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  • 1. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den utbredda flexibiliteten: ett försök att beräkna förekomsten av lågreglerade arbetsvillkor2012In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nästan 30 år efter det att begreppet flexibilitet i arbetslivet kom i bruk råder det fortfarande stor osäkerhet om vad begreppet innebär och hur vanligt det egentligen är. I artikeln diskuteras flexibilitet utifrån en representativ studie av den svenska arbetskraften. I studien konstateras att både traditionellt organiserade och helt fria arbeten är relativt ovanliga. Däremot är flexibla arbetsvillkor desto mer vanligt förekommande och spridda i varierande grad bland den svenska arbetskraften.

  • 2.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Diffusion of Flexibility: Estimating the Incidence of Low-Regulated Working Conditions2013In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 99-116Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sickness presence, sickness absence, and self-reported health and symptoms2011In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 228-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare sickness presence (SP) and sickness absence (SA) regarding the strength of their relationship to health/ill-health. In a previous Canadian study a stronger association between SP and health/ill-health than between SA and health/ill-health was shown.

    Design/methodology/approach - Five Swedish data sets from the years 1992 to 2005 provided the study populations, including both representative samples and specific occupational groups (n=425-3,622). Univariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The data sets contained questions on SP and SA as well as on various health complaints and, in some cases, self-rated health (SRH).

    Findings - The general trend was that correlations and odds ratios increased regularly for both SP and SA, with SP showing the highest values. In one data set, SRH was predicted by a combination of the two measures, with an explained variance of 25 percent. Stratified analyses showed that the more irreplaceable an individual is at work, the larger is the difference in correlation size between SP and SA with regard to SRH. SP also showed an accentuated and stronger association with SRH than SA among individuals reporting poor economic circumstances.

    Practical implications - The results support the notion that SA is an insufficient, and even misleading, measure of health status for certain groups in the labor market, which seem to have poorer health than the measure of SA would indicate.

    Orginality/value - A combined measure of sickness presence and absence may be worth considering as an indicator of both individual and organizational health status.

  • 4.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Illegitima arbetsuppgifter och identitet - en introduktion2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 3/4, p. 28-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressreaktioners styrka beror inte bara på hur mycket och hur ofta människor arbetar utan hör även samman med ett arbetsuppdrags sociala innebörd. Forskningen om illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress inkluderar denna sociala aspekt, vilken antas vara relaterad till individens självuppfattning och identitet. I artikeln introduceras en modell om illegitima uppgifter som identitetsrelevanta stressorer. Dessutom redovisas en empirisk studie av tre yrkesgrupper kring sambandet mellan identitetsrelevanta stressorer och ohälsoreaktioner.

  • 5. Karlson, Björn
    et al.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riva, Roberto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial work stressors and salivary cortisol2012In: The role of saliva cortisol measurement in health and disease / [ed] Margareta Kristenson, Peter Garvin, Ulf Lundberg, Sharjah: Bentham Science , 2012, 1, p. 43-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter systematically reviews how different measures of salivary cortisol are related to different measures of psychosocial work stress. Divergent findings were scrutinized with respect to study quality and the methods used. Measures of work stress included concepts reflecting those included in the demand–control–support model or the effort–reward–imbalance model. General bibliographic databases (PsychINFO and PubMed) were searched up to September 30, 2009. Two reviewers extracted data on study characteristics and study quality. In total 27 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve from deviations and reactivity measures. A large proportion of the analyses of the associations between cortisol and psychosocial work stressors showed nonsignificant findings. However, of the significant findings, most results showed that a high work stress was associated with high cortisol levels. Significant relationships were evenly distributed across different measures of psychosocial work stress. As regards salivary sampling or statistical analysis, no strategy seemed superior but some strategies have only been used in the past few years. Typically, older studies were of lower quality. Low quality studies tended to have a higher proportion of significant findings which is a reason for concern. The relatively few significant findings may be because many psychosocial work stressors were of mild or moderate intensity and the study groups were rather small and fairly homogeneous, thus variability was too small to reveal any effects. The results indicate a normal, healthy response to work stress in most workers, according to CATS and the Allostatic Load Models.

