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  • 1.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Partitioning of Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) to Daphnia magna Overlaps between Restricted and in-Use Categories2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 9713-9721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-production volume industrial chemicals consisting of n-alkanes (with 10 to 30 carbon atoms in the chain) with chlorine content from 30 to 70% of weight. In Europe, the use of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) has been restricted by the Stockholm Convention on POPs due to their PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) properties. Medium (MCCPs) and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins are used as substitution products. In this work we studied the partitioning behavior of five different CP technical mixtures from the established categories (2 SCCPs, 1 MCCP, 1 LCCP and 1 CP technical mixture covering all categories) using passive dosing, by determining the partitioning coefficient of CP technical mixtures between silicone and water (Ksilicone-water) as well as between organic matter and water (Koc-water). We show that both silicone-water and organic carbon water partition coefficients overlap between different categories of CP technical mixtures. These results indicate that in-use MCCPs and LCCPs may be equally or more bioaccumulative than restricted SCCPs. For the tested mixtures, both chlorine content and carbon chain length showed a significant correlation with both Ksilicone-water and Koc-water.

  • 2.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Lücke-Johansson, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Sobek, Anna
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Chlorinated paraffins alter fatty acid metabolism and life histories in DaphniaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bioaccumulation Potential of CPs in Aquatic Organisms: Uptake and Depuration in Daphnia magna2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 16, p. 9533-9541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are industrial chemicals, subdivided into three categories: short chain (SCCPs), medium chain (MCCPs), and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins. SCCPs are currently restricted in Europe and North America. MC and LCCPs are being used as substitution products, but there is a knowledge gap concerning their bioaccumulation potential in aquatic organisms. In this work, we performed laboratory bioconcentration (passive uptake) and bioaccumulation (including dietary uptake) experiments with Daphnia magna using five different CP technical substances. All tested CP technical substances were bioaccumulative in D. magna, with log BCF and log BAF values ranging between 6.7-7.0 and 6.5-7.0 (L kg lipid(-1)), respectively. An increase in carbon chain length and an increase in chlorine content (% w/w) of the CP technical substances had significant positive effects on the log BCF and log BAF values. For the different CP technical substances, 50% depuration was achieved after 2 to 10 h when D. magna were transferred to clean media. Our results show that SC, MC, and LCCPs are (very)bioaccumulative in aquatic organisms. We believe these data can aid the ongoing policy discussion concerning the environmental risk posed by CPs.

  • 4. Chibwe, Leah
    et al.
    Myers, Anne L.
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Reiner, Eric J.
    Jobst, Karl
    Muir, Derek
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    C12-30 alpha-Bromo-Chloro Alkenes: Characterization of a Poorly Identified Flame Retardant and Potential Environmental Implications2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 18, p. 10835-10844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bromo-chloro alkenes (Br-Cl PXAs) have been used for over 30 years as flame retardants and are listed on several national chemical inventories. Very little publicly available information is available on Br-Cl PXAs, and thus preliminary ecological risk screening is challenging due to the lack of basic information such as molecular structure and associated physicochemical properties. Due to their likely similarity with chlorinated paraffins (CPs), Br-Cl PXAs may pose a similar environmental hazard. Several structural databases list such substances as alkenes, although the industrial synthesis involves halogenation of linear alpha-olefins and would be expected to produce linear alkanes. In this study, a combination of high-resolution separation and mass spectrometric techniques were used to characterize a Br-Cl PXA industrial technical product, C12-30 bromo-chloro alpha-alkenes (CAS RN 68527-01-5). The results show this product is dominated by C-18 carbon chain lengths, substituted with 3-7 chlorine atoms and 1-3 bromine atoms on an alkane chain. Long-chain C-18 chlorinated paraffins are also present, although they represent a relatively minor component. Experimental log K-OW (6.9 to 8.6) and estimated log K-OA (10.5 to 13.5) and log K-AW (-5.1 to -0.6) partition coefficients suggest that this chemical will behave similarly to medium- and long-chain CPs as well as other persistent organic pollutants, such as highly chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. The results of this study provide an initial step toward understanding the environmental behavior and persistence of Br-Cl PXAs, highlighting the need for further assessment and re-evaluation of the current structure(s) assigned to these compounds.

