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  • 1. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inte bara jämställdhet: Beslutet om föräldraledighet, moderskaps- och faderskapsideal och idéer om barns bästa2012In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 103-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Man vill ha det lite jämställt sådär: planer för föräldraledighet och arbetsdelning bland blivande föräldrar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roman, Christine
    Realized plans or revised dreams? Swedish parents’ experiences of care, parental leave and paid work after childbirth2019In: New parents in Europe: work-care practices, gender norms and family policies / [ed] Daniela Grunow, Marie Evertsson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 68-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4. Alsarve, Jenny
    et al.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roman, Christine
    The crossroads of equality and biology: The child’s best interests and constructions of motherhood and fatherhood in Sweden2016In: Couples' transitions to parenthood: analysing gender and work in Europe / [ed] Daniela Grunow, Marie Evertsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Can you stay at home today?: The relationship between economic dependence, parents' occupation and care leave for sick children2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Can you stay home today? Parents’ occupations, relative resources and division of care leave for sick children2015In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 357-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is one of only a few studies on the division of care leave for sick children (temporary parental leave) between parents in Sweden and is the first to examine the importance of differences in parents’ work characteristics. The study uses register data for parents with children born between 1999 and 2002 to analyse two aspects of parents’ employment that may be of importance for the division of care leave: their relative resources, in this case wages, and different occupations. First, the results show that a father’s share of care leave increases as the mother’s relative wage decreases. This suggests that decisions about care leave are influenced by bargaining power gained through differences in resources. Second, the resources of couples where both partners work in the same occupation are more equal, and such couples also divide care leave more equally than couples with different occupations. However, the fact that same-occupation couples tend to share care leave more equally does not seem to be explained by similarities in the partners’ work characteristics, and may instead be due to unmeasured, stable characteristics. Greater income and career possibilities for the women are proposed as a possible explanation of the division of care leave for same-occupation couples.

  • 7.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Care more, earn less? The association between care leave for sick children and wage among Swedish parents2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have shown that women’s and men’s wages relate to parenthood in general and to parental leave in particular, but we know little about the possible wage impact of leave to care for sick children, which is a part of the Swedish parental leave system. On the one hand, care leave may influence human capital and real or perceived work capacity similarly to parental leave and send the employer the same signals about work commitment and responsibilities outside of work. On the other hand, important differences, including timing, frequency and predictability, between care leave and parental leave influence paid work. This study uses Swedish register data to analyse the association between care leave and wages among mothers and fathers who had their first child in 1994. The results show that care leave is associated with a lower wage, particularly among men, up to 13 years after the birth of the first child. One reason for the gender difference in the association between care leave and wage may be that men’s care leave has a stronger signalling effect compared with women’s care leave.

  • 8.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Care More, Earn Less? The Association between Taking Paid Leave to Care for Sick Children and Wages among Swedish Parents2019In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 983-1001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wages are related to parenthood and to child-related absences from work. The link between leave to care for sick children (CSC) and wages is understudied, however. CSC may negatively influence human capital and work capacity, and send the employer signals about work commitment. The short spells of CSC make this form of leave particularly suitable for testing the signalling theory. This study analysed data from Swedish population registers and showed that CSC use was associated with lower wages, particularly among men, up to 13 years after the birth of the first child. The association was strongest at high wage levels. Self-selection of parents with certain unmeasured characteristics into (high) CSC use was one, but not the only, explanation. The results support the idea that child-related time off negatively influences wages through a signalling effect. In addition, human capital or work capacity may suffer with frequent CSC use.

  • 9.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Dual-Earner Couples/Dual-Career Couples2014In: Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. / [ed] Axel C. Michalos, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, p. 1703-1706Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Happy hour? Studies on well-being and time spent on paid and unpaid work2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis focuses on causes and consequences of paid working hours and housework hours among women and men in Sweden and Europe. It consists of four studies.

    Study I investigates changes in the division of housework in Swedish couples when they become parents. The study shows that women adjust their housework hours to the number and age of children in the household, whereas men do not. Longer parental leave periods among fathers have the potential to counteract this change towards a more traditional division of housework.

    Study II explores the associations between psychological distress and paid working hours, housework hours and total role time in Sweden. The results suggest that women’s psychological distress decreases with increasing paid working hours and housework hours, but that a long total role time is associated with high levels of distress. The gender difference in time spent on housework accounts for 40 per cent of the gender difference in psychological distress.

    Study III asks whether hours spent on paid work and housework account for the European gender difference in well-being, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework is influenced by gender attitudes and social comparison. The results indicate that gender differences in time spent on paid work and housework account for a third of the gender difference in well-being. Gender attitudes and social comparison do not to any great extent influence the associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively.

    Study IV examines possible differences between European family policy models in the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework. Some model differences are found, and they are accounted for by experiences of work-family conflict among men, but not among women. For both women and men, work-family conflict appears to suppress positive aspects of paid working hours.

