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  • 1. Apraiz, I.
    et al.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cristobal, S.
    Proteomics in the copepod /Nitocra spinipes /could improve ecotoxicological assessment.2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bejgarn, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 132, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering.

  • 3.
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    REACH - Can ecology and economy be combined in this process?2007In: Regulating Chemical Risk: Science, Politics and the Media. Stockholm, Sweden.: 16-17th of August., 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Breitholtz,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rattfelt, J.
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, P.
    Subchronic (mixture) toxicity testing of 10 selected flame-retardants using the harpacticoid copepod /Nitocra spinipes/.2007In: SETAC 17:th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Breitholtz,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ricklund,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, N.J.
    Silica gel as a particulate carrier of poorly water-soluble substances in aquatic toxicity testing.2007In: Aquat. Toxicol., Vol. 82 (4), p. 251-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Breitholtz, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rattfelt Nyholm, J.
    Karlsson, J
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, P.L.
    Are individual NOEC levels safe for mixtures? A study on mixture toxicity of brominated flame-retardants in the copepod Nitocra spinipes2008In: Chemosphere, Vol. 72, p. 1242-1249Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Näslund, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Strae, Daniel
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grabic, Roman
    Fick, Jerker
    An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 78, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean. Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1 ng L-1 to 7.6 mu g L-1 in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24 h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments. From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed.

  • 8.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Partitioning of Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) to Daphnia magna Overlaps between Restricted and in-Use Categories2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 9713-9721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-production volume industrial chemicals consisting of n-alkanes (with 10 to 30 carbon atoms in the chain) with chlorine content from 30 to 70% of weight. In Europe, the use of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) has been restricted by the Stockholm Convention on POPs due to their PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) properties. Medium (MCCPs) and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins are used as substitution products. In this work we studied the partitioning behavior of five different CP technical mixtures from the established categories (2 SCCPs, 1 MCCP, 1 LCCP and 1 CP technical mixture covering all categories) using passive dosing, by determining the partitioning coefficient of CP technical mixtures between silicone and water (Ksilicone-water) as well as between organic matter and water (Koc-water). We show that both silicone-water and organic carbon water partition coefficients overlap between different categories of CP technical mixtures. These results indicate that in-use MCCPs and LCCPs may be equally or more bioaccumulative than restricted SCCPs. For the tested mixtures, both chlorine content and carbon chain length showed a significant correlation with both Ksilicone-water and Koc-water.

  • 9.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bioaccumulation Potential of CPs in Aquatic Organisms: Uptake and Depuration in Daphnia magna2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 16, p. 9533-9541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are industrial chemicals, subdivided into three categories: short chain (SCCPs), medium chain (MCCPs), and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins. SCCPs are currently restricted in Europe and North America. MC and LCCPs are being used as substitution products, but there is a knowledge gap concerning their bioaccumulation potential in aquatic organisms. In this work, we performed laboratory bioconcentration (passive uptake) and bioaccumulation (including dietary uptake) experiments with Daphnia magna using five different CP technical substances. All tested CP technical substances were bioaccumulative in D. magna, with log BCF and log BAF values ranging between 6.7-7.0 and 6.5-7.0 (L kg lipid(-1)), respectively. An increase in carbon chain length and an increase in chlorine content (% w/w) of the CP technical substances had significant positive effects on the log BCF and log BAF values. For the different CP technical substances, 50% depuration was achieved after 2 to 10 h when D. magna were transferred to clean media. Our results show that SC, MC, and LCCPs are (very)bioaccumulative in aquatic organisms. We believe these data can aid the ongoing policy discussion concerning the environmental risk posed by CPs.

  • 10. Dahl, U.
    et al.
    Breitholtz, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Integrating individual ecdysteroid content and growth-related stressor endpoints to assess toxicity in a benthic harpacticoid copepod.2008In: Aquat. Toxicol., Vol. 88, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ecdysteroid levels in the harpacticoid copepod /Nitocra spinipes /– development of a novel sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA).2007In: SETAC 17th Annual Meeting in Europe, Porto, Portugal: 20-24 May 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lind, Charlotta Rubio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Food quality effects on copepod growth and development: Implications for bioassays in ecotoxicological testing2009In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated effects of six algal species in 25 combinations on growth and reproduction of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. In the first lifecycle test, Rhodomonas salina, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were used. The results showed that R. salina was the best food, whereas P. tricornutum (0% development success) and D. tertiolecta (41.7% malformations) were poor food items. In the second lifecycle test, a mixture of R. salina, Tetraselmis suecica, and Thalassiosira weisflogii (selected from screening tests) was tested together with a mono-diet of R. salina. Also in this test, copepods fed R. salina performed better (i.e. had higher survival and reproductive success) compared with the other treatment. We conclude that R. salina is appropriate to use as food in toxicity testing with N. spinipes, whereas some of the algae commonly used as feed in ecotoxicological tests with other copepods had detrimental effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of N. spinipes.