  • 5. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Short-, Medium-, and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Wildlife from Paddy Fields in the Yangtze River Delta2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 1072-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in April, 2017. As a consequence of this regulation, increasing production and usage of alternatives, such as medium- and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs and LCCPs, respectively), is expected. Little is known about the environmental fate and behavior of MCCPs and LCCPs. In the present study, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were analyzed in nine wildlife species from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta, China, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <91-43000, 96-33 000, and 14-10000 ng/g lipid, respectively. Most species contained primarily MCCPs (on average 44%), with the exception of collared scops owl and common cuckoo, in which SCCPs (43%) accumulated to a significantly (i.e., p < 0.05) greater extent than MCCPs (40%). Cl-6 groups were dominant in most species except for yellow weasel and short-tailed mamushi, which contained primarily Cl-7 groups. Principal components analysis, together with CP concentrations and carbon stable isotope analysis showed that habitat and feeding habits were key factors driving CP accumulation and congener group patterns in wildlife. This is the first report of LCCP exposure in wildlife and highlights the need for data on risks associated with CP usage.

  • 6. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Zheng, Ziye
    Wu, Yan
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Shimadzu (China) Company, Limited, China.
    Tissue-Specific Accumulation, Sexual Difference, and Maternal Transfer of Chlorinated Paraffins in Black-Spotted Frogs2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 4739-4746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restriction on usage of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) under Stockholm Convention may promote the production and application of medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) and long chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) as substitutes. This study focused on the tissue-specific exposure to SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in black-spotted frog, a prevalent amphibian species in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in frog liver, muscle, and egg samples ranged of 35-1200, 6.3-97, and 6.8-300 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Livers and eggs contained primary SCCPs (on average 78%) while MCCPs (43%) together with SCCPs (41%) were dominant in muscles. A significantly negative correlation was observed between hepatosomatic index and CPs concentration in liver (p < 0.01), indicating that CP exposure may lower survival rates of frogs by suppressing the energy storage in liver. Additionally, maternal transfer, an important uptake pathway for CPs, was evaluated for the first time by calculating the ratios of CP levels in eggs to those in their paired liver tissues. The ratio of egg to liver for CP congener groups raised with the increasing of log K-ow values, indicating mother to egg transport of CPs was related to the lipophilicity of the chemicals.

  • 7. Nan, Beiya
    et al.
    Liu, Yongsheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Northwestern Polytechnical University, P. R. China.
    You, Qiangwei
    Wan, Jiajia
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Li, Hongxia
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co., Ltd, P. R. China.
    Cheng, Laifei
    Wang, Gang
    Microstructure and Properties of Porous SiC Ceramics Modified by CVI-SiC Nanowires2019In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 21, no 5, article id 1800653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sintered porous SiC ceramics are modified with SiC nanowires prepared via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). SiC nanowires are successfully grown within sintered porous SiC ceramics following vapor-liquid-solid growth. The diameter of the SiC nanowires is in the range of 200 nm-1 mu m, and first decreases with increasing input gas ratio (alpha = 50, 60, 70, and 80) and increases thereafter. The diameter of the nanowires decreases from the surface to the interior areas of the porous SiC ceramics. SiC nanowires effectively improve the mechanical properties of the porous SiC ceramics, and sample Ni-50 has the highest flexural strength of 33.91 MPa and fracture toughness of 0.79 MPa center dot m(1/2), which increases by 90.4% and 49.1% compared to an unmodified sample, respectively. Additionally, the presence of SiC nanowires leads to porous SiC ceramics with altered porosity and microstructure, and higher thermal conductivity. The porous SiC ceramics modified by CVI SiC nanowires satisfy the requirements of gas filtration applications and the pressure drop increases with decreasing apparent porosity. The porous SiC ceramics modified with CVI SiC nanowire has higher permeability than those resulting from the introduction of CVI-SiC matrix or CVD-SiC coating into porous SiC ceramics.

  • 8.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Suzuki, Go
    Michinaka, Chieko
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Takigami, Hidetaka
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dioxin-like activities, halogenated flame retardants, organophosphate esters and chlorinated paraffins in dust from Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden and China2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 168, p. 1248-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of organic flame retardants (FRs) and dioxin-like activities in dust collected from five countries were investigated. The correlations between the concentrations of the different groups of FRs and dioxin-like activities were examined. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, C-9 to C-31) were found in the highest concentration (median Sigma CP 700 mu g/g, range 280-4750 mu g/g), followed by organophosphate esters (median Sigma 13OPEs 56 mu g/g, range 21-110 mu g/g), halogenated flame retardants (median Sigma(17)HFRs 3.3 mu g/g, range 0.87-14 mu g/g) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (median Sigma 17PBDEs 2.8 mu g/g, range 0.46-11 mu g/g). There were no significant differences in concentrations of the FRs among the countries but differences in PBDE and CP congener profiles were found. BDE209 predominated in dust from Australia, the UK, Sweden and China, ranging from 50 to 70% of total PBDEs. The lowest percentage of BDE209 was found in the dust from Canada, representing only 20% of total PBDEs. For CPs in dust from Sweden, the long-chain CPs (especially C-18 congeners) predominated, while for other countries, medium-chain CPs (especially C-14 congeners) predominated. The dioxin-activities of the dusts ranged from 58 to 590 pg CALUX-TEQ/g, and had a median of 200 pg CALUX-TEQ/g. There were significant positive correlations between concentrations of PBDEs and CPs with dioxin-like activities. The dioxin-like activity may be due to the presence of polychlorinated or polybrominated dioxin/furans (PBDD/DFs) or polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the dust. The PBDD/DFs are known impurities and degradation product of the penta-BDE mixture, and PCNs are known impurities of CPs which exhibit dioxin-like activities.

