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  • 1.
    Chrystal, Judith-Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Lim Falk, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.Hedman, ChristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.Josephson, OlleStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.Öhrn, MagnusStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas.
    Tionde nationella konferensen i svenska med didaktisk inriktning (SMDI 10): Genre2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Ideology vs. practice: Is there a space for pedagogical translanguaging in mother tongue instruction?2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 208-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning, läsförståelse och betyg – modersmålsundervisningens roll för elevers skolresultat2018In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 4-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between participation in mother tongue instruction (MTI), students’ reading comprehension, and their overall school results. The study expands on the results of an earlier study, which found that Somali–Swedish speaking students who had attended Somali MTI for several years, performed better on reading comprehension in Somali, than Somali–Swedish speaking students of the same ages, who had not taken Somali MTI (Ganuza & Hedman 2017a). The present study revisits the results of 36 participants in the earlier study, and explores the relationship between their scores on reading comprehension and their grades at the end of 6th or 7th grade; in MTI, Swedish as a second language, Mathematics, and overall grade points. Most importantly, the results show consistent positive correlations between participants’ reading comprehension in Somali and their school results. This correlation is also stronger and more comprehensive than the one found between their reading comprehension in Swedish and their school results. In the paper, we argue that these results indirectly point to a positive relationship between MTI and students’ school results, which, if confirmed by future studies, is quite remarkable considering the limited teaching time allotted to MTI and its’ marginalized position in the Swedish school system.

  • 4.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning: möjligheter och utmaningar2018In: En god fortsättning: nyanländas fortsatta väg i skola och samhälle / [ed] Tore Otterup, Gilda Kästen-Ebeling, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Struggles for legitimacy in mother tongue instruction in Sweden2015In: Language and Education, ISSN 0950-0782, E-ISSN 1747-7581, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and the fact that the subject and its teachers are often contested in public debate. In this study, the teachers’ narratives center round issues of legitimacy, both for the subject per se and for the teachers’ right to be viewed as ‘real’ teachers. In this paper, we highlight how the teachers link mother tongue instruction to the notion of a ‘common heritage’ and how they see themselves as advocates and role models for the mother tongue. The teachers raise the status of mother tongue instruction in a transformational way, to a subject that is essential and can have a positive impact for a group of students who would otherwise be at a disadvantage in the school system. The undermining of mother tongue instruction was found to affect the pedagogical practices, as the teachers often took into consideration how their teaching would be viewed by parents and colleagues.

  • 6.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The Impact of Mother Tongue Instruction on the Development of Biliteracy: Evidence from Somali-Swedish Bilinguals2017In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if participation in mother tongue instruction (henceforth MTI) impacts the biliteracy proficiency of young bilinguals, drawing on examples from Somali–Swedish bilinguals and Somali MTI in a Swedish school context. In the study, biliteracy was operationalized as reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge in two languages, which was tested with measures of word decoding, reading comprehension, and vocabulary breadth and depth. The study was designed to allow for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-linguistic analyses of data. Overall, the results showed that participation in MTI contributed positively to participants’ results on Somali reading comprehension, beyond the influence of chronological age, age of arrival, and reported home language and literacy use. Furthermore, higher results in Somali were associated with higher results on the same measures in Swedish, in particular for the reading measures. In sum, the results indicate that MTI has an impact on some aspects of literacy proficiency in the mother tongue, despite the restricted time allocated for it (<1 h/week). They also indicate that MTI, albeit indirectly, may benefit the stated proficiencies in the language of schooling.

  • 7.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Dyslexi och tvåspråkighet: ett forskningsområde i utveckling2008In: Dyslexi: aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Dyslexi på två språk2010In: Elevhälsa, no 4, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Dyslexi på två språk: En multipel fallstudie av spansk-svensktalande ungdomar med läs- och skrivsvårigheter2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complicated task of deciding whether reading and writing difficulties in a second language learner stem from dyslexia or from problems associated with second language learning serves as the primary theme of this study. The theoretical framwork of dyslexia-related issues is a phonological cause model (Ramus, 2004). Generally, the study is based on psycholinguistically oriented research of reading in a second language (eg. Kulbrandstad, 1998) and dyslexia in second language learners (Frederickson & Frith, 1998; Geva, 2000; Miller Guron & Lundberg, 2003).

