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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköping University.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Residential Preferences of the Elderly Population: Age, Class, and Geographical Context2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Bunar, Nihad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institutet för näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Öckert, Björn
    "Lottning bättre än närhet och kötid för att bryta segregering"2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 30 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The Re-Emergence of Educational Inequality during a Period of Reforms: A Study of Swedish School Leavers 1991–20122018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of a liberalization of Swedish compulsory education, this paper analyses post-1991 shifts in the way compulsory education performance in Sweden has been shaped by parental background, residential context and school context. We can document increasing school and residential segregation of foreign background students and, after 2008, increasing segregation by income, employment status, and social allowance reception. Over time, educational performance has become increasingly linked to family, neighbourhood and school context. The greatest change has been for parental background, but the importance of school context and neighbourhood context has also increased. A noteworthy finding is that residential context consistently has a stronger effect on student performance than school context. Student grades were found to be most strongly influenced by the closest (12 or 25) residential peers of the school leavers as compared to larger peer groups. The increase in the influence of family, neighbourhood and residential context has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in the between-school variation (ICC) in student performance, but it was not until after 2005 that this increased variability became clearly linked to the social composition of the schools. This study’s results suggest that the restructuring of Swedish compulsory education has had consequences for equality, possibly because disadvantaged social groups have not been as able as advantaged groups to navigate and benefit from the educational landscape created by the school reforms.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Patterns of changing residential preferences during late adulthood2019In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1752-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research on residential mobility has demonstrated a tendency for the young old of the 55+-population to prefer peripheral locations, whereas older age groups choose central locations. Here, we present survey results indicating that such late-adulthood differences in preferences are supported by age–related shifts corresponding to differences in housing preferences expressed by individuals in peripheral as well as central locations in Sweden. A sample of 2,400 individuals aged 55 years and over was asked to select the seven most important characteristics of a dwelling from a list of 21 alternatives (SHIELD survey 2013). The preferences expressed were used as dependent variables in logistic regressions to determine to what extent the housing preferences of older people are linked to age, gender, socio-economic status and type of geographical area. The results demonstrated a close link between neighbourhood characteristics and housing preferences. Owning the dwelling, having a garden, and access to nature were stressed as important by individuals living in non-metropolitan middle-class areas and in suburban elite areas. The youngest cohort expressed similar preferences. Older age groups instead stressed the importance of an elevator, single-storey housing, and a good design for independent living; preferences that have similarities to those expressed by individuals living in large cities and smaller urban centres where such housing is more readily available.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Contextual effects on educational attainment in individualized, scalable neighborhoods; differences across gender and social class2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 2117-2133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses whether a multi-scale representation of geographical context based on statistical aggregates computed for individualised neighbourhoods can lead to improved estimates of neighbourhood effect. Our study group consists of individuals born in 1980 that have lived in Sweden since 1995 and we analyse the effect of neighbourhood context at age 15 on educational outcome at age 30 controlling for parental background. A new piece of software, Equipop, was used to compute the socio-economic composition of neighbourhoods centred on individual residential locations and ranging in scale from including the nearest 12 to the nearest 25,600 neighbours. Our results indicate that context measures based on fixed geographical sub-divisions can lead to an underestimation of neighbourhood effects. A multi-scalar representation of geographical context also makes it easier to estimate how neighbourhood effects vary across different demographic groups. This indicates that scale-sensitive measures of geographical context could help to re-invigorate the neighbourhood effects literature.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Segregation and the effects of adolescent residential context on poverty risks and early income career: A study of the Swedish 1980 cohort2018In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 365-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Will the consequences of residential segregation, that is, spatial concentration of marginalized populations on the one hand, and spatial concentration of affluent populations on the other hand, generate a situation where individual life trajectories are influenced by where individuals grow up? Our aim is to analyze how poverty risks and early income career at adult age are influenced by different neighborhood contexts in early youth. We use Swedish longitudinal register data, and follow individuals born in 1980 until 2012. Residential context is measured in 1995 at age 15 by expanding a buffer around the residential locations of each individual and, by computing statistical aggregates of different socio-demographic variables for that population. The results show that poverty risks increase for individuals growing up in areas characterized by high numbers of social allowance recipients living nearby, whereas elite geographical context is favorable for both women’s and men’s future income.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Costa, Rafael
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Stonawski, Marcin Jan
    de Valk, Helga A. G.
    A Comparative Study of Segregation Patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 251-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use geo-coded, individual-level register data on four European countries to compute comparative measures of segregation that are independent of existing geographical sub-divisions. The focus is on non-European migrants, for whom aggregates of egocentric neighbourhoods (with different population counts) are used to assess small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale segregation patterns. At the smallest scale level, corresponding to neighbourhoods with 200 persons, patterns of over- and under-representation are strikingly similar. At larger-scale levels, Belgium stands out as having relatively strong over- and under-representation. More than 55% of the Belgian population lives in large-scale neighbourhoods with moderate under- or over-representation of non-European migrants. In the other countries, the corresponding figures are between 30 and 40%. Possible explanations for the variation across countries are differences in housing policies and refugee placement policies. Sweden has the largest and Denmark the smallest non-European migrant population, in relative terms. Thus, in both migrant-dense and native-born-dense areas, Swedish neighbourhoods have a higher concentration and Denmark a lower concentration of non-European migrants than the other countries. For large-scale, migrant-dense neighbourhoods, however, levels of concentration are similar in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Thus, to the extent that such concentrations contribute to spatial inequalities, these countries are facing similar policy challenges.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Eva K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Osth, John