  • 9. You, Qiangwei
    et al.
    Liu, Yongsheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shanxi, PR China.
    Wan, Jiajia
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Li, Hongxia
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co., Ltd, PR China.
    Cheng, Laifei
    Wang, Gang
    Microstructure and properties of porous SiC ceramics by LPCVI technique regulation2017In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 11855-11863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new gradient pore structure in porous SiC ceramics was fabricated by low pressure chemical vapor infiltration (LPCVI). Effects of deposition duration on the mechanical properties and permeability of porous SiC ceramics were investigated. Results demonstrated that pore diameter and shapes decreased from the surface to the interior along with LPCVI duration. Porous SiC ceramics with deposition duration of 160 h exhibited flexural strength of 48.05 MPa and fracture toughness of 1.30 MPa m(1/2), where 221% and 189% improvements were obtained compared to porous SiC ceramics without LPCVI, due to CVI-SiC layer strengthening effect. Additionally, at the same gas velocity, pressure drop increase rate was faster due to apparent porosity and pore size change.

  • 10.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Gao, Wei
    Wang, Yawei
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Deconvolution of Soft Ionization Mass Spectra of Chlorinated Paraffins To Resolve Congener Groups2016In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, no 18, p. 8980-8988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe and illustrate a three-step data-processing approach that enables individual congener groups of chlorinated-paraffins (CPs) to be resolved in mass spectra obtained from either-of two soft ionization methods: electron capture negative-ionization mass spectrometry (ECNI-MS) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). In the first step, general fragmentation pathways of CPs are deduced from analysis of mass spectra of individual CP congeners. In the-Second step, all possible fragment ions in the general fragmentation pathways of CPs with 10 to 20 carbon atoms are enumerated and compared to mass spectra of CP mixture standards, and a deconvolution algorithm is applied to identify fragment ions that are actually observed. In the third step, isotope permutations of the observed fragment ions are calculated and used to identify isobaric overlaps, so that mass intensities of indivichial CP congener groups can be deconvolved from the unresolved isobaric ion signal intensities in mass spectra. For a specific instrument; the three steps only need to be done once to enable deconvolution of CPs in unknown samples. This approach enables congener group-level resolution of CP mixtures in environmental samples, and: it opens up the possibility, for quantification of congener group.

  • 11.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Modelling isotopic peak distributions of chlorinated paraffins homologue groups in high resolution mass spectrometry in soft ionization modes2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Chen, Chang-Er L.
    Bergman, Åke
    Determination of Chlorinated Paraffins by Bromide-Anion Attachment Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry2018In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 348-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for the quantitative determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was developed using bromide-anion attachment atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Bromoform was used to enhance ionization of CPs. Near exclusive formation of stable bromide adduct ions ([M + BR](-)) enabled accurate detection of individual CP congener groups (CnClm) with only a moderate-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the method was free from interference commonly observed with chloride-anion attachment methods (e.g., decomposition ions [M + Cl - HCl](-)) that require deconvolution. Together with a CnClm-response-factor algorithm for quantifying short-chain CPs and a CnClm-pattern-reconstruction algorithm for quantifying medium- and long-chain CPs, method applicability was demonstrated on biota and sediment samples. These data were generated significantly faster and with improved selectivity and sensitivity versus those of conventional measurements by chloride-anion attachment APCI-MS.

  • 13.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    Berger, Urs
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 18, p. 10633-10641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a congener group CnClm Recently, we resolved individual CnClm by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying CnClm by introducing CnClm specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each CnClm are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were 0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q:Orbitrap-MS. CnClm concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R-2 > 0.90) with each other.