  • 11.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hushållsarbetets tid och fördelning2014In: Lönsamt arbete -  familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser / [ed] Boye, K. och Nermo, M, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, p. 95-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mer vab, lägre lön? Uttag av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn och lön bland svenska föräldrar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal studier som visar att kvinnors och mäns löner hänger samman med föräldraskap i allmänhet och föräldraledighet i synnerhet. Lönen är lägre ju längre en förälder varit föräldraledig, vilket kan bero på att frånvaron påverkar individens humankapital eller att arbetsgivare tolkar frånvaron som ett tecken på bristande engagemang i arbetet. Vi vet dock väldigt lite om löneeffekter av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn, så kallad vab. Å ena sidan är det möjligt att vab påverkar humankapital och faktisk eller förväntad arbetskapacitet på samma sätt som föräldraledighet tycks göra. Å andra sidan finns det viktiga skillnader mellan vab och föräldraledighet när det gäller hur länge och ofta ledigheten tas ut och hur långt i förväg arbetsgivaren får reda på att en förälder ska vara frånvarande. I den här studien används svenska registerdata för att analysera sambandet mellan vab och lön bland mödrar och fäder som fick sitt första barn 1994. Dessa föräldrar följs fram till och med 2007. Resultaten visar att det finns ett samband mellan ett större uttag av vab-dagar och lägre lön, speciellt bland män, upp till 13 år efter första barnets födelse. En förklaring till könsskillnaden i sambandet mellan vab och lön kan vara att arbetsgivare i högre grad tolkar mäns vab-frånvaro än kvinnors vab som ett tecken på lågt engagemang i arbetet.

  • 13.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mot ett nytt föräldraskap2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa bokförlag , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Relatively Different? How do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?2009In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Time spent working: Paid work, housework and the gender difference in psychological distress2010In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 419-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the connection between the time that women and men spend on paid work and housework and psychological distress, and addresses the question whether gender differences in time spent on these activities account for the gender difference in psychological distress. A group (n =1,277) of employed and cohabiting women and men from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 (LNU 2000) are analysed using OLS regression. Results show that time spent on housework explains part of the gender difference in psychological distress. Among women, paid working time and possibly time spent on housework are associated with low psychological distress. However, spending too much time on one role decreases the possible beneficial effect of the other, and this is mainly caused by the resulting increase in total role time. Men's level of psychological distress is not associated with hours of paid work or housework. The study also shows that the division of housework between women and men is unusually uneven in households where women have a long total role time. Thus, an increase in men's participation in housework could decrease the gender difference in psychological distress as well as the number of women experiencing a high workload.

  • 16.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Work and well-being in a comparative perspective - the role of family policy2011In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively, differ between European family policy models, and whether any such differences can be attributed to differences in the experience of work–family conflict. Analysing data on mothers and fathers in 18 European countries, the study finds that the traditional family policy model shows the most positive association between women’s well-being and paid working hours, although this association is concealed by work–family conflict. Possibly, the selection into long paid working hours of women with rewarding jobs is greater here than elsewhere. Women’s housework hours are also most positively associated with well-being in the traditional model, although well-being decreases when housework hours become too long. In the market-oriented model, women’s paid working hours and housework hours are instead associated with decreasing well-being, the former association appearing to be caused by work–family conflict. The strongest positive association between men’s paid working hours and well-being is found in the market-oriented model, but again, control for work–family conflict reveals positive associations in this and other models. Hence, among both mothers and fathers, work–family conflict appears to be one important reason why paid working hours are not more clearly associated with high levels of well-being.

  • 17.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Föräldraskapsideal och deras förverkligande: En forskarrapport om föräldrars uppfattning om vad som underlättar och förhindrar ett delat föräldraskap i Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vem gör vad när? Kvinnors och mäns tid i betalt och obetalt arbete2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 158-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Grönlund, Anne
    Workplace Skill Investments - An Early Career Glass Ceiling? Job Complexity and Wages Among Young Professionals in Sweden2018In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 368-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A survey sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programmes, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed (N approximate to 2300). Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wages and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs.

  • 20.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Könslönegapets utveckling. Betydelsen av yrkets kvalifikationsnivå och familjeansvar2014In: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, p. 185-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Stagnation only on the surface? The implications of skill and family responsibilities for the gender wage gap in Sweden, 1974–20102017In: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 595-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wage differential between women and men persists in advanced economies despite the inflow of women into qualified occupations in recent years. Using five waves of the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU), this paper explores the gender wage gap in Sweden during the 1974–2010 period overall and by skill level. The empirical analyses showed that the general gender wage gap has been nearly unchanged for the past 30 years. However, the gender difference in wage in less qualified occupations fell considerably, whereas the gender pay gap remained stable for men and women in qualified occupations. The larger significance of family responsibilities for wages in qualified occupations is one likely explanation for this result.