    Uppsala universitet.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Ethnic segregation and performance inequality in the Swedish school system: a regional perspective2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 2674-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is today an immigrant country with more than 14% foreign born. An increasing share of the immigrants comes from non-European countries. This implies that Sweden has been transformed from an ethnically homogenous country into a country with a large visible minority. In this paper we survey the effect of this change on school segregation. Building on Schelling's model for residential segregation, we argue that establishment of a visible minority has triggered a process of school segregation that in some respects can be compared with the developments in the United States. In order to test the validity of a Schelling-type process in Swedish schools we compare segregation levels in regions with different shares of visible minority students. We use data from the PISA 2003 survey in combination with register data on the ethnic composition of student population in different parts of Sweden. We find that school segregation is higher in regions with a large visible-minority population. We also find that, controlling for student background, there are smaller differences in performance across schools in regions with low shares of minority students.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Contextual Effects on Educational Attainment in Individualized Neighborhoods: Differences across Gender and Social Class2013Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Costa, Rafael
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Stonawski, Marcin Jan
    de Valk, Helga
    A Comparative Study of Segregation Patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use geo-coded, individual level register data on four European countries to compute comparative measures of segregation that are independent of existing geographical sub- divisions. The focus is on non-European migrants, and using aggregates for egocentric neighbourhoods with different population counts, small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale segregation patterns are assessed. At the smallest scale level, corresponding to neighbourhoods with 200 persons, patterns of over- and under-representation are strikingly similar. At larger scale levels, Belgium stands out as having relatively strong over- and under-representation. More than 55% of the Belgian population lives in large-scale neighbourhoods with moderate under- or over- representation of non-European migrants. In the other countries, the corresponding figures are between 30 % and 40%. Possible explanations for this pattern are differences in housing policies and refugee placement policies. Sweden has the largest and Denmark the smallest non-European migrant population, in relative terms. Thus, in both migrant-dense and native-born dense areas, Swedish neighbourhoods have a higher concentration, and Denmark a lower concentration of non- European migrants than the other countries. For large-scale, migrant-dense neighbourhoods, however, levels of concentration are similar in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Thus, if this pattern is linked to a high concentration of disadvantaged population groups, it shows that these countries are facing similar policy challenges with respect to neighbourhood contexts. Contexts that can have negative effects on outcomes such as employment, income and education. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östh, John
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Travel-to-school distances in Sweden 2000-2006: Changing school geography with equality implications2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östh, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Travel-to-schooldistances in Sweden 2000–2006: changing school geography with equality implications2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 23, no SI, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years ago the Swedish school system underwent serious change in that students were given the right to choose their school, though those living near each school had priority. Since then, there has been a new geographical debate concerning where students live and go to school and possible implications of this on student educational achievement and educational equality, as well as on students’ daily lives. In studies of changes in the school system, traveldistances to school have so far been less studied in the Swedish context. In this paper we will analyze the changes in distance to school for 15-year-olds, from 2000 to 2006, in order to identify who, and in which context, is traveling shorter/longer distances, and thus performing a school choice. We use register data from the database PLACE, Uppsala University. The focus is not on effects on achievement, nor school composition, but instead on the difference in ability/possibility of using school choice as measured by distance. A time-geography approach concerning variation in constraints between students is used. School choice may be a matter of preference for certain schools, but importantly, it might also be a matter of time and space restrictions for families with fewer resources; that is, with less spatial capital and a limited opportunity structure. Results show that travel to schooldistances have increased since the year 2000. Foreign-born students are traveling shorter distances, except for those with highly educated parents. Shorter distances are also travelled by students from families with social assistance and for visible minorities in areas where such minorities exist.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Zhang, Qian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Chinese restaurant workers in Sweden: policies, patterns and social consequences2013Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Zhang, Qian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    On waiting, work-time and imagined futures: Theorizing temporal precariousness among Chinese chefs in Sweden’s restaurant industry2017In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 78, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the precarious working conditions in the Chinese restaurant industry in Sweden – a country considered to have one of Europe’s most liberal labour immigration policies. Drawing upon a theoretical framework inspired by scholarship on precarious work and time geography, the paper argues that precarious work performed by migrant labour can be usefully understood through three interrelated temporal processes that, when they work together, produce and maintain precarious work-life situations. They are: (1) work-time arrangements: that is, actual working hours per day and over the annual cycle, the pace and intensity of work and the flexibility demanded of migrant workers in terms of when work is carried out, (2) the spatio-temporal ‘waiting zones’ indirectly produced by immigration policies that delay full access to labour markets and in which precarious work-time arrangements consequently arise, and (3) migrant workers’ imagined futures, which motivate them to accept precarious work-time arrangements during a transitory period. The paper thus also illuminates that the Chinese chefs in Sweden’s restaurant industry are not just passive victims of exploitative work-time arrangements. Rather, waiting – for a return to China or settlement in Sweden – may be part of migrants’ strategies to achieve certain life course trajectories. 