  • 13. Di Paolo, Carolina
    et al.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Keiter, Steffen
    Ait-Aissa, Selim
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Brack, Werner
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Buchinger, Sebastian
    Carere, Mario
    Chalon, Carole
    Cousin, Xavier
    Dulio, Valeria
    Escher, Beate I.
    Hamers, Timo
    Hilscherova, Klara
    Jarque, Sergio
    Jonas, Adam
    Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle
    Marneffe, Yves
    Mai, Thao
    Pandard, Pascal
    Schifferli, Andrea
    Schulze, Tobias
    Seidensticker, Sven
    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin
    Tang, Janet
    van der Oost, Ron
    Vermeirssen, Etienne
    Zounkova, Radka
    Zwart, Nick
    Hollert, Henner
    Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 104, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2 equivalency factors reliably reflected the sample content. In the Ames, strong revertant induction occurred following 3-NBA spike incubation with the TA98 strain, which was of lower magnitude after metabolic transformation and when compared to TA100. Differences in experimental protocols, model organisms, and data analysis can be sources of variation, indicating that respective harmonized standard procedures should be followed when implementing bioassays in water monitoring. Together with other ongoing activities for the validation of a basic bioassay battery, the present study is an important step towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

  • 14.
    Edlund, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Antibiotic-Induced Change of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Copepod Nitocra spinipes2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e33107-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pressures, such as physical factors, diet and contaminants may affect interactions between microbial symbionts and their multicellular hosts. Despite obvious relevance, effects of antimicrobial contaminants on host-symbiont relations in non-target aquatic organisms are largely unknown. We show that exposure to antibiotics had negative effects on survival and juvenile development of the copepod Nitocra spinipes and caused significant alterations in copepod-associated bacterial communities. The significant positive correlations between indices of copepod development and bacterial diversity indicate that disruption of the microflora was likely to be an important factor behind retarded juvenile development in the experimental animals. Moreover, as evidenced by ribotype distribution in the bacterial clone libraries, the exposure to antibiotics caused a shift in dominance from Betaproteobacteria to Cardinium bacteria; the latter have been shown to cause reproductive manipulations in various terrestrial arthropods. Thus, in addition to providing evidence that the antibiotic-induced perturbation of the microbial community associates with reductions in fitness-related traits of the host, this study is the first record of a copepod serving as a host for endosymbiotic Cardinium. Taken together, our results suggest that (1) antimicrobial substances and possibly other stressors can affect micobiome and symbiont-mediated interactions in copepods and other hosts, and (2) Cardinium endosymbionts may occur in other copepods and affect reproduction of their hosts.

  • 15.
    Furuhagen, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fuchs, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lundström Belleza, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are Pharmaceuticals with Evolutionary Conserved Molecular Drug Targets More Potent to Cause Toxic Effects in Non-Target Organisms?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, article id e105028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in a continuous discharge into wastewater and pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are found in the environment. Due to their design towards specific drug targets, pharmaceuticals may be therapeutically active already at low environmental concentrations. Several human drug targets are evolutionary conserved in aquatic organisms, raising concerns about effects of these pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that the toxicity of a pharmaceutical towards a non-target invertebrate depends on the presence of the human drug target orthologs in this species. This was tested by assessing toxicity of pharmaceuticals with (miconazole and promethazine) and without (levonorgestrel) identified drug target orthologs in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The toxicity was evaluated using general toxicity endpoints at individual (immobility, reproduction and development), biochemical (RNA and DNA content) and molecular (gene expression) levels. The results provide evidence for higher toxicity of miconazole and promethazine, i.e. the drugs with identified drug target orthologs. At the individual level, miconazole had the lowest effect concentrations for immobility and reproduction (0.3 and 0.022 mg L-1, respectively) followed by promethazine (1.6 and 0.18 mg L-1, respectively). At the biochemical level, individual RNA content was affected by miconazole and promethazine already at 0.0023 and 0.059 mg L-1, respectively. At the molecular level, gene expression for cuticle protein was significantly suppressed by exposure to both miconazole and promethazine; moreover, daphnids exposed to miconazole had significantly lower vitellogenin expression. Levonorgestrel did not have any effects on any endpoints in the concentrations tested. These results highlight the importance of considering drug target conservation in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals.