    The overall aim of the study is to contribute to our knowledge of how reading and writing difficulties in bilingual adolescents could be expressed, characterised and delimited, in order to enhance our understanding of how various prerequisites effect literacy development and to facilitate identification and handling of dyslexia in bilinguals. The study is based on data from ten Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents with reading and writing difficulties. The multiple case study perspective has made it possible to investigate a number of linguistic and cognitive parameters in both languages. Furthermore, comparisons were made with a bilingual group of ten Spanish-Swedish speaking adocelscents without reading and writing difficulties as well as with a group of ten monolingual Spanish and Swedish speaking adolescents with dyslexia. Dyslexia has been defined and delimited in a bilingual dyslexia profiles continuum. This continuum is one of the significant theoretical-methodological contributions of the thesis. Another important contribution is the research design, that is, the use of a bilingual matched comparison group (without reading and writing difficulties) as the norm. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analyses have been summarised as various profiles, such as reading profiles, writing profiles and oral discourse profiles. The results are discussed on both group and individual levels and show that language dominance ha a major impact on the manifestations of the reading and writing difficulties. The differences between the two orthographies are also of importance. Furthermore, advantageous results in both languages co-vary with extensive L1 education in the bilingual participants both with and without dyslexia.

  • 10.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University.
    Epilog.Transspråkande som pedagogisk praktik.2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer & Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1:1, p. 265-271Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Flerspråkig elev – med dyslexi?2012In: Flerspråkighet i skolan: Språklig utveckling och undervisning / [ed] Eva-Kristina Salameh, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, p. 98-128Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University.
    Läsförståelse med flera språk som resurs2017Other (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Läsutveckling hos flerspråkiga elever2012In: Flerspråkighet i skolan: Språklig utveckling och undervisning / [ed] Eva-Kristina Salameh, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, p. 78-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Ordblindhed på to sprog2009In: Sprog och integration, ISSN 1601-541X, no 4, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Hvordan finder man ud af, om tosprogede elever med læse- og skrivevanskeligheder lider af dysleksi eller om deres problemer bunder i andetsprogsindlæringen? Der skal fokuseres på, hvordan problemerne kommer til udtryk, og hvordan de kan karakteriseres og afgrænses.  Tosprogede elever har tendens til enten at blive over- eller underidentificerede.

  • 15.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Profiling dyslexia in bilingual adolescents2012In: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 529-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of whether difficulties with reading and writing in a second language learner stem from developmental dyslexia or from issues associated with second language acquisition. In line with a phonological explanatory model of dyslexia, phonological processing and reading (decoding at both word and text levels) were tested, using data from 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents whose teachers had identified them as possibly having dyslectic difficulties, and a matched comparison group of 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents with no reading difficulties. Unlike previous studies, this analysis takes into account results from both languages and uses a matched bilingual comparison group as the norm. Based on these results, a bilingual dyslexia continuum is proposed as an analytical tool to be used for the assessment of developmental dyslexia from a bilingual perspective. The systematized continuum offers various degrees of difficulty-from high indications of dyslexia to no indications of dyslexia-and the positioning along this continuum by the target group participants of this study provides examples of both over-and under-identification of dyslexia. Overall, a greater number of participants in the target group were under-identified rather than over-identified by the schools. An important insight of this study is that the positioning of bilingual participants on the continuum would have been different if the analysis had taken only one of the two languages into account. Furthermore, possible effects from differences between Spanish and Swedish orthographies and syllable structure were observed, as, in general, the participants read more accurately in Spanish. The present data also suggest that decoding processing might vary more in second-language learners with dyslexia compared to monolingual individuals with dyslexia.

  • 16.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Över- och underidentifiering av dyslexi hos tvåspråkiga2010In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 37-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att belysa och diskutera hur dyslexi kan identifieras hos tvåspråkiga. En kärnfråga är hur man vet om svårigheter med läsning och skrivning grundar sig i dyslexi eller i tillägnandet av ett andraspråk. Detta har beskrivits som ett omvittnat dilemma bl.a. för lärare, då det föreligger en risk dels för att dyslexi identifieras hos en individ som inte har dessa svårigheter, dels att dyslexi inte identifieras hos en individ som faktiskt har dem – eller att svårigheterna inte uppmärksammas tidigt nog.