  • 15. Clark, William A. V.
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Ethno-racial neighborhood types in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Metropolitan Areas2017Other (Other academic)
  • 16. Clark, William A. V.
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    What can we learn about changing ethnic diversity from the distributions of mixed-race individuals?2018In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 263-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hypothesized that self-defined mixed-race persons live in residentially mixed areas in the largest metropolitan areas in California. The hypothesis is tested by examining the distribution of mixed-race persons among ethnically and racially diverse and nondiverse neighborhoods in the San Francisco and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas. The research confirmed that mixed-race individuals are more likely to live in areas with ethnic diversity and that the tendency is greater for the mixed-race population in the San Francisco–Oakland Metropolitan Areas than in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Mixed-race individuals live in neighborhoods which are diverse with mixes of all four major ethnic and racial groups, and in “well-off” (but not the most affluent) neighborhoods. The study also shows that the mixed-race population is youthful. The association of mixed-race individuals and racially integrated neighborhoods will have important implications for the evolving nature of spatial integration in California specifically, and the United States more generally.

  • 17. Clark, William A. V.
    et al.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östh, John
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    A Multiscalar Analysis of Neighborhood Composition in Los Angeles, 2000-2010: A Location-Based Approach to Segregation and Diversity2015In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 1260-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There continues to be cross-disciplinary interest in the patterns, extent, and changing contexts of segregation and spatial inequality more generally. The changes are clearly context dependent but at the same time there are broad generalizations that arise from the processes of residential sorting and selection. A major question in U.S. segregation research is how the growth of Asian and Hispanic populations is influencing patterns of segregation and diversity at the neighborhood level. In this article we use a variant of a nearest neighbor approach to map, graph, and evaluate patterns of race and ethnicity at varying scales. We show that using a multiscalar approach to segregation can provide a detailed and more complete picture of segregation. The research confirms work from other studies that segregation is decreasing between some groups and increasing between others, and the patterns, and processes can be described as dynamic diversity. In a series of maps of ethnic clusters and population homogeneity we show how metropolitan areas, represented in this case by Los Angeles, now display patterns of complex living arrangements with multiple groups inhabiting both local neighborhoods and wider community spheres.