  • 16.
    Furuhagen, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fuchs, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lundström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Do pharmaceuticals with evolutionary conserved molecular drug targets pose a greater environmental risk?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Furuhagen, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Feeding Activity and Xenobiotics Modulate Oxidative Status in Daphnia magna: Implications for Ecotoxicological Testing2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 21, p. 12886-12892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To apply biomarkers of oxidative stress in laboratory and field settings, an understanding of their responses to changes in physiological rates is important. The evidence is accumulating that caloric intake can increase production of reactive oxygen species and thus affect background variability of oxidative stress biomarkers in ecotoxicological testing. This study aimed to delineate effects of food intake and xenobiotics on oxidative biomarkes in Daphnia magna. Antioxidant capacity measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and lipid peroxidation assayed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured. Food intake was manipulated by varying food densities or by exposing the animals to chemicals inhibiting feeding rate (pharmaceutical haloperidol and pesticide lindane). Feeding rate proved to affect both protein, ORAC, and TBARS in unexposed daphnids. However, there was no significant effect of feeding rate on the protein-specific ORAC values. Both substances affected individual protein and ORAC levels and changed their relationship to feeding rate. Our results show that inhibition of feeding rate influenced the interpretation of biomarker response and further emphasize the importance of understanding (1) baseline variability in potential biomarkers due to variations in metabolic state and (2) the contribution of feeding rate on toxic response of biomarkers.

  • 18.
    Furuhagen, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Oxidative biomarkers as indicators of reproductive effects in Daphnia magnaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress can be induced by various stressors, and oxidative biomarkers are commonly used as indicators of xenobiotic exposure. However, the capacity of oxidative biomarkers to predict pro-oxidative exposure or indicate reproductive effects has not been evaluated. In this study, we hypothesized that biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation) can be used to diagnose pro-oxidative exposure, with concomitant reproductive penalties. We exposed Daphnia magna to UVB irradiation, a known agent inducing pro-oxidative processes in various organisms, from birth to adult stage. The biomarker responses were followed in different life-stages in concert with reproductive success and individual growth rate. The UVB exposure induced alterations in antioxidant capacity (measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) in both juvenile and adult daphnids. Moreover, these effects were age-specific, with decreased and increased ORAC in juveniles and adults, respectively. These changes were associated with reproductive success, as increased number of offspring was negatively associated with antioxidant capacity. Also, a trans-generational effect was observed as exposed females allocated less antioxidants to their offspring. ORAC normalized to protein content (ORACp) was identified as a suitable biomarker of pro-oxidative exposure. For diagnostics of oxidative stress in field and laboratory settings, two logistic models employing ORACp in juvenile and adult D. magna were proposed; the classification accuracy of the models was about 80%. None of the other biomarkers contributed significantly to the models.

  • 19.
    Furuhagen, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    The effects of feeding and xenobiotics on oxidative stress in Daphnia magna: implications for ecotoxicological testingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Dahl, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kotsalainen, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Maxson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Elwing, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Evidence of population genetic effects of long-term exposure to contaminated sediments: A multi-endpoint study with copepods2008In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 426-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the environment, pollution generally acts over long time scales and exerts exposure of multiple toxicants on the organisms living there. Recent findings show that pollution can alter the genetics of populations. However, few of these studies have focused on long-term exposure of mixtures of substances. The relatively short generation time (ca. 4–5 weeks in sediments) of the harpacticoid copepod Attheyella crassa makes it suitable for multigenerational exposure studies. Here, A. crassa copepods were exposed for 60 and 120 days to naturally contaminated sediments (i.e., Svindersviken and Trosa; each in a concentration series including 50% contaminated sediment mixed with 50% control sediment and 100% contaminated sediment), and for 120 days to control sediment spiked with copper. We assayed changes in FST (fixation index), which indicates if there is any population subdivision (i.e., structure) between the samples, expected heterozygosity, percent polymorphic loci, as well as abundance. There was a significant decrease in total abundance after 60 days in both of the 100% naturally contaminated sediments. This abundance bottleneck recovered in the Trosa treatment after 120 days but not in the Svindersviken treatment. After 120 days, there were fewer males in the 100% naturally contaminated sediments compared to the control, possibly caused by smaller size of males resulting in higher surface: body volume ratio in contact with toxic chemicals. In the copper treatment there was a significant decrease in genetic diversity after 120 days, although abundance remained unchanged. Neither of the naturally contaminated sediments (50 and 100%) affected genetic diversity after 120 days but they all had high within treatment FST values, with highest FST in both 100% treatments. This indicates differentiation between the replicates and seems to be a consequence of multi-toxicant exposure, which likely caused selective mortality against highly sensitive genotypes. We further assayed two growth-related measures, i.e., RNA content and cephalothorax length, but none of these endpoints differed between any of the treatments and the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and cause population differentiation. Loss of genetic diversity is of great concern since it implies reduced adaptive potential of populations in the face of future environmental change

