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  • 1.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Edirisuriya, Ananda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ilayperuma, Tharaka
    Jayaweera, Prasad
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Enterprise Sustainability through the Alignment of Goal Models and Business Models2008In: Proc. 3rd Intl. Workshop on Business/IT-Alignment and Interoperability (BUSITAL'08) / [ed] Johannesson, Paul et al., 2008, p. 73-87Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business modelling can be used as a starting point for business analysis. The core of a business model is information about resources, events, agents, and their relations. The motivation of a business model can be found in the goals of an enterprise and those are made explicit in a goal model. This paper discusses the alignment of business models with goal models and proposes a method for constructing business models based on goal models. The method assists in the design of business models that conform to the explicit goals of an enterprise. Main benefits are clear and uniform goal formulations, well founded business model designs, and increased traceability between models.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Edirisuriya, Ananda
    Ilayperuma, Tharaka
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Tillämpad IT med entreprenörskap.
    Using Strategic Goal Analysis for Enhancing Value-based Business Models2007In: Caise07/Busital07 Workshop, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Resource, Process, and Use – Views on Service Modeling2012In: Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2012 Workshops CMS, ECDM-NoCoDA, MoDIC, MORE-BI, RIGiM, SeCoGIS, WISM, Florence, Italy, October 15-18, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] lvana Castano, Panos Vassiliadis, Laks V. Lakshmanan, Mong Li Lee, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 23-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there exists a multitude of views of service creating problems for designers and users of models with respect to reasoning, description and classification of services. The diversity of conflicting views and definitions suggest that a multi-perspective approach is required to explicate the notion of service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an integrated view of the service notion based on a literature survey. Our approach is to start with an analysis of service-as-a-resource and argue that this view will benefit from being complemented with a service-as-a-process view. These views are then integrated and represented in a conceptual model.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a formal definition of goal-oriented business process patterns2005In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 650-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Organizations of today are becoming ever more focused on their business processes. This has resulted in an increasing interest in using best practices for business process re-engineering. Two problems arise in connection to using best practices: how to find a best practice that suits particular purposes, and how to ensure that the process from the best practice has the same nature as the process under re-engineering. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper suggests using business process patterns, i.e. relatively high level business process models, for making near formal comparison of business processes. The paper analyzes widespread modeling techniques to find out which of them suits the task of building patterns for comparison. Based on this analysis, the state-flow modeling technique is chosen and first steps towards formal definition of business process patterns based on this technique are suggested.

    Findings – A pattern is defined based on the notions of state space, goal, as a surface in the state space, and valid movements towards the goal. A thinkable procedure of constructing patterns is demonstrated on two real-life examples. A hypothetical procedure for comparing process is suggested but it still needs to be verified in practice.

    Originality/value – The originality of the paper is the way the patterns are formulated and the underlying model, the state-flow view of processes, upon which the patterns are founded.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a Formal Definition of Goal-Oriented Business Patterns2005In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 650-662Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations of today are becoming ever more focused on their business processes. This has resulted in an increasing interest in using best practices for business process reengineering. Two problems arise in connection to using best practices: how to find a best practice that suits particular purposes, and how to ensure that the process from the best practice has the same nature as the process under reengineering. The paper suggests using business process patterns, i.e. relatively high level business process models, for making near formal comparison of business processes. The paper analyzes widespread modeling techniques to find out which of them suits the task of building patterns for comparison. Based on this analysis, the state-flow modeling technique is chosen and first steps towards formal definition of business process patterns based on this technique are suggested. A pattern is defined based on the notions of state space, goal, as a surface in the state space, and valid movements towards the goal. A thinkable procedure of constructing patterns is demonstrated on two real-life examples. A hypothetical procedure for comparing process is suggested but it still needs to be verified in practice.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Edirisuriya, Ananda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ilayperuma, Tharaka
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Tillämpad IT med entreprenörskap.
    On the Alignment of Goal Models and Business Models2007In: REA-25. A Celebration of the REA Enterprise Model, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Guarino, Nicola
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Livieri, Barbara
    Towards an Ontology of Value Ascription2016In: Formal Ontology in Information Systems: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference (FOIS 2016), IOS Press, 2016, p. 331-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of value, value ascription mechanisms, and their motivating and influencing factors is useful for decision making processes of both customers and providers. In particular, enterprise modeling can greatly benefit from a proper understanding of value-related notions. Nonetheless, existing value models mainly focus on the value exchange between subjects, disregarding the understanding of “what” value is and of “why” something is valuable. In order to exploit the benefits of value analysis, a precise and rigorous conceptualization, based on foundational ontologies, is needed. To this aim, we present and discuss here a preliminary core ontology of value ascription and we discuss the main issues.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ascribing Value2018In: Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Value Modeling and Business Ontologies / [ed] Jaap Gordijn, Erik Proper, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, p. 28-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of value has been thoroughly investigated in philosophy, economics, sociology and other social sciences. However, the notion of value remains highly ill-defined and elusive, as it is subjective as well as context dependent. This paper proposes an ontology for conceptualizing the notion of value ascription that is founded on an analysisof context notions, showing how value of objects can be explained in terms of value of states of affairs.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Birger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Aligning Goals and Services through Goal and Business Modelling2008In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Abstraction, Restriction, and Co-creation: Three Perspectives on Services2010In: Advances in Conceptual Modeling – Applications and Challenges, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2010, p. 107-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent surge in the interest of services has brought a plethora of applications of the service concept. There are business services and software services, software-as-a-service, platform-as-a-service, and infrastructure-as-a-service. There is also a multitude of definitions of the service concept. In this paper, we propose not a new definition of service but a conceptual model of the service concept that views services as perspectives on the use and offering of resources. The perspectives addressed by the model are: service as a means for abstraction; service as means for providing restricted access to resources; and service as a means for co-creation of value.