  • 18. Clark, William A V
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östh, John
    Segregation and De-segregation in Metropolitan Contexts: Los Angeles as a Paradigm for a Changing Ethnic World2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The residential changes in the Los Angeles metropolitan area can be seen as a metaphor for the kinds of changes which are occurring and will continue to accelerate in the large metropolitan areas of the United States and global cities more generally. New immigrants are changing the ethnic patterns of neighborhoods and communities, and the old patterns of black white segregation are increasingly a picture of the past. In this paper we use a variant of a nearest neighbor approach to map, graph and evaluate the likelihood of individuals meeting other similar race individuals or of meeting individuals of a different race or ethnicity. The research provides evidence that segregation is decreasing between some groups, increasing between others and that the distribution of mixed race individuals is a growing part of the story about residential ethnic patterns. In a series of maps of both homogeneity and heterogeneity the research shows how the metropolitan areas, represented in this case by Los Angeles, are now patterns of complex living arrangements with multiple groups inhabiting both local neighborhoods and wider community spheres. In this study we identify emerging mixed neighborhoods of different types. Some neighborhoods are disadvantaged in terms of income and employment others are among the most advantaged in the Los Angeles area. Overall the picture is one of growing complexity in the patterns of racial and ethnic groups.

  • 19. de la Croisx, David
    et al.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Swedish economic growth and education since 18002008In: Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 166-185Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it builds and makes use of long-run data from Sweden on formal education that have never been used to date. Second, it provides a quantitative application of recent theoretical work on the link between demographic changes and economic growth through their effect on education. It concludes that changes in longevity may account for as much as 20% of the observed rise in education over the period from 1800–2000 via a horizon effect, but have little impact on income growth over the period. On the contrary, changes in population density and composition are central, mainly thanks to their effect on productivity. Most income growth over this period would not have materialized if demographic variables had stayed constant since 1800.

  • 20.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Costa, Rafael
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Rogne, Adrian Farner
    University of Oslo, Department of Sociology and Human Geography.
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (currently Municipality of Amsterdam).
    Socio-economic Segregation in European Cities: A Comparative Study of Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo and Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare socioeconomic segregation patterns and levels in Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo, and Stockholm with uniform measurements. Socioeconomic segregation is a persistent reality in European cities that may have negative effects on social cohesion and individual outcomes. Previous research has been hampered by conceptual and methodological shortcomings, preventing comparable studies of segregation. We use harmonized datasets from 2011 containing geocoded indicators based on a nearest-neighbors approach, allowing for comparable measures of socio-economic segregation at multiple scales. Our analyses offer an unprecedented comparison of patterns and levels of socio-spatial inequalities in European capitals. Using maps, segregation indices and percentile plots, we find that for all cities, the level of segregation by affluence is much larger than that of poverty. Macro-scale poverty segregation is most prominent in Stockholm and Brussels, and quite low in Amsterdam. At micro- scales, Brussels and Stockholm stand out with very high concentrations of poverty at the local level. In such poor neighborhoods, there are hardly any non-poor, indicating high levels of polarization. Macro-scale segregation by affluence is most pronounced in Oslo. Differences in levels and patterns are interpreted in the light of their particular welfare regimes, housing systems, area-based policies and migration dynamics.