  • 21.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Rivetti, Claudia
    Furuhagen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Edlund, Anna
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bacteria-Mediated Effects of Antibiotics on Daphnia Nutrition2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5779-5787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In polluted environments, contaminant effects may be manifested via both direct toxicity to the host and changes in its microbiota, affecting bacteria host interactions. In this context, particularly relevant is exposure to antibiotics released into environment. We examined effects of the antibiotic trimethoprim on microbiota of Daphnia magna and concomitant changes in the host feeding. In daphnids exposed to 0.25 mg L-1 trimethoprim for 24 h, the microbiota was strongly affected, with (1) up to 21-fold decrease in 16S rRNA gene abundance and (2) a shift from balanced communities dominated by Curvibacter, Aquabacterium, and Limnohabitans in controls to significantly lower diversity under dominance of Pelomonas in the exposed animals. Moreover, decreased feeding and digestion was observed in the animals exposed to 0.25-2 mg L-1 trimethoprim for 48 h and then fed C-14-labeled algae. Whereas the proportion of intact algal cells in the guts increased with increased trimethoprim concentration, ingestion and incorporation rates as well as digestion and incorporation efficiencies decreased significantly. Thus, antibiotics may impact nontarget species via changes in their microbiota leading to compromised nutrition and, ultimately, growth. These bacteria-mediated effects in nontarget organisms may not be unique for antibiotics, but also relevant for environmental pollutants of various nature.

  • 22. Hansen, B.H.
    et al.
    Altin, D.
    Hessen, K.M.
    Dahl, U.
    Breitholtz, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nordtug, T.
    Olsen, A.J.
    Expression of ecdysteroids and cytochrome P450 enzymes during lipid turnover and reproduction in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).2008In: Gen. Comp. Endocr., Vol. 158(1), p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, J. -P.
    Borg, H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Can natural levels of Al influence Cu speciation and toxicity to Daphnia magna in a Swedish soft water lake?2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that chemical parameters, such as natural organic matter (NOM), cation content and pH may influence speciation and toxicity of metals in freshwaters. Advanced bioavailability models, e.g. Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), can use these and other chemical parameters to calculate site specific recommendations for metals in the aquatic environment. However, since Al is not an input parameter in the BLM v.2.2.3, used in this study, there could be a discrepancy between calculated and measured results in Al rich waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of Al in a circumneutral (pH similar to 6) soft humic freshwater, Lake St. Envattern, will affect the Cu speciation and thereby the toxicity to the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The results show a statistically significant increase in the free Cu2+ concentration with Al additions and that measured levels of Cu2+ significantly differed from BLM calculated levels of Cu2+. Furthermore, there was also a statistically significant elevated acute toxic response to D. magna at low additions of Al (10 mu g/L). However, since the large difference between calculated and measured Cu2+ resulted in a significant but minor (factor of 2.3) difference between calculated and measured toxicity, further studies should be conducted in Al rich soft waters to evaluate the importance of adding Al as an input parameter into the BLM software.

  • 24.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, J. -P
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Evaluation of current copper bioavailability tools for soft freshwaters in Sweden2015In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 114, p. 143-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe calls for an improved aquatic ecological status. Biotic ligand models (ELM) have been suggested as a possible tool assisting in the regulatory process. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the applicability of ELM under the WFD to set environmental quality standards (EQS), in particular regarding copper in Swedish freshwaters of which many are softer than those used for model calibration. Three different BLMs, one acute and two chronic, were applied to water chemistry data from 926 lakes and 51 rivers (1530 data entries) and evaluated with respect to their calibration range for input parameters. In addition, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for copper was calculated. From the 1530 data entries, 750 ended up outside of the BLM calibration range, when looking at the chemical parameters Ca2+, alkalinity, pH and DOC, primarily due to low carbonate alkalinity. Furthermore, the calculated Cu PNECs were higher than the suggested Swedish limit for Cu (4 mu g L-1) in surface waters for 98% and 99% of the cases concerning lakes and rivers, respectively. To conclude, our findings show that water chemical characteristics outside of the calibration ranges are quite common in Sweden and that the investigated models differ in how they calculate toxicity concerning Cu under these conditions. As a consequence, additional work is required to validate the BLMs by use of bioassays with representative species of soft waters. Such results will show if these models can be used outside of their calibration ranges and also which of the models that gives the most reliable results.

