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  • 1.
    Bohman, Love
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Edling, Christofer
    Sociologiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Surge Under Threat: The Rapid Increase of Women on Swedish Boards of Directors2012In: Women on Corporate Boards and in Elite Management: European Trends and Policy / [ed] Fagan, C., González Menéndez, M. & Gómez Ansón, S., Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 91-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how the representation of women in boards of Swedish firms publicly traded on the Stockholm Stock Exchange has changed since the late 1980s. Between 1990 and 2005 the share of firms with at least one woman on the board of directors increased dramatically, from ten percent to around 75 percent. During the same period the total share of women in boards has increased from two percent to 19 percent. We discuss the role of some actors and institutions relevant to this development, and analyze some consequences of it. Political threats of quota legislation seem to be the main cause of the surge. We show that following the threat of a quota, the hasty recruitment of women to boards implied that the recruitment processes of men and women became more different from each other, and also that the recruitment of women to some extent was cosmetic, that women were recruited to boards as figureheads. The Swedish case of rapidly increasing female corporate board representation following the quota threats illustrates the influence of political actors and institutions on economic life; just talk about legal institutional change appears to have induced a dramatic change in the practice of privately owned firms.

  • 2.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 3.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment2016In: Sociology of education, ISSN 0038-0407, E-ISSN 1939-8573, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 118-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experimentan admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N= 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean effect close to zero and small positive and negative differentiating effects on grades. With regard to the attainment of higher education, I find a mean effect close to zero, the achievement group gap was unaffected, the immigrant-native gap increased, and the class background gap decreased. These results are consistent with much previous research that has found small mean effects of ability grouping. They are inconsistent with previous research, however, in that I find ability grouping's effects on gaps are rather small and point in different directions.

  • 4.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Being Different in the Workplace: Job Shifts into Other Workplaces and Shifts into Unemployment.2004In: European Sociological Review, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 201-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates contradictory theoretical predictions concerning consequences of belonging to a minority in a workplace context. The impact of workplace sex and ethnic composition on its constituent members' voluntary (workplace shifts) and involuntary (unemployment) mobility out of the workplace are assessed using a two-year panel sample of 170,433 employees in 1,928 Swedish workplaces. The results indicate that immigrants have a lower propensity to leave workplaces with relatively many immigrants. Moreover, minority women, as well as immigrants in workplaces with a high proportion of natives, run significantly larger risks of ending up in unemployment. These results largely support Kanter's and Blau's theories of demographic composition. In contrast to previous research, the ethnic dimension of organizations' demography seems to matter more than the sex dimension.

  • 5.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Biased grades? changes in grading after a blinding of examinations reform2019In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group differences in average grades prior to and after a step-wise introduction of blinded examinations at Stockholm University are examined. Relative to students with 'native' names, students with 'foreign' names appear to experience weak positive bias in the grading of their examinations, but the estimated effect is sensitive to model specification. No substantial effects of blinding examinations with respect to male-female gaps are found. The results suggest that examiners - when the names of students are disclosed to them - if anything have a weak tendency to positively discriminate for students perceived to have an immigrant background, but they do not appear to discriminate on the basis of gender.

  • 6.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Career outcomes in the Swedish labor market: three contextual studies2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I:Being Different in the Workplace: Job Mobility into other Workplaces and Shifts into Unemployment. This study evaluates contradictory theoretical predictions about the consequences of belonging to a minority in a workplace context. The impact of workplace sex and ethnic composition on its constituent members' voluntary (workplace shifts) and involuntary (unemployment) mobility out of the workplace is assessed. Multilevel models are estimated on a sample of 1,959 Swedish workplaces for which information is available on all employees. The results indicate that the sex composition of the workplace does not affect men's and women's propensity for job shifts into other workplaces. However, natives have a higher propensity to leave workplaces with relatively many immigrants. Moreover, women and immigrants who are in a small minority run significantly larger risks of ending up in unemployment. No such association is found for men when they are in the minority, or for natives in workplaces with a large proportion of immigrants. Thus, the minority position is disadvantageous for women and immigrants. In contrast to previous research, the ethnic composition effects dwarf those of sex composition. This dimension of "being different" thus seems more important for involuntary as well as voluntary moves out of workplaces.