  • 21.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Den stora utmaningen: Internationell migration i en globaliserad värld2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Migration är både en naturlig del av människors livsprojekt, i samhällsutvecklingen och en politiskt laddad fråga. I en globaliserad värld blir det allt vanligare att både varor, pengar, information, tjänster och personer flyttar över gränser. Framtidens migrationsströmmar bestäms av demografiska trender, hur efterfrågan på arbetskraft utvecklas i olika länder, och av politiska faktorer.

    I rapporten Den stora utmaningen: Internationell migration i en globaliserad värld beskrivs tre huvudtrender: att färre länder kommer att ha stora nettoutflöden, att Afrika söder om Sahara blir den viktigaste utvandringsregionen och att det finns en ökande potential för bruttoflöden i takt med att allt fler länder industrialiseras.

    Författarna betonar att migration har konsekvenser av mycket olika karaktär. Samtidigt som de kan vara positiva för såväl enskilda människor som för hela samhällens utveckling utgör internationell migration ett hot mot enskilda människors säkerhet och den ekonomiska, politiska och sociala stabiliteten i de samhällen som berörs. Det finns därför starka skäl att söka efter välfungerande system för att hantera internationell migration. Sådana system bör både ge enskilda migranter bästa möjliga förutsättningar att förverkliga sina livsprojekt, och fungera väl för såväl mottagar- som sändarländer. Rapporten utmynnar i policyrekommendationer på både internationell och regional nivå.

  • 22.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Invandring viktigare för Sverige än barnafödande2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ny rapport från Institutet för framtidsstudier: Snart kommer dubbelt så många människor att årligen invandra till Sverige i jämförelse med hur många som föds. Om bara ett fåtal decennier kan så många som 200 000 människor årligen flytta till Sverige. Det är ungefär dubbelt så många människor som föds i landet varje år. Därigenom blir invandringen viktigare för landets utveckling än barnafödandet, hävdar en rapport från Institutet för framtidsstudier som i dag presenteras på utrikesdepartementet. Men det gäller för oss i Sverige att ta till vara den inflyttade kompetensen hos de 20-30-åringar som utgör den allra största delen av invandrarna. Vi måste lära oss att tänka annorlunda kring migration och se möjligheterna tillsammans med utmaningarna med invandringen. Det skriver rapportförfattarna Bo Malmberg, professor i kulturgeografi vid Stockholms universitet och forskningsledare vid Institutet för framtidsstudier samt Charlotta Hedberg, fil dr vid Stockholms universitet.

  • 23.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nu prövas nya reglerna för arbetsmigration2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Transnationell migration2010In: Social Rapport 2010, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2010, p. 26-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hennerdal, Pontus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Competition and School Performance: Swedish School Leavers from 1991–20122018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the wide-ranging liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s, Sweden has become one of the most prominent realizations of Milton Friedman’s proposal for market-based schooling. From 1991 to 2012, the percentage of Swedish ninth-grade students attending independent, voucher-financed, private schools increased from 2.8% to 14.2%. A recent study using municipality-level data claimed that the resulting increase in school competition positively affected student performance in both private and public schools. In this study, using data on 2,154,729 school leavers, we show that this result does not hold when controlling for individual-level background factors and differences in the peer composition of schools.

  • 26. Korpi, Martin
    et al.
    Clark, William A. V.
    Bo, Malmberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The urban hierarchy and domestic migration: the interaction of internal migration, disposable income and the cost of living, Sweden 1993-20022011In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1051-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines household gains and losses from migration within the Swedish urban hierarchy. The central questions focus on whether increases in disposable income outweigh the associated changes in housing costs, especially with movements up (and down) the urban hierarchy, to (and from) larger and more expensive population-growth regions. The questions are addressed using Swedish Census data for 3.5 million individuals and two fixed-effect panel models are estimated for four consecutive time-periods, 1993–2002. The results consistently show relatively higher increases in disposable income moving up the urban hierarchy. Taking changes in housing expenditure into account, this pattern is however reversed; the largest gains are made by households moving from larger to smaller labour markets, a significantly smaller share of total domestic migration. The results point to factors beyond short-term nominal income gains as important in explaining the bulk of domestic migration.