  • 6.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    After-hours availability expectations, work-related smartphone use during leisure, and psychological detachment: The moderating role of boundary control2016In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 146-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– Modern working life is characterized by increased expectations for employees to be available to deal with work issues outside regular work hours and by using new communication technology. This implies more individual freedom in organizing work in time and space, but also places increased demands on employees to manage the boundaries between work and personal life. This, in turn, can be expected to be crucial to their ability to mentally detach from work during free time. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether individual perceptions of boundary control moderate the impact of after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use during off-work hours on psychological detachment. Design/methodology/approach– The study population comprised 2,876 gainfully employed professionals from four large organizations in both the public and private sector, representing various businesses and occupations. Univariate correlations and multiple, linear hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Findings– High after-hours availability expectations, high frequency of work-related smartphone use, and low boundary control were associated with poor psychological detachment. Furthermore, boundary control moderated the relationships between both after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use, respectively, and psychological detachment. As such, boundary control mitigated the negative effects of both after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use during leisure on psychological detachment. Practical implications– Modern work organizations would benefit from introducing availability policies and helping employees reduce their work-related smartphone use outside regular work hours, thus helping them achieve successful boundary control and subsequent psychological detachment. Originality/value– In a working life characterized by blurred boundaries, employees’ ability to achieve boundary control can be regarded as crucial.

  • 7.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Strategier, gränskontroll och ledarskap i gränslöst arbete2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, 1, p. 37-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I inledningskapitlet introducerades forskning ur ett gränsperspektiv. Detta kapitel ger en fördjupning med särskild tonvikt på gräns-strategier, gränskontroll, livsbalans och ledarskap. Forskning med inriktning på arbetsmiljö och hälsa har av naturliga skäl mest varit inriktad på problem med gränslöst arbete. I kapitlet ligger dock fokus på att utifrån forskning beskriva både de specifika problemen, men även potentialen för utveckling, med det vi kallar gränslöst arbete. Avslutningsvis ger kapitlet en vägledning både för anställda och för chefer och ledarskap.

  • 8.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symptom development and timing of menarche: A longitudinal study2004In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 40-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported somatic complaints among females were studied cross sectionally at age 15 and 43, and longitudinally between these two ages. Specifically, the relationship between symptom development and timing of menarche was considered. The sample consisted of 477 females representing the general Swedish population. All the included symptoms were significantly related to each other at both ages. There was also longitudinal correlational stability for all the studied symptoms. Moreover, symptoms at age 15 were associated with early menarcheal timing. Pattern analyses of the studied symptoms were conducted with roots in person-oriented methodology. These results revealed structural as well as individual stability in patterns of symptom reporting for nearly 30 years. That is, similar configurations of symptoms were found at both ages, and it was the same females who reported being either symptom free or reporting a high symptom load at both ages. At age 15 fewer early maturing females than expected by chance reported being symptom free, whereas more of the late maturing females than expected reported being symptom free. However, there were no effects of menarcheal timing on symptom reporting at age 43.

  • 9.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary Management Preferences, Boundary Control, and Work-Life Balance among Full-Time Employed Professionals in Knowledge-Intensive, Flexible Work2014In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profound changes are taking place within working life, where established boundaries between work and personal life are challenged by increased global competition, ever-faster changing markets, and rapid development of boundary transcending information and communication technologies (ICT).

    The aim of this study was to investigate boundary management preferences in terms of keeping work and personal life domains separated or integrated, that is, segmenting or blending of domains, the perception of being in control of one's preferred boundaries, and work-life balance among employees at a Swedish telecom company (N = 1,238, response rate 65%, men 73%, mean age 42 years). Psychosocial work factors, individual characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and work-life balance were investigated in relation to boundary management preferences and perceived boundary control.

