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  • 1.
    Bosch, Carme
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kruså, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hovorkova, Ivana
    Klanova, Jana
    Knowles, Timothy D. J.
    Pancost, Richard D.
    Evershed, Richard P.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Central European Soils with Compound-Specific Triple Isotopes (delta C-13, Delta C-14, and delta H-2)2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 7657-7665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the first study applying a triple-isotope approach for source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The C-13/C-12, and H-2/H-1 isotope ratios of PAHs were determined in forest soils from mountainous areas of the Czech Republic, European Union. Statistical modeling applying a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework to the environmental triple isotope PAR data and an end-member PAR isotope database allowed comprehensive accounting of uncertainties and quantitative constraints on the PAR sources among biomass combustion, liquid fossil fuel combustion, and coal combustion at low and high temperatures. The results suggest that PAHs in this central European region had a clear predominance of coal combustion sources (75 +/- 6%; uncertainties represent 1 SD), mainly coal pyrolysis at low temperature (similar to 650 degrees C; 61 +/- 8%). Combustion of liquid fossil fuels and biomass represented 16 +/- 3 and 9 + 3% of the total PAR burden (Sigma PAH(14)), respectively. Although some soils were located close to potential PAR point sources, the source distribution was within a narrow range throughout the region. These observation-based top-down constraints on sources of environmental PARS provide a reference for both improved bottom-up emission inventories and guidance for efforts to mitigate PAR emissions.

  • 2.
    Löf, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Embryo aberrations in the amphipod Monoporeia affinis as indicators of toxic pollutants in sediments: A field evaluation2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 60, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproduction in the amphipod Monoporeia affinis is sensitive to contaminant exposure, and embryo aberrations are used in the Swedish National Monitoring Program to indicate biological effects of contaminants. However, empirical support for a causal relationship between contaminant load and frequency of aberrations is largely based on experimental studies. A field evaluation of aberration frequency in relation to contaminant exposure is required, if we are to use reproductive disorders as indicators of contaminant effects in risk assessment. In this study, we evaluated occurrence of females carrying malformed embryos and frequency of specific embryo aberrations in broods of M. affinis in relation to concentrationsof various pollutants in sediments. Gravid M. affinis and surface sediment were sampled at ten sites in the Gulf of Bothnia located at varying proximity to historical and current polluting point sources. At each site, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace and heavy metals in surface sediments were determined. Amphipod fecundity and embryo development status were assayed with regard to morphologically recognizable aberrations (malformed embryos, membrane-damaged embryos, embryos with arrested development and females with dead brood). Our key finding is that different types of embryo aberrations were significantly associated with specific contaminant groups in the sediment. In particular, occurrence of females with embryo malformations was strongly related to elevated concentrations of Cd and PCBs, while females with membrane-damaged embryos occurred at high PAH concentrations. Also, frequency of embryos with arrested development was linked to elevated concentrations of PAHs and metals. Finally, frequency of females carrying dead broods, which was earlier considered to be a hypoxia-induced pathology, was significantly positively related to PAH concentrations. Thus, these reproductive aberrations in M. affinis can serve as contaminant-specific indicators of PCB, PAH and heavy metal exposure in biological effect monitoring.

  • 3.
    Löf, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sundelin, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Broeg, Katja
    Schatz, Sandra
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biomarker-enhanced assessment of reproductive disorders in Monoporeia affinis exposed to contaminated sediment in the Baltic Sea2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 63, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing biomarkers into monitoring programs requires understanding of their responses in relation to higher-level biological effects as well as modulating effects of confounding environmental factors. We evaluated relationships between the general toxicity biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], lysosomal membrane stability [LMS], oxygen radical absorbance capacity [ORAC]) and reproductive performance (fecundity and embryo aberrations) in the amphipod Monoporeia affinis in the Baltic Sea. To further link biomarker response to contaminant (PCBs, PAHs and metals) levels in the surrounding sediments as well as environmental factors (salinity, bottom depth and total organic carbon in sediments [TOC]), correlation and partial least square regression (PLSR) analyses were applied. The observed contaminants levels were frequently elevated for heavy metals and PAHs, but not PCBs. In the amphipod populations, female ORAC values were positively related to the occurrence of females carrying malformed or membrane-damaged embryos and to the percentage of such embryos in their broods, but also to the fecundity. Female AChE activity was negatively related to the frequency of the membrane-damaged embryos, and positively to the frequency of embryos with arrested development in the broods. Moreover, higher AChE activity and ORAC values in the females occurred at elevated concentrations of metals and PAHs, while there was a negative correlation between embryo ORAC and some PCB congeners. The PLSR models explained over 80% of the variation in the female ORAC and AChE values by variation in contaminant concentrations in combination with environmental variables. Specifically, CB180 and PAM4,9 were identified as negative predictors for ORAC, whereas many PAHs and some metals were positive predictors. The AChE activity was positively related to some metals and negatively to PCBs. In the PLSR models, environmental factors had significant modulating effects, with positive effect of salinity on female ORAC and AChE, and negative effect of TOC on the AChE. The LMS data were less informative, with no apparent relation to any of the contaminants. Linking subcellular responses to the reproduction effects facilitates environmental stress assessment and understanding of the response mechanisms, but also calls for more experimental and field data providing a mechanistic understanding to these linkages.

  • 4.
    Sundberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ishaq, Rasha
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grunder, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bandh, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment to potential toxicity in early life-stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2006In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1320-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments, we investigated the potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay. A previous study investigated abnormalities and hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae by exposing newly fertilized eggs to the total extract and to fractions separated by degree of aromaticity. A major part of the potential toxicity was isolated in a fraction containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, we prepared a synthetic PAC mixture with 17 commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The 17 PAHs, which included 11 of the 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority PAHs, were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects observed and could explain less than 4% of the total EROD induction. The lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction underlines the need for a battery of biomarkers for estimating environmental risk. These results reveal the limits of our knowledge regarding compounds responsible for potential toxicity in field situations.

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