  • 27.
    Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    European Union economic growth and the age structure of the population2009In: Economic Change and Restructuring, ISSN 1573-9414, E-ISSN 1574-0277, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 159-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test the robustness of correlations between age structure and eco- nomic growth in EU15 countries by replicating a previous OECD study. A hump- shaped relation with the age structure is confirmed where increases in the dependent age group shares are associated with decreasing GDP growth rates. In addition we confirm that the peak of the hump is in the upper part of the working age population. Models estimated on data up to 1990 agree quite well when data for 15 more years are added. Sensitivity tests, instrumented regressions and addition of control vari- ables do not change this conclusion. Thus, the age profile of correlations between age and economic growth is robust over time. This motivates a prospective analysis of future effects ageing will have on EU growth. The basic conclusion from this exercise is that ageing will be accompanied by stagnation in GDP growth, but at rather different time horizons.

  • 28. Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Macroeconomics and Age Structure in a Welfare State: Sweden 1946 – 20052008In: Demographic Change and Intergenerational Justice: The Implementation of Long-term Thinking in the Political Decision Making Process, Springer, Berlin , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29. Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Åldersbaserad BNP-prognos för Sverige 1999-2050, [Age-based GDP forecast for Sweden 1999-2050]: Dataunderlag, modell och skattningar för prognos publicerad i "Ds 2000:13 40-talisternas uttåg – en ESO-rapport om 2000-talets demografiska utmaningar", [Data, model and estimates for the forecast published in the "Ds 2000:13, Baby boomer exodus - an ESO report on the demographic challenges of the 2000s"]2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 the report “The baby boomer exodus - an ESO report on demographic challenges of the 2000s” was published by the Expert Group on Public Finance. The authors were Thomas Lindh and Bo Malmberg. The report presented a forecast for GDP growth in Sweden 1999-2030 based on an age model estimated on data from 1946 to 1998. The same model has been used for growth forecasts based on alternative demographic scenarios in the book "Population and Welfare: perspectives on the future of welfare policy”by Bo Malmberg and Lena Sommestad (2002) and an Delmi report “Immigration effects on Sweden's economic development” by Bo Malmberg, Thomas Wimark, Jani Turunen and Linn Axelsson (2016). Here the data base of the estimated model, more information about the estimated model and detailed parameter estimates are published. The material consists of two Excel files: RFVdata.xls and rfvfcstTL.xls. The first file, RFVdata.xls, shows how the GDP series have been developed and the base data used, as well as the age structure data used for estimation and forecast. The second file, rfvfcstTL.xls, contains a description of how the GDP series has been handled, estimation results, and prognosis. Both files are produced by Thomas Lindh.  The two files that are published are a part of a file collection documenting the underlying data and the estimates for the various research projects that Thomas Lindh worked with from 1993 to 2012. The file collection was established for enabling interested researchers to access these results of Thomas Lindh's work, and for this purpose a copy of file collection was handed over to Bo Malmberg.

  • 30. Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Palme, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Generations at War or Sustainable Social Policy in Ageing Societies?2005In: The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 470-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic factors that helped trigger the debate about generations and equity will grow in importance, which is a straightforward prediction from the current age structures. This warrants further scientific inquiries. It is also likely to require new policies, or changes in the design of current policies. We argue that although life-cycle considerations have been essential for welfare state policy designs there has not been a corresponding interest for life cycle perspectives in the development of political theory. The shortcomings of both classical liberalism and Marxism can be related to their lack of a life-cycle perspective. In this context, the Myrdals’ argumentation in the 1930s for welfare state policies as a response to demographic challenges can provide guidance also for policy-making in the 21st century. What we argue is that a balanced population growth would reduce the distributive tensions between generations. There are policy options that should be part of a future oriented approach to changing population structures. To invest in human capital and to use migration as a way of increasing the labour force are good examples of investment policies for the future. Such policies boil down to increasing the number of future taxpayers and their productivity. What is warranted to succeed in this endeavour, is a balanced approach; a synthesis between the concern with the way that the welfare state supports different groups in society, on the one hand, and a realistic view of how society works, on the other hand.

