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  • 1.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Better Viewing: Streaming Devices and the Quest for Interoperability2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Beyond the black box: Digital media players as interoperable systems2019In: Journal of popular television, ISSN 2046-9861, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 201-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article looks at the entanglement of materiality, social practices and institutional interventions connected to the emergence of digital media players, in order to understand the cultural practices that their development and stabilization provoke. After laying out a framework for studying interconnectivity in complex systems, and introducing the notion of interoperable systems as a conceptual intervention for the study of media technologies, I offer a case study of the development of Microsoft's Xbox One, in which particular attention is paid to the various 'repair practices' that the system's limitations motivated among different social groups. I argue that seemingly 'simple' and 'seamless' operations that an everyday phenomenon like the Xbox One promises, such as using the device to stream a video, are in fact made possible by a complex set of technological, social and organizational mechanisms that are deliberately negotiated and manipulated at different layers.

  • 3.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Eine kurze Geschichte des Scheiterns: Googles Nexus Q und die Grenzen von Streaming-Technologien2017In: Montage/AV. Zeitschrift für Theorie und Geschichte audiovisueller Kommunikation, ISSN 0942-4954, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Electronic Components and Human Efforts: Streaming Media Players and the Co-Production of Material Artifacts and Social Action2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Minimal TV: Netflix-ready Devices and Television’s Ubiquity in the Home2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focusses on the streaming devices which are used to connect to the video-on-demand platform Netflix. It examines the technological development of these devices, ranging from the first video game consoles, set-top boxes and connected Blu-Ray players from 2008, to the streaming sticks, handheld devices, and smart uHD TVs of today, and explores their impact on television’s presence in the home. Looking closely at the discussions and debates surrounding Netflix-ready devices in popular periodicals, such as newspapers and lifestyle magazines, trade publications, and promotional materials, but also on technology and home decoration blogs, this paper puts particular emphasis on the discourse of technological minimalism surrounding Netflix. It argues that Netflix’ interest in supporting inconspicuous technology not only reveals the streaming service’s domestic aspirations, i.e. where exactly it wants to be located (or not) in the home of the viewer, but also how it positions itself culturally and within the television landscape: as a technologically flexible, highbrow alternative which can exist almost anywhere in the domestic sphere and ultimately challenges traditional conceptions of television.

  • 6.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Netflix2017In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of the Internet / [ed] Barney Warf, Sage Publications, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Shadow economies and digital disruption2014In: NECSUS : European Journal of Media Studies, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 331-337Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Baumann, Chris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    Sweden: Circumvention and the Quest for Privacy2016In: Geoblocking and Global Video Culture / [ed] Ramon Lobato, James Meese, Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures , 2016, p. 140-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Baumann, Chris
    et al.
    Winzar, Hume
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    East Asian wisdom and relativity: Inter-ocular testing of Schwartz values from WVS with extension of the ReVaMB model2018In: Cross cultural & strategic management, ISSN 2059-5794, E-ISSN 2059-5808, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 210-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper demonstrates how inter-ocular testing (looking at the data) of Schwartz values from world values study (WVS) provides a surprisingly different picture to what the authors would expect from traditional mean comparison testing (t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Second, the authors suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to an East Asian philosophical perspective. Relativity, the authors argue, is a factor when East Asian wisdom, philosophies and ideologies (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) drive outcomes such as work ethic. Third, the paper serves as an editorial to a special issue in CCSM on East Asian wisdom and its impact on business culture and performance in a cross-cultural context. Common themes are Yin Yang, how different cultures deal with paradox, and Zhong Yong, with accompanying concerns of how to conceptualise and deal with balance of opposites. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted ten variables of the Schwartz values scales used in the WVS and subjected them to principle components analysis to reduce the number of variables. The authors found a two-factor solution: one relating to personal material success and adventure and excitement; another relating to success and personal recognition. The authors labelled these factors as Altruism and Hedonism. The analysis is based on an overall sample of 84,692 respondents in 60 countries. In addition to traditional statistical testing, the authors conduct inter-ocular testing. The authors also suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to East Asian wisdom. Findings Three recommendations help to arrive at more accurate conclusions when comparing groups: the authors recommend to aspire to consistent look and statistic. If the data distribution does not agree with the statistics, then the researcher should take a closer look. To avoid misinterpreting statistics and other analysis, the authors recommend inter-ocular testing, i.e. eyeballing data in a scientific fashion. The authors provide specific examples how to do that. The authors recommend to test for common-language effect size (CLE), and also recommend a new rule of thumb, i.e. a split of 60/40 as minimum difference to make any generalisation; 70/30 is worth considering. The rule of thumb contributes to better differentiation between real and not real differences. Originality/value The authors introduce two concepts: the inter-ocular test, which simply means to look at your data, and the Chinese word, ?? (Cujue) which roughly translates to illusion, wrong impression, or misconception. This study argues against accepting simplistic averages for data analysis. The authors provide evidence that an inter-ocular test provides a more comprehensive picture of data when comparing groups rather than simply relying on traditional statistical mean comparison testing. The word of caution is to avoid premature conclusions on group comparisons with statistical testing alone. The authors also propose an extension of the original ReVaMB model from a confucian orientation to a broad East Asian philosophical perspective. Culture does determine attitudes and behaviour which in turn contribute to the shaping of cultures, depending on situation, context, location and time. The context for a situation to occur should be tested as moderators, for example, between East Asian wisdom (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) and behavioural or attitudinal dimensions such as work ethic.

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