  • 25.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Predictions of Cu toxicity in three aquatic species using bioavailability tools in four Swedish soft freshwaters2015In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 27, no 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The EU member countries are currently implementing the Water Framework Directive to promote better water quality and overview of their waters. The directive recommends the usage of bioavailability tools, such as biotic ligand models (BLM), for setting environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals. These models are mainly calibrated towards a water chemistry found in the south central parts of Europe. However, freshwater chemistry in Scandinavia often has higher levels of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), Fe and Al combined with low pH compared to the central parts of Europe. In this study, copper (Cu) toxicities derived by two different BLM software were compared to bioassay-derived toxicity for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and D. pulex in four Swedish soft water lakes.

    Results

    A significant under- and over prediction between measured and BLM calculated toxicity was found; for P. subcapitata in three of the four lakes and for the daphnids in two of the four lakes. The bioassay toxicity showed the strongest relationship with Fe concentrations and DOC. Furthermore, DOC was the best predictor of BLM results, manifested as positive relationships with calculated LC50 and NOEC for P. subcapitata and D. magna, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Results from this study indicate that the two investigated BLM softwares have difficulties calculating Cu toxicity, foremost concerning the algae. The analyses made suggest that there are different chemical properties affecting the calculated toxicity as compared to the measured toxicity. We recommend that tests including Al, Fe and DOC properties as BLM input parameters should be conducted. This to observe if a better consensus between calculated and measured toxicity can be established.

  • 26.
    Ingre-Khans, E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chemical risks and consumer products: The toxicity of shoe soles2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1633-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemicals legislation, REACH, aims to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment. However, chemicals included in consumer products are covered only to a very limited extent even though they constitute the main source of chemical emissions. Shoes are large volume products and the overall aim of the present study was to study the ecotoxicological effects of three types of shoe soles and relate these effects to chemical emissions to the aquatic environment. The shoe soles were abraded and leached in water for 29 days and the alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes were exposed to different concentrations of the leachate. Chemical analyses were performed to determine the chemical contents of the leachate. The main conclusions are that the shoe soles contain substances that are toxic to both test organisms, and that the toxicity is mainly explained by the presence of zinc. The estimated concentration of zinc from shoe soles in storm water runoff is low, but it still contributes to the overall load of chemicals and metals in the environment. The outlined test procedures may, in our view, provide a useful screening tool for assessing the risk that chemicals in consumer articles pose to the environment.

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints2006In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 52, p. 1661-1667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC50- and LC50-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundberg, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hazard identification of contaminated sites-ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish2008In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with,e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compoundswith different polarities.

    Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure(i.e., ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions(semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations,ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique.

    Results and discussion Clear concentration–response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout,the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi-polar compounds, which are normally not considered in risk assessment of sediment since they are focused on compounds isolated in the hexane fraction.

    Conclusions The ranking of the five sediments followed the expected pattern of potential toxicity in both organisms, i.e.,sediments with known pollution history caused major effects while reference sediments caused minor effects in the two test systems. Silica gel turned out to be an excellent carrier for exposure of N. spinipes to very hydrophobic and otherwise non-bioavailable sediment extracts.

    Recommendations and perspectives Since both test systems demonstrated that a substantial part of the potential toxicity was caused by semi-polar compounds in the acetone fractions,this study enlightens our poor understanding of which compounds are causing adverse effects in environmental samples. Therefore, by investigating potential toxicity (i.e., hazard identification) as a first screening step in prioritizing processes,these implications could be avoided. For proper sediment risk assessment, we however recommend whole sediment toxicity tests to be used for selected sites at following tiers.