  • 31.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Book review: Population and Development: The Demographic Transition2014In: Progress in Human Geography, ISSN 0309-1325, E-ISSN 1477-0288, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 331-333Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Demografi och framtidsstudier2008In: Fjorton perspektiv på framtiden: Samhälls- och humanvetenskapliga framtidsstudier, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Demografi och samhällsutveckling: Nya möjligheter förutspå framtiden2008In: Tvärsnitt, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsvetare kan idag, på samma sätt som meteorologer, lansera långsiktiga prognoser som håller. Det senaste decenniet har det hänt saker inom demografiforskningen som pekar på att lagbundenheterna i samhällsutvecklingen kanske är starkare än vi trott. Den demografiska transitionen är ett universellt fenomen som kommer att få stora konsekvenser för samhällsvetenskapen, skriver Bo Malmberg.

  • 34.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Demografi och social utveckling2006In: Social rapport: 2006, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2006, p. 25-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Demography and the development potential of sub-Saharan Africa2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth in Africa has laid the foundation for the eventual development of a prosperous region. Since the 1950s, sub-Saharan Africa has doubled its population twice over to become one of the most populous regions in the world. If sub-Saharan Africa succeeds in taking advantage of this population potential, the sub-continent could become a major player in the world economy.

    A major reason sub-Saharan Africa remains poor is the very high child-dependency arising from a very high total fertility rate, and low life expectancy based on both high infant mortality and high adult mortality rates.

    Reduced mortality and lower fertility are key requirements if sub-Saharan Africa is to enter a development trajectory that makes possible increasing per capita incomes and reductions in poverty.

    BO MALMBERG is a professor in the Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University and a research asssociate at the Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.

  • 36.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Demography and the development potential of Sub-Saharan Africa2007Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Det demografiska spöket2008In: Framtider, no 4, p. 35-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Det ljusnar för Afrika2007In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 3, p. 16-21Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Fertility Cycles, Age Structure and Housing Demand2012In: Scottish Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0036-9292, E-ISSN 1467-9485, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 467-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, a number of researchers have put forward evidence of strong demographic effects on housing demands. More recently, a number of studies have pointed to the effect of housing market conditions on family formation. This implies that housing markets are influenced by population change, but also that the housing market conditions influence population change. In this study, a model of demographic effects on the housing market that has been estimated on regional panel data will be used to explore these interrelationships. First, it is shown that the age effects identified in sub-national data are present also in cross-national data. Second, it is shown that high demographic pressure on house prices is associated with low fertility. The findings are discussed in relation to the Easterlin's hypothesis about the effects of cohort crowding on fertility. In Easterlin's model, cohort effects on earnings drive fertility shifts. The analysis presented, herein, indicates that cohort effects in the housing market can be equally important. Finally, the estimated models are used to outline possible future trends in house prices and fertility. The results indicate that house price increases can slow down and that there can be some recovery from very low fertility rates.