    For high boundary control among segmenters, nearly all the studied psychosocial work factors were significant. Among integrators, this was the case only for clear expectations in work. For both groups, the individual capacity for self-regulation was associated with high boundary control. Regarding sociodemographic factors, cohabiting women with children who preferred segmentation had low boundary control. Finally, there was a main effect of boundary control on work-life balance. In particular, male segmenters perceiving high boundary control had better work-life balance than all others.

    Conclusions of the study are that segmenters need external boundaries in work for succesful boundary management. Moreover, self-regulation seems a crucial boundary competence in knowledge-intensive, flexible work. Results are of value for health promotion in modern work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary control and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 10.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, boundaryless work2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), 22-25 maj, Münster, Tyskland / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 239-240Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary strategies, segmentation and integration, were explored in knowledge intense, boundaryless work. Socio-demographic, work-related and individual factors were investigated in relation to strategy choice, and further, which of these factors that discriminated between succeeding or not with the chosen strategy. Moreover, work-life balance was studied in relation to strategy choice. A questionnaire was sent to employees (n=1238, response rate 65%) at an international telecom company in Sweden. A majority, 82 percent, chose segmentation. Integrators had higher working time per week, more often worked evenings and weekends and at different places than the workplace, especially from home, than segmenters. More integrators perceived their strategy as nonsuccessful. However, these time- and place related aspects were only related to not succeeding with one´s strategy among segmenters. Especially, co-habiting women with children choosing segmentation perceived their strategy as non-successful. In contrast, male segmenters succeeded more often. Discriminating factors in both strategy groups reflected the capacity for self-regulation, i.e., being able to say no and set limits, organizing work efficiently, and work independently. Those who succeeded with the integration strategy, in particular integrating women, reported a higher degree of work-life balance as compared to others. Results needs to be confirmed in other work settings and associations between boundary management and stress and health established. Self-regulation seems a crucial competence in a working life characterized by boundarylessness. Results are of value for health promotion in flexible work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary management and subsequent work-life balance.

  • 11.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Boundary management strategies and work-life balance in knowledge intense, flexible work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Segmentering och integrering: om mäns och kvinnors gränssättningsstrategier i högkvalificerat arbete2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränssättningsstrategier undersöktes bland män och kvinnor (n=673) i högkvalificeradearbeten där gränserna mellan arbete och livet utanför arbetet kanbeskrivas som svaga. Sociodemografiska och arbetsrelaterade faktorer för detvå strategierna, segmentering respektive integrering, undersöktes samt vilkaav dessa faktorer som åtskiljer de som anser sig lyckas respektive inte lyckasmed sin valda strategi. Resultaten visade att valet av segmenteringsstrateginklart dominerade, endast 18 procent klassificerades som integrerare. Integrerarnaangav högre arbetstid per vecka, de jobbade mera på vardagkvällar och helgersamt i högre grad på olika platser än segmenterarna. Det var dock i segmenteringsgruppensom dessa tids- och rumsaspekter hade en särskiljande betydelseför om man lyckades eller inte med sitt strategival. Särskilt sammanboendekvinnor med barn som använde sig av segmentering upplevde i högre grad änövriga att de misslyckades med sin strategi. De faktorer som i båda gruppernaframkom som urskiljande för huruvida man lyckas med sitt strategival rördeindividfaktorer relaterade till gränssättning i arbetet vilka kan betraktas somförmågan till självreglering. Dessa var att kunna arbeta självständigt, organiserasitt arbete effektivt, att veta vad som förväntas i arbetet, att själv kunna avgöranär en uppgift är slutförd samt att kunna säga nej och sätta gränser. Självregleringkan därmed betraktas som en central yrkeskompetens i ett arbetsliv alltmerkännetecknat av gränslöshet. Detta bekräftades av att bland de som lyckadesmed en integrerande strategi så var andelen som även upplevde balans i livetsom högst. Detta var särskilt uttalat bland kvinnor. Fortsatta studier kan inriktaspå prövning av resultaten i andra arbetsrelaterade kontext och ytterligareidentifiering av determinanter för lyckad segmentering eller integrering samt hurdetta sammanhänger med stress och (o)hälsa.