    Paper II:What You See is Not Always What You Get. Imperfect Information in the Job-Worker Matching Process, and Its Consequences for the Attainment of Occupational Prestige. This study uses Swedish job history data to test the hypothesis that easily observable characteristics of both jobs and workers matter more for the individual attainment of job rewards when better information about such characteristics is not available. The notion of "easily observable worker characteristics" is operationalized as formal education, and that of "easily observable job characteristics" is operationalized as occupational prestige. The results are consistent with the hypothesis and previous empirical evidence obtained using US data. The formal education of workers influences employers' decisions about hiring, but in employer-internal mobility employers appear to make use of more direct measures of worker ability. Moreover, the longer the employer has had an opportunity to observe a worker, the smaller the influence of formal education on internal job mobility outcomes. Similarly, easily observable characteristics of jobs influence workers' mobility between employers, i.e. when other job information is unavailable or difficult to observe. Workers were also found to use more easily observable characteristics early on in the job-worker matches, but with time in the job, these characteristics lose their influence on job mobility decisions.

    Paper III:Pay Reference Standards and Pay Satisfaction. What Do Workers Evaluate Their Pay Against? Reference group theory postulates that actors' satisfaction originates in relative rather than absolute standing, but largely neglects the question of what these comparison standards actually are. This study contributes to filling this void through an empirical investigation of the standards against which workers evaluate their pay. The associations between several indicators of reference pay and pay satisfaction are examined in a random sample of Swedish employees. The data set is unusually rich in its information about both the individual and the structural context in which worker pay satisfaction is formed: the past pay of the worker, and the pay level of the organizational, occupational, and national labor market context. The results indicate that workers' satisfaction primarily stems from more general comparisons with others in their occupation, and in the labor market at large. Comparisons with co-workers' and the individuals' own past pay, are of minor importance. Reference group theory as applied to pay comparisons would therefore benefit from a focus on this more general level.

  • 7.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Pay Reference Groups and Pay Satisfaction. What Do Workers Evaluate Their Pay To?2004In: Social Science Research, Vol. 33, p. 206-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference group theory postulates that actors’ satisfaction originates in relative rather than absolute standing, but largely neglects the question of what these comparison standards actually are. This study contributes to filling this void through an empirical investigation of the standards against which workers evaluate their pay. The associations between several indicators of reference pay and pay satisfaction are examined among Swedish employees. The data set is unusually rich in its information about both the individual and the structural context in which workers’ pay satisfaction is formed: the past pay of the worker, and the pay level of the organizational, occupational, and national labor market context. The results indicate that Swedish workers’ satisfaction primarily stems from more general comparisons, relating to others in their occupation, and to others in the labor market at large. Comparisons with co-workers and the individuals’ own past pay seem to be of minor importance.

  • 8.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Gender Composition of Workplaces and Men's and Women's Turnover2010In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a data set of 721,123 employees in 1,890 Swedish workplaces, the author tests whether employees’ propensity to leave a workplace is dependent on the share of the employees of the opposite sex in a workplace. Net of time-invariant workplace heterogeneity, the probability to leave a workplace is found to decrease with the share of employees of the opposite sex. This is true for men as well as women. The results contradict theories suggesting that men and women prefer to work in work settings with a high proportion of employees of their own sex. On the contrary, a plausible explanation of the results is that both men and women prefer work settings with a high proportion of employees of the opposite sex.

  • 9.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Unpacking the causes of segregation across workplaces2013In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 3-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way employee flows generate ethnic and gender segregation across workplaces is investigated using a population sample of 80,139 workplaces with 977,978 employees in the Stockholm area. Comparisons of actual stocks and flows of employees across workplaces to counterfactual simulations of these reveal that segregation clearly has a random component to it: Even with random allocation of employees to workplaces, segregation would still be substantial. Systematic (non-random) segregation appears to be upheld primarily because employees recruited to workplaces are similar to those already employed there, not because underrepresented groups within workplaces are systematically screened out. This tendency appears to be less connected to between-group differences in education, occupation or industry, but instead largely sustained by the tendency of employers to select new employees from a pool of workplaces where their employees have been employed previously. Network recruiting might generate this pattern, but unobserved individual and workplace factors cannot be ruled out as potential confounders. The results speak to theories of homosociality applied to segregation processes: If homosocial biases affect segregation, they apparently do so mostly in the recruitment process to workplaces, but less so through processes of exclusion of minorities from workplaces.

