was studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. Language alternation, academic language, and language hierarchy were all considered. Interviews were analysed for content; and classroom language use was analysed for language choice and function. The concepts of affordance and scaffolding together with translanguaging were key. The de facto policies of the micro contexts of the schools were examined in light of the declared national policy of the macro context of Sweden.

    The results indicate that the option in Swedish schools has not increased, and also tends to only be EMI—not Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) or instruction through other languages. EMI is offered for prestige, an international profile, marketing potential and personal interest. EMI students are academically motivated and confident, and see the option as “fun”. 100% EMI in the lessons is not the goal or the practice. Translanguaging is abundant, but how language alternation is perceived as an affordance or not differs in the two schools. One focuses on how the languages are used while the other focuses on how much each language is used.

    In conclusion, the analysis suggests that a development of definitions and practices of EMI in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

  • 13. Zilliacus, Harriet
    et al.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Explicit and implicit discourses on multilingual education in Swedish and Finnish national curricula2016In: 6th Conference on Explorations in Ethnography, Language and Communication: Diversities in Global Societies, Södertörns högskola, 22−23 September 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Finland and Sweden are internationally known for having education systems promoting equity and equality, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support diversity in these contexts.  Concepts such as multilingual education and intercultural education commonly aim to promote equality in education and are well established in the Nordic educational field. However, these concepts have been subject to constant re-conceptualizations and shown to be vague both in theoretical and practical use. The present study aims at clarifying the conceptual frameworks in the two countries, with a focus on the discourses on multilingual education in the respective national curricula. This study represents one part of the larger research project, MINTED (Multilingual and Intercultural Education in Sweden and Finland), investigating national policies, teacher training and teaching practice.

    The comprehensive school curricula from Finland (2014) and Sweden (2011), together with other selected relevant policy documents, were analyzed using discourse analysis.  In the Finnish curricula there is an explicit discourse of a pluralist-oriented education, which places multilingual education and social justice issues at the forefront. While language is key in the Swedish curricula, multilingual and intercultural education are not explicitly covered, but may be gleaned from the focus on human rights and democracy. Thus, the analyzed education policies create different implementational and ideological spaces for multilingual education. These spaces are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. Therefore, the next step in the MINTED project will be an ethnographic study of classroom practices, investigating how teachers re-contextualize current national policies in diverse education settings.

  • 14. Zilliacus, Harriet
    et al.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Multilingual and intercultural education in Swedish and Finnish curricula2016In: 2nd Biennial JustEd Conference: 'Actors for Social Justice in Education', 8–9 March 2016, University of Helsinki, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingualism and interculturality are established concepts in the Nordic countries. Due to societal change and increasing diversity in schools, these concepts have been subject to constant re-conceptualizations within the educational field. In light of this, the present study explores Swedish and Finnish national school curricula, examining key concepts within the framework of critical multicultural education, including multilingual education. The aim is to investigate how the discourses on multilingual and intercultural education have developed in the Finnish and the Swedish national curricula from1994-2014. The study represents one part of the research project, MINTED (Multilingual and Intercultural Education in Sweden and Finland), investigating the relationship between education policy and teacher training programs in Sweden and Finland. The overall aim of MINTED is to acquire a deeper understanding of how both multilingual and intercultural education are embodied explicitly and implicitly in national policies, teacher training and teaching practice. While the focus is on the Swedish and Finnish contexts, how education policies have developed in relation to the concepts of multilingual and intercultural education is of international interest to scholars and practitioners involved in creating education policy for compulsory schools within an increasingly global context and a culturally and linguistically diverse world.

    Methods/methodology

    The curricula and policy texts were analyzed using discourse analysis. This discourse analytic perspective recognizes that language is not transparent but rather constitutive and represents a site where meaning is created and changed. The analysis searches for patterns in the curricula, which are associated with the topics of multilingual and intercultural education, seeking to understand the language linked to these terms as situated within the cultural contexts and positionings made within the documents. The Finnish documents included comprehensive school curricula from 1994, 2004 and 2014, as well as their amendments. Supporting documents included the government’s five-year Development Plans for Education and Research from 1991-2016. The Swedish documents comprised the following: the Swedish Curriculum for the Compulsory School System, the Pre-School Class and the Leisure-time Centre (1994); the Swedish Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre (2011); and the Education Act (2010, last updated 2015).

    Expected outcomes/results

    The preliminary results reveal that in both contexts there has been a move away from a discourse on interculturalityas equivalent to othering, towards seeing interculturality as an intrinsic part of the school. In the Finnish curricula, this discursive development appears explicitly, as a movement from tolerance-oriented to pluralist-oriented education. Likewise, there is a development in Finnish curricula from promoting language as enrichment to enhancing multilingualism in education and in students’ identities. While language is key in the Swedish curricula, multilingual and intercultural education are not explicitly covered, but may be gleaned from the focus on human rights and respect for all. Thus, while there clearly is a movement towards more critical approaches to multilingualism and interculturality in the Finnish context, this is not evident in the Swedish context. A discussion on points of silence is thus necessary for understanding how the discourses on multilingual and intercultural education have developed.

     

  • 15. Zilliacus, Harriet
    et al.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Holm, Gunilla
    Essentializing vs. non-essentializing students' cultural identities: curricular discourses in Finland and Sweden2017In: Journal of Multicultural Discourses, ISSN 1744-7143, E-ISSN 1747-6615, Vol. 12, no 2, 166-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how students' cultural identities are discursively constructed in the Finnish and Swedish national curricula for the compulsory school. The aim is to illuminate the manifold discourses on cultural identity which prevail within Nordic educational policy. The study employs a critical multicultural education and postcolonial perspective with a particular focus on essentialist and non-essentialist views of identity in the curricular discourses. Through discourse analysis, key terms such as 'cultural identity' and 'multicultural identity' as well as different aspects of cultural identities such as language, gender and religion are investigated. The results show diverging discourses, with distinct differences in their explicitness and implicitness in the two countries. A clear effort to see all students as having multi-layered and multicultural identities is evident in the Finnish curricular discourse whereas a more essentializing discourse emerges in the Swedish curriculum. We conclude with a discussion on the importance of addressing policy discourses on students' cultural identities in order to ensure non-essentialist and socially just teaching and educational practice.

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