  • 13.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kompier, Michiel
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Boundaryless Work, Psychological Detachment and Sleep: Does Working 'Anytime – Anywhere' Equal Employees Are 'Always on'?2016In: New ways of working practices / [ed] Jan De Leede, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep. Drawing from a sample of Swedish professional workers (N = 3,846), a theoretical model was proposed testing the inter-relationships between boundaryless work in time and space, weekly work hours, psychological detachment, sleeping problems and sleep duration using a structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings showed that working boundlessly in time, that is spread out during the working day and week, was directly associated with both long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. In contrast, working boundlessly in space, that is at several different places, was inversely associated with weekly work hours and had no association with psychological detachment. Psychological detachment, in turn, was directly associated with sleeping problems and inversely associated with sleep duration. Sleeping problems were inversely associated with sleep duration. Employees with long weekly work hours had a low degree of sleeping problems. There was also no association between long weekly work hours and sleep duration. These findings contradict earlier research, however, we interpret these findings as that if one works a great deal but is able to mentally detach from work-related feelings and thoughts during free time, then sleep will not be hampered because perseverative cognitions associated with prolonged biological activation will have been interrupted. As such, psychological detachment can be regarded as the mechanism that mediates the relationships between working 'anytime' and long weekly work hours, and sleep. It was concluded working boundlessly in time increases the likelihood for long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. Hence, employees working 'anytime – all the time' run the risk of 'always being on' resulting in disturbed sleep.

  • 14.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Medically unexplained symptoms in women as related to physiological stress responses2005In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present, cross-sectional study explored whether self-reported symptoms are related to physiologicalstress indicators in a group of 43-year-old women representing the general populationin Sweden. Analyses were performed both on raw scores of physiological indicators and on a multisystemsummary index of allostatic load as a measure of cumulative biological burden. Participantsanswered a health questionnaire and underwent a medical examination including bloodpressure, heart rate measurements, determination of blood lipids and stress hormones. Urinaryepinephrine and norepinephrine were measured both on a working day and a work free day athome. In addition, salivary morning cortisol was measured on a non-work day. The physiologicalprofiles based on raw scores from 222 women showed that women with a high symptom loadhad significantly higher levels of cortisol (p < 0.05), and higher heart rate (p < 0.05) than didthose with a low symptom load. In contrast, women with a low symptom load had significantlyhigher levels of epinephrine on a work free day than did women with a high symptom load (p <0.05). No significant differences were found in norepinephrine responses. When analysing thesummary measure of allostatic load in relation to symptom prevalence no significant differencebetween the symptom groups emerged. One possible explanation for this result could be that amajority of the study population was healthy, reporting a low level of symptoms in general.However, the results support the notion that common, medically unexplained symptoms amongwomen are associated with certain biological parameters known to play a role in the developmentof ill health.

  • 15.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symptom reporting and self-rated health among women in mid-life: the role of work characteristics and family responsibilities2006In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how socioeconomic factors and psychosocial conditions are related to self-reported health among 43-year-old women representing the general Swedish population (N = 569). Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for associations and effect modification, adjusted for symptom reporting in adolescence. Poor self-reported health was predicted by low income, financial worries, and job strain, as well as combined exposure to a high level of unpaid household work and job strain (double burden). In conclusion, poor psychosocial conditions related to working life, as well as to the combined impact of paid and unpaid work were revealed to be risk factors for poor self-reported health among middle-aged women. These results highlight the need for improving women's work conditions, as well as designing family policies that promote a better sharing of unpaid household tasks and responsibilities between spouses.