  • 40.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Global income growth in the 21 century: A comparison of IPCC, Solow, and dividend models2007In: Scenarios on economic growth and resource demand: Background report to the Swedish Environmental Advisory Council memorandum 2007:1, Swedish Environmental Advisory Council , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Health as a factor in regional economic development2006Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Housing cost and fertility: Swedish evidence1998In: ENHR Conference on Housing Futures: Renewal, Innovation, and Sustainability,: 7 - 11 September 1998, Cardiff, Wales, 1998Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hälsans betydelse för individens och samhällets ekonomiska utveckling2007Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Landsbygdens befolkning: Jordbruk, barnafödande och demografisk transition2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: Studier av de areella näringarnas geografi och historia. / [ed] Hans Antonsson, Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och lantbruksakademien , 2011, p. 103-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Low Fertility and the Housing Market: Evidence from Swedish Regional Data2010In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term effect of low birth rates is a decline in the population share of children and young adults. How will such changes in age structure affect the housing market? In this article, panel data sets for Swedish municipalities from 1981 to 2006 are used to answer this question. The use of panel data makes it possible to control for the effect of national-level policy shifts and macroeconomic events through the introduction of fixed time effects. The results show that population aging could lead to less rapid house price growth in the first decades of the twenty first century, compared to the last decades of the twentieth century. These results also hold when local population growth, income growth, and educational levels are controlled for.

  • 46.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mått på välfärdens tjänster - en antologi om produktivitet och effektivitet i kommunala verksamheter: Offentlig sektor som en tillväxtmotor - ett humankapitalperspektiv.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ekonomiska sanningen är att välfärden i framtiden kommer att kräva en ökande andel av samhällets produktion. Med trycket på ökande utgifter i sikte är det viktigt att resurser som satsas på offentliga ändamål används så effektivt och produktivt som möjligt. Medborgarna vill veta att de verkligen får kvalitativ välfärd för sina skattepengar. Är det möjligt att försäkra medborgarna om detta? Är det möjligt att finna mått på effektivitet och produktivitet i det som kan kallas välfärdens tjänster?

    Den panel av forskare och utredare som Expertgruppen för Studier i Samhällsekonomi riktat frågorna till anser det möjligt och visar i denna rapport till ESS på vägar att mäta effektiviteten i den offentliga verksamheten och den betydelse det kan ha för utvecklingen av välfärdssamhället.

  • 47.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The rural population: Agriculture, birth-rates, and demographic transition2011In: Agriculture and forestry in Sweden since 1900: Geographical and historical studies / [ed] Hans Antonson, Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry , 2011, p. 109-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Anderson, Eva
    Subramanian, S V
    Links between ill health and regional economic performance: Evidence from Swedish longitudinal data2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1210-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While poor health has been associated with economic outcomes at the national level, its effect on economic outcomes at the individual and local level remains less well known. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from Sweden, we examined the extent to which an individual’s poor health leads to poor economic outcomes for that individual. In order to understand the effects of poor health at a regional level, we also examined the spillover effects of the individual’s poor health on the economic outcomes of the people linked to the individual. We report an association between an individual’s poor health and both that individual’s subsequent adverse economic outcomes and adverse economic outcomes of the individual’s network. Our study highlights the importance of the association between health and economic well-being as well as potential adverse spillover effects of poor health on local economies.

  • 49.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Bergsten, Zara
    Uppsala universitet.
    Det fria skolvalet ökar kyftor mellan skolor: Den svenska skolans nya geografi2013In: Resultatdialog 2013, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2013, p. 119-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Adolescent neighbourhood context and transition to parenthood: A longitudinal study2019In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 25, no 5, article id e2228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates effects of neighbourhood context on first birth timing in Sweden. Analyses are on the basis of Swedish population registers and innovative methods for the construction of individualised neighbourhoods of varying sizes and a traditional measure using defined areas. The 1980 Swedish birth cohort is followed from age 13 to 36, with neighbourhood characteristics observed at age 15 to define the contexts in which the young adults were socialised and first exposed to socioeconomic opportunities for higher education and early adult careers. Young adults who lived in elite (education and income) neighbourhoods or neighbourhoods with a high proportion of foreign born were slower to have their first child in comparison with those who lived in a less socioeconomically advantaged neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods with high levels of social assistance, as well as those with a high proportion of single-family housing had earlier births. Although the preponderance of the first evidence is consistent with a pathway from neighbourhoods to individual attainments and delayed childbearing, the availability of affordable family-friendly housing appears to provide opportunities for earlier transitions to parenthood.

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