    Denna artikel avser att närmare belysa problematiken med så kallad över- och underidentifiering av dyslexi hos tvåspråkiga utifrån en multipel fallstudie av spansk-svensktalande ungdomar, vars lärare misstänkte att de hade dyslexi. I artikeln ges först en översikt över forskning som berör avgränsningar av dyslexi hos tvåspråkiga.

  • 17.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lika eller lika möjligheter? Diskurser om skolämnet svenska som andraspråk inom det akademiska fältet i Sverige2018In: Acta Didactica Norge - tidsskrift for fagdidaktisk forsknings- og utviklingsarbeid i Norge, ISSN 1504-9922, E-ISSN 1504-9922, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we take the concept of equality as the basis to discern and discuss discourses in scholarly texts within the Swedish academic field on the school subject Swedish as a second language (SSL) after its introduction in 1995. The study analyzes the types of arguments, their theoretical and empirical under-pinnings, and the assumptions of equality reflected. Two colliding discourses are identified, of which the arguments of the SSL discourse, stemming from research on multilingualism and second language research, recognizes lan-guage educational needs in students’ learning in their second language as an expression of equality-as-equal-opportunity and resistance to “difference blind-ness”. In this line of argument, SSL is constructed as part of a pluralistic language policy comprising SSL and mother tongue education. However, the recognition of second language educational needs exists alongside criticism of the subject’s organization. The colliding discourse centers on inclusion, describes SSL as an expression of deficiency regarding the students, and considers the separation of students to be a key problem. As aspects of the inclusion discourse are also found in the SSL discourse, interdiscursive rela-tions are discerned. The emerging interpretations of deficiency and language reflect how discourses construct their object (Foucault, 1972), in this case contents and aims of SSL. The anticipating characteristics of the discourses indicate an involvement of actors with a high degree of agency, reflecting the relatively high impact of the academic field on the political field in terms of multilingual education policy. Research on the SSL educational practices, partly underpinning the discourses, is however strikingly limited.

  • 18.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Samtal om lärobokstext på två språk: Textsamtalets stöttande funktion för spansk-svensktalande ungdomar med och utan uppfattade läshinder2017In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how Spanish-Swedish speaking secondary school students perform in text talk on the topic of a social science textbook. Using the concept of ʻtextual mobility’ (Swedish: textrörlighet), expressions of textual mobility are analyzed qualitatively in both Spanish and Swedish. The paper is based on data from twenty Spanish-Swedish speaking secondary school students, of whom half were perceived by their teachers to have some form of reading disability. The results show that the students in general displayed similar degrees of textual mobility in both of their languages, regardless of genre variation. This indicates language interdependence, although there were also exceptions to this pattern. Group comparisons show that the students with perceived reading difficulties expressed textual mobility to a lesser extent, although all students expressed some degree of textual mobility, in both Spanish and Swedish. The «multilingual text talk» and its scaffolding potential, as well as its function as a didactic tool, is highlighted and discussed in relation to multilingual students, with and without perceived reading difficulties.

  • 19. Jalali-Moghadam, Niloufar
    et al.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Special Education Teachers’ Narratives on Literacy Support for Bilingual Students with Dyslexia in Swedish Compulsory Schools2016In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate how special education teachers talk about their teaching in relation to bilingual students with dyslexia within Swedish compulsory schools. Data consist of transcripts from in-depth interviews with 15 special education teachers. According to the teacher narratives, the special education services appeared to be biased against bilingual students, as the support provided to bilingual students with dyslexia was revealed to be more or less the same as that provided to monolingual Swedish-speaking students with dyslexia. This bias is discussed in relation to the notion of difference blindness as well as in relation to practical constraints. Nevertheless, the teachers strongly advocated collaborative work with mother tongue teachers in order to facilitate dyslexia identification in bilingual students and to gain a more comprehensive picture of their language and literacy competencies, which is a desire that contrasts and contests a pedagogical monolingual master model within special education services.