  • 16.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Self-and physician-rated general health in relation to symptoms and diseases among women2003In: Psychology, health and medicine, ISSN 1354-8506, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated general health has been demonstrated as an important predictor of future morbidity and mortality, but the determinants of perceived good or poor general health are less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate self- and physician-rated general health status in relation to self-reported symptoms and diseases (n = 488) as well as to physician-reported health problems based on medical examinations (n = 369) among 43-year-old women representing the general population of a Swedish community. Although most women had good general health as reflected by their own as well as by the physicians' ratings, the physicians rated about twice as many women (12%) to have poor health compared to the women themselves (6%). The agreement between the womens' self-reported general health and the physicians' ratings was significant but low (22%). Bivariate correlations showed that many of the symptoms and diseases in the present sample were significantly associated with both self- and physician-rated general health, but the explained variance was low, varying from 1 to 12%. The exception was for a self-reported sense of powerlessness that explained 20% of the variance in self-rated general health. When taken together and analysed by multivariate logistic regression, it was found that only self-reported symptoms predicted the self-rated general health of the women, contributing to 24% of the variance (p < 0.001). In contrast, both physician-reports of health problems (11%) and self-reports of symptoms (13%), respectively, significantly predicted the physician-rated general health of the women, together contributing to 24% of the variance (p < 0.001). Self-reported diseases did not predict either the self-rated or the physician-rated general health of the women. The findings from the present study support the notion that general health status, when rated by a physician or by the woman herself, is a complex and multidimensional concept that is only partly...

  • 17.
    Mellner, Christin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Framtidens arbetsliv – utmaningar för morgondagens ledare2013In: Chefstidningen, ISSN 2000-3498, no 5, p. 48-51Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Harter Griep, Rosane
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Vinberg, Stig
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Hospitalization due to stroke or myocardial infarction – are there any differences between self-employed individuals and employees?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine hospitalization due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction, respectively, and to analyze differences between the self-employed and paid employees in the same industries. Data and methods: Data from Statistics Sweden's population register (2003) was linked to National Board of Health and Welfare’s hospital admission register and cause of death register (2004-2008). More than 4.7 million people (7% self-employed) were included in the analyses. Individuals were classified on the basis of their occupational status as self-employed persons or employees. The self-employed were further classified as sole proprietors or limited liability company owners according to the legal form of self-employment. Based on the Swedish Standard Industrial Classification (SNI 2002) eight industries were distinguished. Diagnoses of hospitalization were classified as stroke (intracerebral hemorrhage I61, cerebral infarction I63, and unspecified acute cerebrovascular disease I64) and acute myocardial infarction (I21) based on the international classification of diseases (ICD-10). Stroke and Myocardial Infarction (MI) hospitalization incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using negative binomial regression models adjusted for pre-specified potential confounding covariates. Effect modification by occupational status, industrial sector, and gender was investigated with two and three-way interaction terms.

  • 19.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Härter Griep, Rosane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees: a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden2016In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 73, p. 627-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data.

    Methods: A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise’s legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.

    Results: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries.

    Conclusions: Mortality differences between selfemployed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings.

  • 20.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Self-employed persons in Sweden: mortality differentials by industrial sector and enterprise legal form : a five-year follow-up study2015In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated mortality differentials between self-employed persons in Sweden, considering industrial sector, enterprise characteristics and socio-demographic factors.

    Methods: Data on 321,274 self-employed persons were obtained from population registers in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios by industrial sector and enterprise legal form, adjusted for confounders.

    Results: All-cause mortality was 10–32% higher in self-employed persons in Manufacturing and Mining, Trade and Communication, and Not Specified and Other sectors than in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing. Mortality from cardiovascular disease was 23% higher in Trade and Communication, and from neoplasms 17–51% higher in Manufacturing and Mining, Not Specified, and Other. Mortality from suicide was 45–60% lower in Personal and Cultural Services, and in Not Specified. Mortality was 8–16% higher in sole proprietorship than limited partnership.

    Conclusions: Further research of working conditions is warranted, considering industry and enterprise legal form.

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