  • 29. Koch, Josef
    et al.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lundström Belleza, Elin
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Hollert, Henner
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Temperature and food quantity effects on the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes: Combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-18, article id e0174384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 x 10(5) algal cells/mL) on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures. Mortality was lowest in the 20 degrees C temperature setup, indicating a close-by temperature optimum for this species. Decreasing food concentrations led to increased development times, higher mortality and a reduction in brood size. A sex ratio shift toward more females per male was observed for increasing temperatures, while no significant relationship with food concentration was found. Temperature and food functions for each endpoint were integrated into an existing individual-based population model for N. spinipes which in the future may serve as an extrapolation tool in environmental risk assessment. The model was able to accurately reproduce the experimental data in subsequent verification simulations. We suggest that temperature, food shortage, and potentially other climate change-related stressors should be considered in environmental risk assessment of chemicals to account for non-optimal exposure conditions that may occur in the field. Furthermore, we advocate combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling as a cost effective higher tier approach to assess such considerations.

  • 30. Li, Qian
    et al.
    Wang, Meng
    Duan, Lei
    Qiu, Yanling
    Ma, Taowu
    Chen, Ling
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Hecker, Markus
    Wu, Lingling
    Multiple biomarker responses in caged benthic gastropods Bellamya aeruginosa after in situ exposure to Taihu Lake in China2018In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 30, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Freshwater sediments have been recognized as a long-term sink and potential source for environmental pollutants released into the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the sediment quality of Taihu Lake, which is susceptible to anthropogenic contamination, was assessed by a combination of chemical analytical and biological end points. Specifically, the snail Bellamya aeruginosa was caged in situ at two locations representing different pollution levels for different exposure times (7, 14 and 21 days). At each of these time points, biochemical parameters, i.e., phase I biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation, were evaluated in the hepato-pancreas of snails. In addition, surface sediments were collected for analysis of contaminants of concern, including inorganic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Results: Chemical analyses revealed that sediments from Taihu Lake were contaminated with trace elements and organic pollutants. Concentrations of trace elements (Cu, Ni and As) and organochlorinated pesticides (4,4'-DDE) exceeded their corresponding threshold effect level according to the sediment quality assessment values for freshwater ecosystems in Canada, indicating that adverse biological effects may occur. All biomarkers, except EROD activity, were induced in snails during all exposure times. The integrated biomarker response index (IBR) indicated that during the initial exposure phase (7 days), B. aeruginosa were subjected to significant environmental stress, which diminished during later sampling time points.

    Conclusions: Results showed that IBR correlated well with the levels of environmental contaminants, demonstrating the applicability of this biomonitoring approach to complex environmental exposure scenarios.

  • 31. Lundstedt, S.
    et al.
    Gustavsson, N.
    Hanberg, A.
    Stiernström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Oavsiktligt bildade ämnens hälso- och miljörisker - en kunskapsöversikt2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32. Lundstedt, Staffan
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Niklas
    Hakner, Sara
    Hanberg, Annika
    Stiernström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cyntha A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Oavsiktligt bildade ämnens hälso- och miljörisker – en kunskapsöversikt, Rapport 57362007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Lundström Belleza, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Density-toxicant interactions and reproductive responses in Nitocra spinipesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lundström Belleza, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Preuss, Thomas G.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Population-level effects in Amphiascus tenuiremis: Contrasting matrix- and individual-based population models2014In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 157, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is generally based on individual-level endpoints, even though protection goals in ERA intend higher biological levels. Population models have the potential to translate individual-level endpoints to population-level responses and range from simple demographic equations to highly complex individual based models (IBMs). The aims of the current study were to develop a matrix model (MM) with the structure and parameterization proposed in the draft OECD guideline Harpacticoid copepod development and reproduction test with Amphiascus tenuiremis, and an IBM with the same data requirements. Experimental data from lindane exposure from validation studies of the OECD guideline was projected to the population level. Lindane does not only cause effects on survival and reproduction, but also on the time it takes to develop from larvae to adults. The two model approaches were contrasted in terms of their ability to properly project these effects on development. The MM projected smaller effects of the lindane treatments on population growth rate compared to the IBM since in its proposed structure, it did not include the delay in development explicitly. Population-level EC10 for population growth rate in the IBM was at the same level as the most sensitive individual-level endpoint, whereas the EC10 from the MM was not as sensitive. Based on these findings, our conclusion is that the IBM (or an improved MM) should be used for datasets including shifts in development, whereas the simpler MM is sufficient for datasets where only mortality and reproduction are affected, or as a screening tool in lower-tier population-level ERA.