  • 11.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Towards a Model of Services Based on Cocreation, Abstraction and Rights Distribution2015In: Correct Software in Web Applications and Web Services / [ed] Bernhard Thalheim, Klaus-Dieter Schewe, Andreas Prinz, Bruno Buchberger, Springer, 2015, p. 29-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term service is today defined and used in a multitude of ways, which are often ambiguous and contradictory. The absence of a commonly agreed-upon definition of the term makes it difficult to distinguish, describe and classify services. In order to address these issues, this chapter proposes a model of services that helps in analysing the concept. The model encompasses three perspectives: service as a means for cocreation of value, service as a means for abstraction and service as a means for distributing rights. The model does not suggest a definition of the term service but shows how the service concept can be analysed using a number of related concepts, like service resource, service process and service offering. The model has its theoretical foundation in the Resource-Event-Agent (REA) ontology and Hohfeld’s classification of rights.

  • 12.
    Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Building and Exploiting a Business Process Model for Lobbying: Experience Report2007In: Communications of the IIMA, Vol. 7. No 3, 2007, pp. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Johannesson, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Weigand, Hans
    Resource Analysis and Classification for Purpose Driven Value Model Design2010In: International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design (IJISMD), ISSN 1947-8186, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 56-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business and IT systems are today facing an ever more complex environment characterised by openness, variety, and change. In order to cope with this environmental complexity, organisations need effective instruments for managing their knowledge. Essential among these instruments are enterprise models, i.e. computational representations of the structure, processes, information, resources, and goals of organisations. When using enterprise modeling for analysing and designing business scenarios and networks, the reasoning should not start from business processes and activities but from notions at a higher level of abstraction. This can be done by focusing on the business motivation behind processes and expressing it in value models, i.e. models focusing on high level and business oriented objects like resources, actors, resource conversions, and resource exchanges. The declarative orientation of value models make them attractive for a number of different purposes, including profitability analysis, marketing analysis, process design, and service analysis. As value models can be used for many different purposes, there is a risk that they will become overloaded, complex, and difficult to understand. Therefore, when designing a value model, its purpose should be explicitly stated in order to focus the analysis. The goal of this article is to show how the purpose of a value model should influence its design. The approach builds on an analysis and classification of resources, resource conversions, and resource exchanges.

  • 14. Lin, Hua
    et al.
    Zhang, Runtong
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A conceptual model of connection of strategies and operations in organisations: a perspective of management control2010In: International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics (IJSOI), Vol. 5, no 2, p. 158-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework of management control systems in the informational perspective, in order to connect strategies and operations. The framework takes strategic planning and control as a whole, and integrates diagnostic control and interactive control into the same framework. It conceptualises the related functions to five components, and shows their interactions and work flows. Formulation and implementation of strategies or strategic change are explained under this framework, focusing on the roles of diagnostic control and interactive control. We use enterprise modelling techniques, i* and e³ value, to describe goal model, business model and their alignment. The connection model is to improve organisational effectiveness and efficiency, by discovering and correcting deviations and taking opportunities. To illustrate and validate the model, a case study is done, showing how the framework works for bridging strategies and operations and how strategic change could be triggered and implemented under the framework.

  • 15.
    Perjons, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Building and Exploiting a Business Process Model for Lobbying: Experience Report2007In: Communications of the IIMA, ISSN 1543-5970, E-ISSN 1941-6687, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a project in the domain of business process modeling that concerns loosely-structured business processes, i.e. processes for which it is difficult to establish an order of activities. The process in focus is the lobbying process, i.e. a process aimed at influencing decisions of others, e.g. politicians. The project was carried out at a non-profit interest organization, and the paper describes the project’s motivation, structure, methodology, results, and how the results were exploited, including a short description of an IT system built to support the lobbying process. As the commonly spread workflow technique is not particularly suitable for loosely-structured business processes, the project exploited an original state-flow technique for developing a model of the lobbying process. The state-flow technique is based on the state-oriented view on business processes that has been used as a foundation for building the support system. The paper reports a number of problems encountered during the introduction of the system into operational practice. These problems led to the needs of reducing the level of details initially introduced into the system; they will be reintroduced at the later stage when the users become more accustomed to work in the process-oriented manner. In the conclusion, the paper discusses success factors important for modeling projects, and pros and cons of the modeling method used, as well as a broader research context of which the work presented in the paper is a part.

