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  • 1.
    Andersson, Rina Argelia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Meyers, Philip
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A..
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Organic matter delivery to Quaternary sediments of Amundsen Basin, central Arctic OceanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary marine sediments retrieved from the central Arctic Ocean in a 30 cm long core, were analyzed for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. n-Alkane biomarkers combined with elemental analyses that include X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning provide complementary information that suggest important influxes of terrigenous derived organic matter (OM) with depth. Changes in the variability of n-alkane-derived and elemental ratios with depth reflect the complexity of the organic carbon cycle in this region. The distributions and abundances of the long-chain n-alkanes reveal a high content of terrigenous derived components and suggest together with mathematical estimations high deliveries of the terrigenous OM in the past. XRF trace metal analyses suggest less-oxygenated bottom waters that may have allowed for better preservation conditions of OM deeper in the core.

  • 2.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Miller, Clint
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Post-recovery dissolution of calcareous microfossils in sediments from a highly productive Arctic marine environmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3. Gemery, Laura
    et al.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Poirier, Robert K.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Koshurnikov, Andrey
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Central Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from similar to 50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expedition2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 1473-1489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes at the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean, were reconstructed from a multicore and gravity core recovered during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Expedition. Ostracode assemblages dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) indicate changing sea-ice conditions and warm Atlantic Water (AW) inflow to the Arctic Ocean from similar to 50 ka to present. Key taxa used as environmental indicators include Acetabulastoma arcticum (perennial sea ice), Polycope spp. (variable sea-ice margins, high surface productivity), Krithe hunti (Arctic Ocean deep water), and Rabilimis mirabilis (water mass change/AWinflow). Results indicate periodic seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (similar to 57-29 ka), rapid deglacial changes in water mass conditions (15-11 ka), seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during the early Holocene (similar to 10-7 ka) and perennial sea ice during the late Holocene. Comparisons with faunal records from other cores from the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges suggest generally similar patterns, although sea-ice cover during the Last Glacial Maximum may have been less extensive at the new Lomonosov Ridge core site (similar to 85.15 degrees N, 152 degrees E) than farther north and towards Greenland. The new data provide evidence for abrupt, large-scale shifts in ostracode species depth and geographical distributions during rapid climatic transitions.

  • 4.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Anderson, Leif
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Björk, Göran
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Kirchner, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Koshurnikov, Andrey
    Mayer, Larry
    Noormets, Riko
    O'Regan, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Ananiev, Roman
    Barrientos Macho, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cherniykh, Denis
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Flodén, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gemery, Laura
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Jerram, Kevin
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Khortov, Alexey
    Mohammad, Rezwan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Evidence for an ice shelf covering the central Arctic Ocean during the penultimate glaciation2016In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 10365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis of a km-thick ice shelf covering the entire Arctic Ocean during peak glacial conditions was proposed nearly half a century ago. Floating ice shelves preserve few direct traces after their disappearance, making reconstructions difficult. Seafloor imprints of ice shelves should, however, exist where ice grounded along their flow paths. Here we present new evidence of ice-shelf groundings on bathymetric highs in the central Arctic Ocean, resurrecting the concept of an ice shelf extending over the entire central Arctic Ocean during at least one previous ice age. New and previously mapped glacial landforms together reveal flow of a spatially coherent, in some regions41-km thick, central Arctic Ocean ice shelf dated to marine isotope stage 6 (similar to 140 ka). Bathymetric highs were likely critical in the ice-shelf development by acting as pinning points where stabilizing ice rises formed, thereby providing sufficient back stress to allow ice shelf thickening.

  • 5. Kanhai, La Daana K.
    et al.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Frias, J. P. G. L.
    Gardfeldt, Katarina
    Thompson, Richard C.
    O'Connor, Ian
    Deep sea sediments of the Arctic Central Basin: A potential sink for microplastics2019In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 145, p. 137-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep sea sediments have emerged as a potential sink for microplastics in the marine environment. The discovery of microplastics in various environmental compartments of the Arctic Central Basin (ACB) suggested that these contaminants were potentially being transported to the deep-sea realm of this oceanic basin. For the first time, the present study conducted a preliminary assessment to determine whether microplastics were present in surficial sediments from the ACB. Gravity and piston corers were used to retrieve sediments from depths of 855-4353 m at 11 sites in the ACB during the Arctic Ocean 2016 (AO16) expedition. Surficial sediments from the various cores were subjected to density flotation with sodium tungstate dihydrate solution (Na2WO4 center dot 2H(2)O, density 1.4 g cm(-3)). Potential microplastics were isolated and analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Of the surficial samples, 7 of the 11 samples contained synthetic polymers which included polyester (n = 3), polystyrene (n = 2), polyacrylonitrile (n = 1), polypropylene (n = 1), polyvinyl chloride (n = 1) and polyamide (n = 1). Fibres (n = 5) and fragments (n = 4) were recorded in the samples. In order to avoid mis-interpretation, these findings musi be taken in the context that (i) sampling equipment did not guarantee retrieval of undisturbed surficial sediments, (ii) low sample volumes were analysed (similar to 10 g per site), (iii) replicate sediment samples per site was not possible, (iv) no air contamination checks were included during sampling and, (v) particles < 100 mu m were automatically excluded from analysis. While the present study provides preliminary indication that microplastics may be accumulating in the deep-sea realm of the ACB, further work is necessary to assess microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in surficial sediments of the ACB.