  • 35.
    Lundström Belleza, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brinkmann, Markus
    RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Worringerweg 1, D-520 74, Aachen, Germany.
    Preuss, Thomas G.
    RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Chair of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Worringerweg 1, D-520 74, Aachen, Germany.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Population-level effects in Amphiascus tenuiremis: Contrasting simple and complex population modelsIn: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Lundström, E.
    et al.
    Hermansson, M.
    Linde,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    2007. Ekotoxikologisk testing av avloppsvatten och läkemedelssubstanser med bakterie, alg, kräftdjur och fiskembryon.2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Lundström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lavén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Characterization of additional sewage treatment technologies: Ecotoxicological effects and levels of selected pharmaceuticals, hormones and endocrine disruptors2010In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1612-1619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjostad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term ( <= 7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations ( < 50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests.

  • 38.
    Lundström, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Hollert, Henner
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies-Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.2010In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 298-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5mgl(-1), ozonation at 15mgl(-1), ozonation at 5mgl(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology.

  • 39.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Persson, Linn M.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ruden, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Identifying Chemicals That Are Planetary Boundary Threats2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 11057-11063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a safe operating space for humanity Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical posed an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemical could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Priortization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainites and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for the potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital. Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical process that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  • 40.
    Minten, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ulfsdotter Turesson, E.
    Stiernström,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Utveckling av en analysmetod för pesticiden tebuconazole med vätskekromatografi och UV-diode-array detektor avsett för att utvärdera ett ekotoxikologiskt testsystem där den bentiska sötvattenorganismen Attheyella crassa exponerats för tebuconazole2007In: SNMM: March 12-14 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41. Molander, L.
    et al.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ruden, C.
    Missing links in the regulatory chain controlling life cycle emissions of hazardous chemicals from articles2011In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 205, p. s243-S243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rudén, Christina
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals?: Missing links in eu chemical management2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 435, p. 280-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

  • 43. Navarro, Julien R. G.
    et al.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    Godfrey, Jamie
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    Luminescent Nanocellulose Platform: From Controlled Graft Block Copolymerization to Biomarker Sensing2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy is devised for the conversion of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into fluorescently labeled probes involving the synthesis of CNF-based macroinitiators that initiate radical polymerilation of methyl acrylate and acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester producing a graft block copolymer modified CNF. Finally, a luminescent probe (Lucifer yellow derivative) was labeled onto the modified CNF through an amidation reaction. The surface modification steps were :verified with solid-state C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) confirmed the successful labeling of the CNF; the CNF have a hydrodynamic radius of about 700 nm with an average number of dye molecules per fibril of at least 6600. The modified CNF was also imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Luminescent CNF proved to be viable biomarkers and allow for fluorescence-based optical detection of CNF uptake and distribution in organisms such as crustaceans. The luminescent CNF were exposed to live juvenile daphnids and microscopy analysis revealed the presence of the luminescent CNF all over D. magna's alimentary canal tissues without any toxicity effect leading to the death of the specimen.

  • 44.
    Ogonowski, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Linde, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ek, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Könnecke, Oda K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Navarro, Julien R. G.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Multi-level toxicity assessment of engineered cellulose nanofibrils in Daphnia magna2018In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 509-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF)-based materials are increasingly used in industrial and commercial applications. However, the impacts of CNF on aquatic life are poorly understood, and there are concerns regarding their potential toxicity. Using a combination of standard ecotoxicological tests and feeding experiments, we assessed the effects of CNF exposure (0.206-20.6 mg/L) on the feeding (food uptake and gut residence time) and life-history traits (growth and reproduction) in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. No mortality was observed in a 48 h acute exposure at 2060 mg/L. Moreover, a 21-day exposure at low food and moderate CNF levels induced a stimulatory effect on growth, likely driven by increased filtration efficiency, and, possibly, partial assimilation of the CNF by the animals. However, at low food levels and the highest CNF concentrations, growth and reproduction were negatively affected. These responses were linked to caloric restriction caused by dilution of the food source, but not an obstruction of the alimentary canal. Finally, no apparent translocation of CNF past the alimentary canal was detected. We conclude that CNF displays a low toxic potential to filter-feeding organisms and the expected environmental risks are low.

