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  • 1.
    Bergh, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphates and phthalates in air and dust from indoor environments: Method development and applied measurements2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.

    An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.

    Comparison of chemical profiles of the organophosphate ester between indoor environments including daycare centers, offices and private homes differed between the types of locations while the phthalate profiles were rather similar. Comparison of concentration levels of these compounds in multi-storey apartment buildings classified as either high or low risk “sick” buildings could not differentiate the two classes of buildings. Further, the studies also points out some potential sources of organophosphate and phthalate esters in these indoor environments.

    In general the levels of phthalate esters were consistently higher than the levels of organophosphate esters both in air and in dust. Phthalate and organophosphate esters were also determined in a dust standard reference material; seventeen of the targeted compounds were quantified out of which ten had not previously been reported for this reference material.

  • 2.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Torgrip, Ralf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Emenius, G.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in air and settled dust – a multi-location indoor study2011Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the abundance in indoor air and dust of eleven organophosphate esters and six phthalate esters. Both groups of these semi-volatile compounds are widely incorporated as additives into plastic materials used in the indoor environment, thus contributing to indoor exposure to industrial chemicals. Thirty sampling sites representing three different indoor environments (private homes, day care centers, and workplaces) in the Stockholm area, Sweden, were selected to obtain representative concentration profiles in both ambient air and settled dust. Eight of the target organophosphate esters and all six phthalate esters were found in both air and dust samples at all locations. The phthalate esters were more abundant than the organophosphate esters, typically ten times higher total concentrations. Especially interesting were the high levels of tributoxyethyl phosphate in the day care centers, the relatively high levels of chlorinated organophosphate esters in the air of workplaces and the overall high levels of diethylhexyl phthalate in dust. The air concentration profiles of the phosphate esters differed significantly between the three indoor environments, whereas the concentration profiles of the phthalate esters as well as their total concentrations were similar. The correlation between concentrations found in air and in dust was found to be weak.

  • 3.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Torgrip, Ralf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Simultaneous selective detection of organophosphate and phthalate esters using gas chromatography with positive ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to indoor air and dust2010Inngår i: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 24, nr 19, s. 2859-2867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 14 organophosphate and six phthalate esters using gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. Both of these compound classes are frequently found in the indoor environment due to their use as bulk additives in numerous polymers, consumer products and building materials. GC/MS utilizing positive ion chemical ionisation (PICI) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with isobutane as the reagent gas was found to be the best of the tested methods; it proved superior to electron ionisation (EI) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and to PICI using methane as the reagent gas. The method was applied to indoor air samples collected by active air sampling using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Organophosphates and phthalates were simultaneously determined with method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.1-47 ng m(-3). For most compounds the MDLs were <= 0.2 ng m(-3), but due to the presence of some of these ubiquitous indoor air pollutants in the blanks, significantly higher MDLs were observed for a few compounds. Finally, the method was also applied in the screening of a much more complex sample matrix, indoor dust.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Åberg, K. Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Emenius, Gunnel
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 2001-2009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive study has been conducted of the prevalence of organophosphorous flame retardants/plasticizers and phthalate ester plasticizers in indoor air. The targeted substances were measured in 45 multi-storey apartment buildings in Stockholm, Sweden. The apartment buildings were classified as high or low risk with regard to the reporting of sick building symptoms (SBS) within the project Healthy Sustainable Houses in Stockholm (3H). Air samples were taken from two to four apartments per building (in total 169 apartments) to facilitate comparison within and between buildings. Association with building characteristics have been examined as well as association with specific sources by combining chemical analysis and exploratory uni- and multivariate data analysis. The study contributes to the overall perspective of levels of organophosphate and phthalate ester in indoor air enabling comparison with other studies. The results indicated little or no difference in the concentrations of the target substances between the two risk classifications of the buildings. The differences between the apartments sampled within (inter) buildings were greater than the differences between (intra) buildings. The concentrations measured in air ranged up to 1,200 ng/m3 for organophosphate esters and up to 11,000 ng/m3 for phthalate esters. Results in terms of sources were discerned e.g. PVC flooring is a major source of benzylbutyl phthalate in indoor air.    

  • 5. Harrad, Stuart
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa
    Bergh, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Björklund, Justina A.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Covaci, Adrian
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Boer, Jacob
    Diamond, Miriam
    Huber, Sandra
    Leonards, Pim
    Mandalakis, Manolis
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Webster, Thomas F.
    Indoor Contamination with Hexabromocyclododecanes, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and Perfluoroalkyl Compounds: An Important Exposure Pathway for People?2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 9, s. 3221-3231Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review underlines the importance of indoor contamination as a pathway of human exposure to hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). There is ample evidence of substantial contamination of indoor dust with these chemicals and that their concentrations in indoor air exceed substantially those outdoors. Studies examining the relationship between body burden and exposure via indoor dust are inconsistent while some indicate a link between body burdens and PBDE and HBCD exposure via dust ingestion, others find no correlation. Likewise, while concentrations in indoor dust and human tissues are both highly skewed, this does not necessarily imply causality. Evidence suggests exposure via dust ingestion is higher for toddlers than adults. Research priorities include identifying means of reducing indoor concentrations and indoor monitoring methods that provide the most ""biologically-relevant"" measures of exposure as well as monitoring a wider range of microenvironment categories. Other gaps include studies to improve understanding of the following: emission rates and mechanisms via which these contaminants migrate from products into indoor air and dust; relationships between indoor exposures and human body burdens; relevant physicochemical properties; the gastrointestinal uptake by humans of these chemicals from indoor dust; and human dust ingestion rates.

  • 6.
    Östman, C
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bergh, C
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Ftalater och organofosfater i inomhusluft och bilar: Rapport till Miljöförvaltningen Stockholms Stad2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Östman, C
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bergh, C
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Åberg, M
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Identifiering av ”sjuka hus” med kemisk analys kombinerat med multivariat statistisk dataanalys: Rapport till Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms Stad2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 7 of 7
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