  • 6. Miller, Clint M.
    et al.
    Dickens, Gerald R.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Koshurnikov, Andrey
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pore water geochemistry along continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea: inference of low methane concentrations2017In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 2929-2953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea potentially hold large amounts of methane (CH4/in sediments as gas hydrate and free gas. Although release of this CH4 to the ocean and atmosphere has become a topic of discussion, the region remains sparingly explored. Here we present pore water chemistry results from 32 sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 joint Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions (SWERUS-C3) expedition. The cores come from depth transects across the slope and rise extending between the Mendeleev and the Lomonosov ridges, north of Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands, respectively. Upward CH4 flux towards the seafloor, as inferred from profiles of dissolved sulfate (SO42-), alkalinity, and the delta C-13 of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), is negligible at all stations east of 143 degrees E longitude. In the upper 8m of these cores, downward SO42- flux never exceeds 6.2 mol m(-2) kyr(-1), the upward alkalinity flux never exceeds 6.8 mol m(-2) kyr(-1), and delta C-13 composition of DIC (delta C-13-DIC) only moderately decreases with depth (3.6% m 1 on average). Moreover, upon addition of Zn acetate to pore water samples, ZnS did not precipitate, indicating a lack of dissolved H2S. Phosphate, ammonium, and metal profiles reveal that metal oxide reduction by organic carbon dominates the geochemical environment and supports very low organic carbon turnover rates. A single core on the Lomonosov Ridge differs, as diffusive fluxes for SO42- and alkalinity were 13.9 and 11.3 mol m(-2) kyr(-1), respectively, the delta C-13-DIC gradient was 5.6% m(-1), and Mn2+ reduction terminated within 1.3 m of the seafloor. These are among the first pore water results generated from this vast climatically sensitive region, and they imply that abundant CH4, including gas hydrates, do not characterize the East Siberian Sea slope or rise along the investigated depth transects. This contradicts previous modeling and discussions, which due to the lack of data are almost entirely based on assumption.

  • 7. Shephard, G. E.
    et al.
    Wiers, Steffen
    Bazhenova, Evgenia
    Perez, Lara F.
    Mejia, Luz Maria
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    A North Pole thermal anomaly? Evidence from new and existing heat flow measurements from the central Arctic Ocean2018In: Journal of Geodynamics, ISSN 0264-3707, E-ISSN 1879-1670, Vol. 118, p. 166-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constraining the thermal evolution of the Arctic Ocean is hampered by notably sparse heat flow measurements and a complex tectonic history. Previous results from the Lomonosov Ridge in the vicinity of the North Pole, and the adjacent central Amundsen Basin reveal varied values, including those higher than expected considering plate cooling or simple uniform stretching models. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the North Pole an anomalously slow velocity perturbation exists in upper mantle seismic tomography models. However, whether these observations are related to a thermal anomaly in the mantle remains unknown. We present new heat flow results gathered from 17 sediment cores acquired during the Arctic Ocean 2016 and SWERUS-C3 expeditions on the Swedish icebreaker Oden. Three sites located on oceanic lithosphere in the Amundsen Basin between 7 degrees W-71E degrees reveal surface thermal conductivity of 1.07-1.26 W/mK and heat flow in the order of 71-95 mW/m(2), in line-with or slightly higher (1-21 mW/m(2)) than expected from oceanic heat flow curves. These results contrast with published results from further east in the Amundsen Basin, which indicated surface heat flow values up to 2 times higher than predicted from oceanic crustal cooling models. Heat flow of 49-61 mW/m(2) was recovered from the Amerasia Basin. Sites from the submerged continental fragments of the Lomonosov Ridge and Marvin Spur recovered heat flow in the order of 53-76 and 51-69 mW/m(2) respectively. When considering the additional potential surface heat flux from radiogenic heat production in the crust, these variable measurements are broadly in line with predictions from uniform extension models for continental crust. A seismically imaged upper mantle velocity anomaly in the central Arctic Ocean may arise from a combination of compositional and thermal variations but requires additional investigation. Disentangling surface heat flow contributions from crustal, lithospheric and mantle processes, including variable along-ridge rifting rates and timing, density and phase changes, conductive and advective dynamics, and regional tectonics, requires further analysis.

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