  • 45.
    Persson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Confronting Unknown Planetary Boundary Threats from Chemical Pollution2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 22, p. 12619-12622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimitate a “safe operating space for humanity”. One of the planetary boundaries is determined by “chemical pollution”, however no clear definition was provided. Here, we propose that there is no single chemical pollution planetary boundary, but rather that many planetary boundary issues governed by chemical pollution exist. We identify three conditions that must be simultaneously met for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat. We then discuss approaches to identify chemicals that could fulfill those conditions, and outline a proactive hazard identification strategy that considers long-range transport and the reversibility of chemical pollution.

  • 46. Preuss, Thomas G.
    et al.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Lundström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODELING APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF ENDPOINT SENSITIVITY IN HARPACTICOID COPEPOD LIFE-CYCLE TESTS AND OPTIMIZATION OF TEST DESIGN2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 2353-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, an individual-based model for Nitocra spinipes was developed and used to optimize the test design of a proposed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline for harpacticoid copepods. The variability between individuals was taken into account, based on measured data, leading to stochastic model output. Virtual experiments were performed with the model to analyze the endpoint sensitivity and the effect of number of replicates and inspection intervals on statistical power. The impact of mortality was evaluated; most sublethal effects could not be determined if the mortality was >= 70%. Most sensitive to mortality was the determination of effects on brood size, for which the statistical power was reduced at 10% mortality. Our simulations show that increasing the number of replicates from 72 to 96 or 144 has little impact on the statistical power, whereas 25 replicates disallow relevant endpoint detection. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the proposed ID inspection interval can be shifted to a 3D interval, without losing statistical power. It was demonstrated that developmental endpoints have a higher statistical power than reproductive endpoints in the current test design. The present study highlights the usefulness of individual-based models for optimizing the experimental design. The use of such models in the development of standard test guidelines will lead to a faster and less resource-demanding process.

  • 47.
    Reutgard, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Dahlgren, Johan
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Extrapolating the effect of embryo aberrations on population dynamics in the benthic key species Monoporeia affinisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Reutgard, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Embryo development of the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis as a tool for monitoring and assessment of biological effects of contaminants in the field: A meta-analysis2014In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 36, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embryo malformations in the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis have been used as a biological effect indicator of chemical contaminants for more than three decades. The results from field studies along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast, comprising more than 50,000 analyzed embryos, were synthesized using a meta-analytic approach. This approach generated a quantitative and statistically defensible summary and enabled us to explore potential causative factors. The study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of embryo malformations as a biological effect indicator of chemical contaminants in the field. The result shows that malformations in M. affinis are ubiquitous in polluted areas and are negatively correlated with distance from main sources of contaminants. The result also shows that malformations are significantly more frequent up to more than 10 km from point sources. We conclude that embryo malformations in M. affinis can provide useful information for management and environmental policy in the Baltic Sea region as: (1) the present study supports evidence from controlled laboratory studies that there is a cause and effect relationship between embryo malformations and contaminants; (2) the study suggests that the indicator is contaminant-sensitive and can therefore serve as an early warning of biological effects in the field; (3) the indicator is general, suggesting that it has capability to monitor and detect effects of a wide variety of known, and yet unknown, chemical contaminants. The usefulness is further strengthened by the fact that M. affinis is a widely distributed species that plays a fundamental role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Future research should increase the understanding of how environmental factors affect the indicator response and if the response is related to effects at lower and higher levels of biological organization.

  • 49.
    Ribbenstedt, Anton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mustajärvi, Lukas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Passive dosing of triclosan in multigeneration tests with copepods – stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low μg/L range2017In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1254-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity testing is a crucial component of chemical risk assessment. Still, due to methodological difficulties related to controlling exposure concentrations over time, data on long-term effects of organic chemicals at low concentrations are limited. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-wk multigeneration population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water) was 10466 +/- 1927. A population development test was conducted at 3 concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3 mu g/L to 5 mu g/L, 7 mu g/L to 11 mu g/L and 16 mu g/L to 26 mu g/L. The results demonstrate that passive dosing is applicable for long-term ecotoxicity testing of organic chemicals, including during significant growth of the test organism population. Shifts in the demographic structure of the population during exposure suggest the most severe effects were exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. The results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment because even the most sensitive endpoint was not significant until after 7 d of exposure.

  • 50. Rudén, C.
    et al.
    Brandt, I.
    Breitholtz,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    la Cour Jansen, J.
    Hällbom, L.
    Larsson, J.
    Tysklind, M.
    A new research programme: MistraPharma – Identification and Reduction of Environmental Risks Caused by the Use of Human Pharmaceuticals.2007In: International Conference on Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, ERAPharm, York, United Kingdom.: 19-21 September., 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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