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  • 1. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Short-, Medium-, and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Wildlife from Paddy Fields in the Yangtze River Delta2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 1072-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in April, 2017. As a consequence of this regulation, increasing production and usage of alternatives, such as medium- and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs and LCCPs, respectively), is expected. Little is known about the environmental fate and behavior of MCCPs and LCCPs. In the present study, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were analyzed in nine wildlife species from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta, China, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <91-43000, 96-33 000, and 14-10000 ng/g lipid, respectively. Most species contained primarily MCCPs (on average 44%), with the exception of collared scops owl and common cuckoo, in which SCCPs (43%) accumulated to a significantly (i.e., p < 0.05) greater extent than MCCPs (40%). Cl-6 groups were dominant in most species except for yellow weasel and short-tailed mamushi, which contained primarily Cl-7 groups. Principal components analysis, together with CP concentrations and carbon stable isotope analysis showed that habitat and feeding habits were key factors driving CP accumulation and congener group patterns in wildlife. This is the first report of LCCP exposure in wildlife and highlights the need for data on risks associated with CP usage.

  • 2.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Suzuki, Go
    Michinaka, Chieko
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Takigami, Hidetaka
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dioxin-like activities, halogenated flame retardants, organophosphate esters and chlorinated paraffins in dust from Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden and China2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 168, p. 1248-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of organic flame retardants (FRs) and dioxin-like activities in dust collected from five countries were investigated. The correlations between the concentrations of the different groups of FRs and dioxin-like activities were examined. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, C-9 to C-31) were found in the highest concentration (median Sigma CP 700 mu g/g, range 280-4750 mu g/g), followed by organophosphate esters (median Sigma 13OPEs 56 mu g/g, range 21-110 mu g/g), halogenated flame retardants (median Sigma(17)HFRs 3.3 mu g/g, range 0.87-14 mu g/g) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (median Sigma 17PBDEs 2.8 mu g/g, range 0.46-11 mu g/g). There were no significant differences in concentrations of the FRs among the countries but differences in PBDE and CP congener profiles were found. BDE209 predominated in dust from Australia, the UK, Sweden and China, ranging from 50 to 70% of total PBDEs. The lowest percentage of BDE209 was found in the dust from Canada, representing only 20% of total PBDEs. For CPs in dust from Sweden, the long-chain CPs (especially C-18 congeners) predominated, while for other countries, medium-chain CPs (especially C-14 congeners) predominated. The dioxin-activities of the dusts ranged from 58 to 590 pg CALUX-TEQ/g, and had a median of 200 pg CALUX-TEQ/g. There were significant positive correlations between concentrations of PBDEs and CPs with dioxin-like activities. The dioxin-like activity may be due to the presence of polychlorinated or polybrominated dioxin/furans (PBDD/DFs) or polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the dust. The PBDD/DFs are known impurities and degradation product of the penta-BDE mixture, and PCNs are known impurities of CPs which exhibit dioxin-like activities.

  • 3. You, Qiangwei
    et al.
    Liu, Yongsheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shanxi, PR China.
    Wan, Jiajia
    Shen, Zhijian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Li, Hongxia
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co., Ltd, PR China.
    Cheng, Laifei
    Wang, Gang
    Microstructure and properties of porous SiC ceramics by LPCVI technique regulation2017In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 11855-11863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new gradient pore structure in porous SiC ceramics was fabricated by low pressure chemical vapor infiltration (LPCVI). Effects of deposition duration on the mechanical properties and permeability of porous SiC ceramics were investigated. Results demonstrated that pore diameter and shapes decreased from the surface to the interior along with LPCVI duration. Porous SiC ceramics with deposition duration of 160 h exhibited flexural strength of 48.05 MPa and fracture toughness of 1.30 MPa m(1/2), where 221% and 189% improvements were obtained compared to porous SiC ceramics without LPCVI, due to CVI-SiC layer strengthening effect. Additionally, at the same gas velocity, pressure drop increase rate was faster due to apparent porosity and pore size change.

  • 4.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Berger, Urs
    Gao, Wei
    Wang, Yawei
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Deconvolution of Soft Ionization Mass Spectra of Chlorinated Paraffins To Resolve Congener Groups2016In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 88, no 18, p. 8980-8988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe and illustrate a three-step data-processing approach that enables individual congener groups of chlorinated-paraffins (CPs) to be resolved in mass spectra obtained from either-of two soft ionization methods: electron capture negative-ionization mass spectrometry (ECNI-MS) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). In the first step, general fragmentation pathways of CPs are deduced from analysis of mass spectra of individual CP congeners. In the-Second step, all possible fragment ions in the general fragmentation pathways of CPs with 10 to 20 carbon atoms are enumerated and compared to mass spectra of CP mixture standards, and a deconvolution algorithm is applied to identify fragment ions that are actually observed. In the third step, isotope permutations of the observed fragment ions are calculated and used to identify isobaric overlaps, so that mass intensities of indivichial CP congener groups can be deconvolved from the unresolved isobaric ion signal intensities in mass spectra. For a specific instrument; the three steps only need to be done once to enable deconvolution of CPs in unknown samples. This approach enables congener group-level resolution of CP mixtures in environmental samples, and: it opens up the possibility, for quantification of congener group.

  • 5.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Modelling isotopic peak distributions of chlorinated paraffins homologue groups in high resolution mass spectrometry in soft ionization modes2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bogdal, Christian
    Berger, Urs
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 18, p. 10633-10641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a congener group CnClm Recently, we resolved individual CnClm by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying CnClm by introducing CnClm specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each CnClm are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were 0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q:Orbitrap-MS. CnClm concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R-2 > 0.90) with each other.

  • 7.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    de Witt, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Temporal Trends of C-8-C-36 Chlorinated Paraffins in Swedish Coastal Sediment Cores over the Past 80 Years2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 24, p. 14199-14208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were analyzed in three sediment cores collected near different potential CP sources along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. C-8-C-36 CPs were found in sediment dating back to the 1930s. The maximum CP concentrations found in proximity to a metropolitan sewage treatment plant, a wood related industrial area, and a steel factory were 48; 160, and 1400 ng/g d.w., respectively, in sediment sections dated from the early 1990s or the 2000s. The temporal trends agree with statistics on CP importation in Sweden or local industrial activities. MCCPs (C-14-C-17 CPs) and LCCPs (C->= 18 CPs) predominated, in most sediments with average percentage compositions of 47 +/- 20% and 37 +/- 20%, respectively. Concentrations of SCCPs in the three cores showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The temporal trends of MCCPs indicated that these are currently the predominant CPs in use. This study showed for the first time that LCCPs from C-18 to C-36, as well as C-8-C-17 CPs, are persistent in sediments over the last 30-80 years, indicating that CPs are persistent chemicals regaidless of alkane-chain lengths.

  • 8.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    Wang, Yawei
    Jiang, Guibin
    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, p. 608-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C-10 and C-11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  • 9.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyström, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chlorinated paraffins leaking from hand blenders can lead to significant human exposures2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 109, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. & para;& para;Objectives: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. & para;& para;Methods: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1 g oil/100 mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. & para;& para;Results: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6 mu g/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from < 0.09 to 120 mu g using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. & para;& para;Conclusions: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight < 7.2 kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.

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