  • 22.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, MagnusStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lönsamt arbete: familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Female same-sex couples act long-term financially rational?2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 297-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges faced by research on the gendered transition to parenthood is how to dismantle the interconnected nature of biology, gender and economic reasoning. We contribute to this aim by comparing division of parental leave in different-sex couples (DSC) and female same-sex couples (SSC). Motherhood identity formation appears to be strong in DSC as well as SSC. Net of this, gender is an important predictor of parental leave in DSC. To some extent, SSC seem to divide the leave in a more long-term financially rational way than DSC do.

  • 24.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jämställdhet i hemmet – så fördelar unga vuxna hushålls- och omsorgsarbetet2013In: Fokus 13: unga och jämställdhet, Stockholm: Ungdomsstyrelsen , 2013, p. 146-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Gendered Transition to Parenthood: Lasting Inequalities in the Home and in the Labor Market2016In: Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource / [ed] Robert A. Scott, Marlis C. Buchmann, John Wiley & Sons, 2016, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the slow process through which the gendered transition to parenthood has changed in Western societies and the degrees to which this process challenges economic theories on the utility-maximizing rational man, woman, and/or couple. The transition to parenthood has long-term consequences for women's careers, often even in couples in which the woman earns more than the man. The reason for the slow-changing process can partially be found in gender norms and the physical aspects of the transition to motherhood, including breastfeeding and norms regarding how long the child benefits from being in the mother's care. One of the challenges faced by research on the gendered transition to parenthood is how to distinguish where the boundaries between biology and gender norms lie. We discuss the gendered transition to parenthood and its career-related consequences, and we elaborate on potential ways in which research may advance to dismantle the interconnected nature of biology, gender, and economic reasoning in couples' transition to parenthood.

  • 26.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Transition to Parenthood and the Division of Parental Leave in Different-Sex and Female Same-Sex Couples in Sweden2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the division of paid and unpaid work at the transition to parenthood has rarely been ableto separate the social construction of gender and motherhood/fatherhood identities from labour market and financial factors. By bringing in female same-sex couples (SSC) and comparing how the transition to parenthood influences the division of parental leave in SSC and different-sex couples (DSC),we can isolate parents’ gender as a predictor of the division of care from physiological and identity-forming aspects linked to being a birth-mother (or her partner). Analysing Swedish register data forcouples who had their first child in 2003–2011, results show that (i) the (birth) mother’s leave uptake ishigher than the partner’s uptake for both SSC and DSC, providing support for identity formation andinternalized norms linked to the child’s need of its (birth) mother; (ii) birth-mothers in SSC on averagetake 7 weeks less parental leave than mothers in DSC, indicating that the partner’s gender plays arole; and (iii) the (birth) mother’s parental leave share is negatively related to her income but unrelatedto her partner’s income, suggesting that her labour market prospects are more important in the division of leave than any financial, family-utility maximization.

  • 27.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Erman, Jeylan
    Fathers on-call? A study on the sharing of care work between parents in Sweden2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, p. 33-60, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Swedish fathers’ parental leave uptake has increased over time, but progress has been moderate. In relation to this, we ask what factors hinder or facilitate the taking of leave by fathers and how – if at all – the leave influences the father’s relationship with his child.

    OBJECTIVE

    To study (i) the reasons for parents’ division of parental leave as well as the consequences this division has for their actual time at home with the child and (ii) the link between the father’s leave and his relationship with the child, as well as the parents’ division of childcare after parental leave.

    METHODS

    A multi-methods approach is used, where OLS regression models of survey data from the Young Adult Panel Study are analysed alongside qualitative in-depth interviews with 13 couples who have had a first child.

    RESULTS

    Quantitative results show that parents’ leave lengths vary with the reasons given for the division of leave and that fathers’ parental leave is related to long-term division of childcare. Qualitative results suggest that equal parenting is important to the interviewed parents; however, motherhood ideals may stand in the way of achieving it. Several mechanisms by which fathers’ parental leave may influence later division of childcare are suggested, including the development of a closer relationship between father and child.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Policies aimed towards increasing fathers’ parental leave uptake have the potential to strengthen the father–child bond, contribute to a more equal division of childcare, and facilitate both parents’ understanding of each other and what being a stay-at-home parent involves.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This article is the first to show how parents alleged reasons for the parental leave links to the actual length of the mother's and father's leave. Results indicate that increasing paternal leave length is linked to improved couple relationship quality and a closer relationship with the child.

  • 28. McAllister, Ashley
    et al.
    Nylén, Lotta
    Backhans, Mona
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thielen, Karsten
    Whitehead, Margaret
    Burström, Bo
    Do flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-20102015In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 679-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as flexicurity, has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, flexicurity as practiced in Denmark, far from being a magic bullet, appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health.

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