  • 20. Palm, Clara
    et al.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Language use and investment among children and adolescents of Somali heritage in Sweden2018In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores language use and investment among Somali-speaking children and adolescents in Sweden, through group interviews and survey data. Our findings indicate that there are incentives to invest in Somali language learning considering the reported language use patterns and the expressed positive attitudes towards Somali mother tongue instruction. The Somali language was perceived to be ‘naturally’ linked to Somali identity and to being able to claim ‘Somaliness’, not only by the adolescents but also by the surroundings. Thus, advanced Somali language proficiency was perceived as necessary for being able to pass as ‘culturally authentic’ (Jaffe, A. [2012]. “Multilingual Citizenship and Minority Languages.” In The Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism, edited by M. Martin-Jones, A. Blackledge, and A. Creese, 83–99. London: Routledge). Furthermore, being perceived as unproficient in Somali or unable to transmit the language to future generations was experienced as guilt-provoking. Nevertheless, the adolescents articulated a compliance with the dominant linguistic order in Sweden, and their school’s assimilatory language rules (‘Swedish-only’). This compliance was associated with good manners and moral behaviour, thus reflecting the potentially harmful and pervasive nature of assimilatory language ideology and policy for individual students. The findings exemplify in many ways the struggles it entails to maintain and develop a minoritised language in a majority language context and the complex ‘ideological enterprise’ of language learning with its educational and ethical dilemmas.

  • 21.
    Salö, Linus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Karrebæk, Martha Sif
    Mother tongue instruction in Sweden and Denmark: Language policy, cross-field effects, and linguistic exchange rates2018In: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 591-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates mother tongue instruction (MTI) in Sweden and Denmark in a historical, comparative perspective, with a view to accounting for key differences in language policy enacted in educational fields. Whereas in Sweden, MTI is offered to linguistic minority children irrespective of their linguistic and ethnic backgrounds, in Denmark the right to state-sponsored MTI has been abolished for children of non-European descent. Moreover, while the policies of both states devalue skills in mother tongues other than the legitimate language of each society, this position is more pronounced in the Danish context. The article explores the two state’s position on MTI, as expressed in policy as well as in discourse produced in the political and academic field of each state. It subscribes to Pierre Bourdieu’s framework, within which state policy is conceived as the product of historical struggle and cross-field effects. The analysis shows that the national differences in MTI exist because of the differing ways in which agents from the academic vis-à-vis the political field have succeeded in imposing their visions in the bureaucratic field from which policies are produced. Ultimately, this circumstance explains why the Swedish discussion on MTI may be characterized as having been academically founded, while the Danish discussion has remained a matter of political consideration. In the latter case, we argue, it is particularly tangible that MTI is a politicized object of struggle, where agents seek to control the exchange rate of linguistic resources and, in effect, the social worth of different speakers.

  • 22. Wedin, Åsa
    et al.
    Hedman, ChristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Flerspråkighet, litteracitet och multimodalitet2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många människor, såväl barn som tonåringar och vuxna, lever i flerspråkiga sammanhang som skiljer sig väsentligt från den enspråkiga miljö som ofta tas för given i skola och vuxenutbildning. Där har man i stället många gånger haft svårt att förhålla sig till flerspråkighet och ofta utgått ifrån ett bristperspektiv. Detta gäller inte minst skriftspråksundervisningen, där elevernas egna erfarenheter av en flexibel flerspråkighet utanför klassrummet alltför sällan tas tillvara.

    I den här antologin presenterar ett antal forskare exempel på skriftspråkliga erfarenheter, både flerspråkiga och multimodala, som sällan uppmärksammas i skolan. I sina studier har de sett en mängd goda exempel på hur lärare arbetar i klassrummet för att gynna skriftspråksutvecklingen hos flerspråkiga elever – deras multilitteracitet. En sådan medvetenhet hos läraren kan t.ex. handla om alltifrån att ha kunskap om effektiva läsförståelsestrategier till att förstå hur multimodalitet i läroböcker och multimodalt textskapande i klassrummet stärker lärande och flerspråkig kompetens.

    Boken vänder sig främst till blivande och verksamma lärare i skola och vuxenutbildning.

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