  • 10.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 11.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Parents’ Workplace Situation and Fathers’ Parental Leave Use2006In: Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n= 3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that one can expect leave to be associated with high costs and that fathers appear to be influenced by the leave use of other fathers in the workplace. Mothers' workplace situation appears to be less important for fathers' leave use. The results point to the importance of actors other than parents (such as employers) for understanding the gender-based division of child care.

  • 12.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Moulding Parents’ Childcare?: A Comparative Analysis of Paid Work and Time with Children in Different Family Policy Models2011In: Work-Life Balance in Europe: The Role of Job Quality / [ed] Drobnic, Sonja & Guillén, Ana, Palgrave Macmillan , 2011, p. 207-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority2012In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 795-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood is a major cause. As long as women and men are childless and single, the gender gap in supervisory authority is marginal, even reversed. When men become fathers, however, they strongly increase their chances for supervisory authority whereas women's chances remain unaffected when they become mothers. We also find a male "marriage premium" on workplace authority, but this premium is generated by selection.

  • 14.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner – en familjeangelägenhet?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner - en familjeangelägenhet?2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The gender gap in workplace authority in Sweden 1968–2000 – a family affair?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We assess whether the gender gap in authority in Sweden has changed during the period 1968–2000, and investigate to what extent family factors are respon-sible for this gap. We find that the gap has narrowed modestly during this period, and identify the life-event of parenthood as a major cause of the gap. When men become fathers, they gain authority; when women become mothers, they do not. Our fixed effects panel estimates of the effects of family factors deviate from the cross-sectional estimates, suggesting that unobserved individ-ual heterogeneity – routinely neglected in this line of research – matters.

  • 17.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gähler, Michael
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Gender Gap in Workplace Authority in Sweden 1968-2000 - A Family Affair?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005In: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, p. 39-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 19.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kumlin, Johanna
    The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Mechanisms of Organizational Segregation: Organizational Characteristics and the Sex of Newly Recruited Employees2005In: Work and Occupations, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the process underlying sex segregation at the organizational level by focusing on the process through which organizations renew their workforce. The authors used a sample of 1,460 Swedish workplaces that recruited 75,261 employees during the period 1991 to 1995. The results indicate that the most important factor in reproducing segregation at the organizational level is sex segregation in the occupations from which organizations recruit their personnel. Organizations’ sex composition is to a very high degree determined by the sex composition of the occupations they employ. In addition, large organizations and expanding organizations tend to make more sex-atypical recruitments compared with other organizations.

  • 20.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindblom, Clara
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The more things change, the more they stay the same: a follow up of participants in Social Fund financed projects2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year in Sweden, over one hundred thousand job-seekers are assigned to local labour market policy measures, of which a large proportion are financed with money from the European Social Fund. But what do we actually know about the contents of these projects and their effects on the participants’ chances of getting a job? What could be done to improve this knowledge?  This report constitutes a follow-up of Labour Market Policies against the Odds (2014), which studied the labour market outcomes of job-seekers who had been assigned to Social Fund projects by the Swedish Public Employment Service. Here we go a step further and include all individuals who participated in a Social Fund project over a period of three years. The objective is to examine whether the participants’ participation in the projects improved their chances of getting a job or affected their subsequent incomes.We find relatively small – but transient – positive effects of participation in ESF-projects on employment chances and income from work. However, our sensitivity analyses indicate that even these small effects can be questioned. One of the important conclusions drawn in the report is that the opportunities for evaluating the effects of these projects are very limited. The available information on the contents of the projects is poor, and the projects have not been designed in a way that makes scientific evaluation possible. The report therefore concludes with recommendations that could improve the evaluability of Social Fund financed activities.

  • 21.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rosenqvist, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Elite schools, elite ambitions?: The consequences of achievement sorting for the formation of educational ambitionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does a surrounding of high achievers inspire more ambitious choices? Or is such a surrounding depressing for self-concepts, making choices less ambitious? We evaluate these contradicting expectations in the context of high school graduates’ application decisions to higher education. To identify the effects of the social surrounding, we exploit a school choice reform that dramatically increased achievement sorting across secondary schools in the municipality of Stockholm, employing a before/after design with a control group of students in similar schools located outside this municipality. We find increased achievement sorting to have a mean positive effect on the propensity to apply for tertiary educational programs, but with diverging effects across achievement groups and types of tertiary educational programs. Among high achievers, achievement sorting strongly increases the propensity to apply for ambitious, ‘elite’ educational programs. Low achievers weakly increase their propensity to apply for moderately ambitious, ‘non-elite’ educational programs. These effects translate into increases in the gender gap, the immigration gap, and the parental education gap in educational choice, but these effects are rather small and imprecisely estimated. Our results support the conjecture that school choice, and the increased achievement sorting it implies, to some extent polarizes the educational choices of students.