  • 14.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Witt, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Temporal Trends of C-8-C-36 Chlorinated Paraffins in Swedish Coastal Sediment Cores over the Past 80 Years2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 24, p. 14199-14208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were analyzed in three sediment cores collected near different potential CP sources along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. C-8-C-36 CPs were found in sediment dating back to the 1930s. The maximum CP concentrations found in proximity to a metropolitan sewage treatment plant, a wood related industrial area, and a steel factory were 48; 160, and 1400 ng/g d.w., respectively, in sediment sections dated from the early 1990s or the 2000s. The temporal trends agree with statistics on CP importation in Sweden or local industrial activities. MCCPs (C-14-C-17 CPs) and LCCPs (C->= 18 CPs) predominated, in most sediments with average percentage compositions of 47 +/- 20% and 37 +/- 20%, respectively. Concentrations of SCCPs in the three cores showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The temporal trends of MCCPs indicated that these are currently the predominant CPs in use. This study showed for the first time that LCCPs from C-18 to C-36, as well as C-8-C-17 CPs, are persistent in sediments over the last 30-80 years, indicating that CPs are persistent chemicals regaidless of alkane-chain lengths.

  • 15.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    Wang, Yawei
    Jiang, Guibin
    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, p. 608-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C-10 and C-11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  • 16.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Muir, Derek
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Methods for trace analysis of short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins: Critical review and recommendations2019In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 1074, p. 16-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many methods for quantifying chlorinated paraffins (CPs) yield only a total concentration of the mixture as a single value. With appropriate analytical instrumentation and quantification methods, more reliable and detailed analysis can be performed by quantifying total concentrations of short-, medium-, and longchain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs), and in the current optimal situation by quantifying individual carbon-chlorine congener groups (CnClm). Sample extraction and clean-up methods for other persistent organochlorines that have been adapted for recovery of CPs must be applied prior to quantification with appropriate quality assurance and quality control to ensure applicability of the methods for SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs. Part critical review, part tutorial, and part perspective, this paper provides practical guidance to analytical chemists who are interested in establishing a method for analysis of CPs in their lab facilities using commercial reference standards, or for expanding existing analysis of total CPs or SCCPs to analysis of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs, or to analysis of CnClm congener groups.

  • 17.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyström, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chlorinated paraffins leaking from hand blenders can lead to significant human exposures2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 109, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. & para;& para;Objectives: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. & para;& para;Methods: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1 g oil/100 mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. & para;& para;Results: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6 mu g/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from < 0.09 to 120 mu g using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. & para;& para;Conclusions: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight < 7.2 kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.

  • 18.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Roos, Anna Maria
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Sonne, Christian
    Garbus, Svend Erik
    Lind, Ylva
    Eulaers, Igor
    Hellström, Peter
    Dietz, Rune
    Persson, Sara
    Bossi, Rossana
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Accumulation of Short-, Medium-, and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine and Terrestrial Animals from Scandinavia2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 3526-3537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) have a wide range of physical-chemical properties, indicating their varying bioaccumulation tendencies in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. However, there are few empirical data to reveal such bioaccumulation tendencies. In this study, we analyzed SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from 18 species at both low and high trophic levels of marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the Scandinavian region collected during the past decade. These included fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and terrestrial birds and mammals. SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were present in all the species, with concentrations ranging from 26-1500, 30-1600, 6.0-1200 ng/g lipid, respectively. Although MCCPs and SCCPs predominated in species, many terrestrial species had generally higher concentrations of LCCPs than marine species. Terrestrial raptors in particular accumulated higher concentrations of LCCPs, including C-24/25-which are predominant among very-long-chain components. LCCP concentrations were highest and predominated (55% of total CPs) in peregrine falcons in this study, which is the first report where concentrations of LCCPs surpass those of SCCPs and MCCPs in wildlife. The results also indicate biomagnification of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in both marine and terrestrial food chains, but in-depth studies of specific food webs are needed.

  • 19. Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Shimadzu (China) Co. LTD., China.
    Du, Xinyu
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Shorter than short-chain: Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs) found in wildlife from the Yangtze River Delta2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 130, article id 104955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, C6-9) occurred in 94% of wildlife samples from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, with CnClm comparable to that of a local CP product, CP-52. Therefore, we determined the content of vSCCPs in CP-52 using a mathematical deconvolution technique. Then with CP-52 and several other reference standards, vSCCPs together with short-, medium-, and long-chain CPs were quantified in 21 wildlife species from an artificial wetland ecosystem and a freshwater ecosystem in the YRD. Concentrations of vSCCPs ranged from 2.6 to 8400 ng/g lipid. These concentrations were 1.2-380 fold lower than SCCPs, but were significantly correlated with those of SCCPs. vSCCP concentrations were comparable to or higher than reported for brominated flame retardants in the same samples. Bioaccumulation tendency of vSCCPs was identified in two benthic species, indicating congener-specific accumulation of vSCCPs in the environment.

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