  • 16. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    A Petri Net Specification of the REA Business Ontology2016In: Proceedings of the CAiSE'16 Forum at the 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2016) / [ed] Sergio España, Mirjana Ivanović, Miloš Savić, 2016, p. 49-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current auditing procedures struggle with the incorporation of new data-driven techniques such as Process Mining. Although Process Mining has been applied experimentally on micro-level workflow processes, it is not so easy to apply on the level of the value cycle that is at the core of accounting databases. A more general problem is that the new smart approaches lack a well-developed accounting ontology. The REA business ontology does offer such an ontology but so far, its main focus has been on accounting database design. In this paper, a Petri Net specification of REA is proposed for ontology-based process analysis. This specification makes it possible to express more than the traditional static specification. The paper also describes how REA Petri Nets can be developed using Process Mining and how they can be applied in a Continuous Auditing framework.

  • 17. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    The Value of a Meta Perspective in Social Innovation2016In: STPIS 2016: Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development co-located with 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2016) / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter M. Bednar, Ilia Bider, 2016, p. 50-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective Awareness Platforms (CAP) have been promoted as an enabler of social innovation. A CAP supports the collection of data (quantitative and qualitative, and using all the technical possibilities that are rapidly becoming available, e.g. sensors), the integration of the data, and the presentation of results to the community in order to adapt their behavior or develop new behavior patterns. Typically, a CAP has many stakeholders. To support the development and maintenance of CAPs, we propose the notion of META-CAP, a platform that allows participants to reflect on the CAP from a value and collaboration perspective. The META-CAP architecture described in this paper is evaluated from the perspective of socio-technical design.

  • 18. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Value Encounter Modeling—Formalization and Application2018In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of cocreation of value has been widely accepted in the management literature and service science. Value modeling approaches such as e3value focus on the exchange of value rather than cocreation. In this paper, a new value modeling approach is proposed that builds on e3value but highlights the notion of a “value encounter.” Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. The paper provides a formal value encounter ontology. It is shown that this ontology captures the concept of value cocreation and offers a useful instrument for open innovation projects. A case study is provided in which the approach has been applied in the development of a “green” hospital.

  • 19. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Edirisuriya, Ananda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Ilayperuma, Tharaka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Value Object Analysis and the Transformation from Value Model to Process Model2007In: Enterprise Interoperability: New Challenges and Approaches / [ed] Doumeingts, Guy et al., 2007, p. 55-65Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20. Weigand, Hans
    et al.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Edirisuriya, Ananda
    Bergholtz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Informationssystem.
    Ilayperuma, Tharaka
    Strategic Analysis using Value Modelling - the C3-Value Approach2007In: Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-40), 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Wohed, Petia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    H.M. ter Hofstede, Arthur
    Russell, Nick
    M.P. van der Aalst, Wil
    Patterns-based Evaluation of Open Source BPM Systems: The Cases of jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of approaches towards business process specification and enactment is well-known and is an ongoing source of confusion. One of the objectives of the Workflow Patterns Initiative is to provide an insight into comparative strenghts and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art in Process Aware Information Systems. Over the past years many approaches to business process specification including commercial offerings, modelling languages, and academic prototypes have been evaluated in terms of the patterns in order to assess their capabilities in terms of expressing control-flow dependencies, data manipulation and resource allocation directives. With the increasing maturity and popularity of open source software it seems opportune to take a closer look at such offerings in the Business Process Management area. This report provides a patterns-based evaluation of three well-known open source workflow management systems: jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark.

  • 22.
    Wohed, Petia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Russell, Nick
    ter Hofstede, Arthur
    Andersson, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    van der Aalst, Wil
    Patterns-based Evaluation of Open Source BPM Systems: The Cases of jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark2009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1187-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In keeping with the proliferation of free software development initiatives and the increased interest in the business process management domain, many open source workflow and business process management systems have appeared during the last few years and are now under active development. This upsurge gives rise to two important questions: What are the capabilities of these systems? and How do they compare to each other and to their closed source counterparts? In other words: What is the state-of-the-art in the area?. To gain an insight into these questions, we have conducted an in-depth analysis of three of the major open source workflow management systems – jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark, the results of which are reported here. This analysis is based on the workflow patterns framework and provides a continuation of the series of evaluations performed using the same framework on closed source systems, business process modelling languages, and web-service composition standards. The results from evaluations of the three open source systems are compared with each other and also with the results from evaluations of three representative closed source systems: Staffware, WebSphere MQ, and Oracle BPEL PM. The overall conclusion is that open source systems are targeted more toward developers rather than business analysts. They generally provide less support for the patterns than closed source systems, particularly with respect to the resource perspective, i.e. the various ways in which work is distributed amongst business users and managed through to completion.

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