  • 22.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask whether growing up with persons of the same national background (which we refer to as coethnics), in the immediate neighbourhood, influences future educational careers of children of immigrants. We use administrative data to follow an entire cohort of immigrant children who graduated from Swedish compulsory schools in 1995. We have information on their parents and on their ethnic environment during the period they were 10 – 15 years old. The dependent variable studied is the highest completed education in years at age 24. We are able to account for unobserved heterogeneity with neighbourhood fixed effects and ethnic group fixed effects. We find that the effect of the quantitative side of the ethnic environment (the number of

    coethnics) on educational attainment is strongly conditioned by the qualitative side of this environment (the educational success of coethnics). The individual’s educational career is positively related to the number of young coethnics in the neighbourhood,

    but only if they can be characterized as being educationally successful. Growing up in a large ethnic community with average or poor educational success is harmful for the future educational success. The effect of the ethnic surrounding in the highest

    completed education is fully mediated by success in compulsory school.

  • 23.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Ethnic Environment During Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden2010In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 1305-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and prospectively through 2003 to measure the number of years of education attained thus far. The largest immigrant groups came from Finland, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Iran and Chile. Our empirical analysis reveals that immigrant children who grow up in neighborhoods with many young coethnics who have limited educational resources, obtain relatively low average grades from compulsory school, and on average, do not attain the same levels of education as do immigrant children who grow up elsewhere. For a minority of immigrant children who lived in neighborhoods with educationally successful young coethnics, we find a positive effect of growing up in an ethnic enclave. Also in this case, the effect of the ethnic environment on future educational attainment is mediated by school results in compulsory school.

  • 24.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Using register data to estimate causal effects of interventions: An ex post synthetic control-group approach2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 17, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: It is common in the context of evaluations that participants have not been selected on the basis of transparent participation criteria, and researchers and evaluators many times have to make do with observational data to estimate effects of job training programs and similar interventions. The techniques developed by researchers in such endeavours are useful not only to researchers narrowly focused on evaluations, but also to social and population science more generally, as observational data overwhelmingly are the norm, and the endogeneity challenges encountered in the estimation of causal effects with such data are not trivial. The aim of this article is to illustrate how register data can be used strategically to evaluate programs and interventions and to estimate causal effects of participation in these. Methods: We use propensity score matching on pretreatment-period variables to derive a synthetic control group, and we use this group as a comparison to estimate the employment-treatment effect of participation in a large job-training program. Results: We find the effect of treatment to be small and positive but transient. Conclusions: Our method reveals a strong regression to the mean effect, extremely easy to interpret as a treatment effect had a less advanced design been used (e.g. a within-subjects panel data analysis), and illustrates one of the unique advantages of using population register data for research purposes.

  • 25.
    Sonmark, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Godeau, Emmanuelle
    Augustine, Lily
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Individual and contextual expressions of school demands and their relation to psychosomatic health: a comparative study of students in France and Sweden2016In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the health-related implications of both individual students’ and class-level concentrations of perceived demands in terms of pressuring, difficult and tiring schoolwork in France and Sweden, two countries with substantial differences in their educational systems and recent notable differences in PISA-results. Data come from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10) and comprise a total of 33,243 students aged 11, 13 and 15. Findings show that feeling under pressure from schoolwork is less prevalent in Sweden than in France among 11 and 13-year olds, but almost twice as common among 15-year olds. Yet its correlation with 15-year olds’ psychosomatic complaints is stronger in France than in Sweden. Feeling tired by schoolwork is equally common for 11- and 13-year olds in the two countries, but more frequent among 15-year olds in Sweden. It is also a stronger predictor of psychosomatic complaints in Sweden than in France across all age-groups. While it is more common at all ages to perceive the schoolwork as difficult in France, its relationship with psychosomatic complaints is stronger among students in Sweden. The proportion of classmates reporting high school demands is also linked to poorer student health, but these effects were largely confined to girls in both countries.

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