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  • 1. Anderson, Leif G.
    et al.
    Björk, Göran
    Holby, Ola
    Jutterström, Sara
    Mörth, Carl Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Stranne, Christian
    Stöven, Tim
    Tanhua, Toste
    Ulfsbo, Adam
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea2017In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 349-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180 degrees E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140 degrees E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150 degrees E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to similar to 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170 degrees E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of similar to 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity similar to 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  • 2.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Lear, Caroline
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    de Boer, Agatha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cronin, Thomas
    Semiletov, Igor
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Late Holocene variability in Arctic Ocean Pacific Water inflow through the Bering StraitManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Miller, Clint
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Post-recovery dissolution of calcareous microfossils in sediments from a highly productive Arctic marine environmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4. Braun, Stefan
    et al.
    Mhatre, Snehit S.
    Jaussi, Marion
    Roy, Hans
    Kjeldsen, Kasper U.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
    Jorgensen, Bo Barker
    Lomstein, Bente Aa.
    Microbial turnover times in the deep seabed studied by amino acid racemization modelling2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 5680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of active microbial populations in deep, energy-limited marine sediments has extended our knowledge of the limits of life on Earth. Typically, microbial activity in the deep biosphere is calculated by transport-reaction modelling of pore water solutes or from experimental measurements involving radiotracers. Here we modelled microbial activity from the degree of D: L-aspartic acid racemization in microbial necromass (remains of dead microbial biomass) in sediments up to ten million years old. This recently developed approach (D: L-amino acid modelling) does not require incubation experiments and is highly sensitive in stable, low-activity environments. We applied for the first time newly established constraints on several important input parameters of the D: L-amino acid model, such as a higher aspartic acid racemization rate constant and a lower cell-specific carbon content of sub-seafloor microorganisms. Our model results show that the pool of necromass amino acids is turned over by microbial activity every few thousand years, while the turnover times of vegetative cells are in the order of years to decades. Notably, microbial turnover times in million-year-old sediment from the Peru Margin are up to 100-fold shorter than previous estimates, highlighting the influence of microbial activities on element cycling over geologic time scales.

  • 5. Cronin, Thomas M.
    et al.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gemery, Laura
    Toomey, Michael
    Semiletov, Igor
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1097-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; similar to 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of similar to 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka (similar to 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geo-graphical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  • 6. Gemery, Laura
    et al.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Poirier, Robert K.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Johansson, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Koshurnikov, Andrey
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Central Arctic Ocean paleoceanography from similar to 50 ka to present, on the basis of ostracode faunal assemblages from the SWERUS 2014 expedition2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 1473-1489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes at the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean, were reconstructed from a multicore and gravity core recovered during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 Expedition. Ostracode assemblages dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) indicate changing sea-ice conditions and warm Atlantic Water (AW) inflow to the Arctic Ocean from similar to 50 ka to present. Key taxa used as environmental indicators include Acetabulastoma arcticum (perennial sea ice), Polycope spp. (variable sea-ice margins, high surface productivity), Krithe hunti (Arctic Ocean deep water), and Rabilimis mirabilis (water mass change/AWinflow). Results indicate periodic seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (similar to 57-29 ka), rapid deglacial changes in water mass conditions (15-11 ka), seasonally sea-ice-free conditions during the early Holocene (similar to 10-7 ka) and perennial sea ice during the late Holocene. Comparisons with faunal records from other cores from the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges suggest generally similar patterns, although sea-ice cover during the Last Glacial Maximum may have been less extensive at the new Lomonosov Ridge core site (similar to 85.15 degrees N, 152 degrees E) than farther north and towards Greenland. The new data provide evidence for abrupt, large-scale shifts in ostracode species depth and geographical distributions during rapid climatic transitions.

  • 7.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Björk, Göran
    Coxall, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    de Boer, Agatha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mayer, Larry A.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Semiletov, Igor
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Post-glacial flooding of the Bering Land Bridge dated to 11 cal ka BP based on new geophysical and sediment records2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 991-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bering Strait connects the Arctic and Pacific oceans and separates the North American and Asian landmasses. The presently shallow (similar to 53 m) strait was exposed during the sea level lowstand of the last glacial period, which permitted human migration across a land bridge today referred to as the Bering Land Bridge. Proxy studies (stable isotope composition of foraminifera, whale migration into the Arctic Ocean, mollusc and insect fossils and paleobotanical data) have suggested a range of ages for the Bering Strait reopening, mainly falling within the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9-11.7 cal ka BP). Here we provide new information on the deglacial and post-glacial evolution of the Arctic-Pacific connection through the Bering Strait based on analyses of geological and geophysical data from Herald Canyon, located north of the Bering Strait on the Chukchi Sea shelf region in the western Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest an initial opening at about 11 cal ka BP in the earliest Holocene, which is later than in several previous studies. Our key evidence is based on a well-dated core from Herald Canyon, in which a shift from a near-shore environment to a Pacific-influenced open marine setting at around 11 cal ka BP is observed. The shift corresponds to meltwater pulse 1b (MWP1b) and is interpreted to signify relatively rapid breaching of the Bering Strait and the submergence of the large Bering Land Bridge. Although the precise rates of sea level rise cannot be quantified, our new results suggest that the late deglacial sea level rise was rapid and occurred after the end of the Younger Dryas stadial.

  • 8. Jennings, Anne
    et al.
    Andrews, John
    Pearce, Christof
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wilson, Lindsay
    Ólfasdótttir, Sædís
    Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13–7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre2015In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 107, p. 62-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), ή18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records. SW Iceland shelf core MD99-2256 documents freshwater entrainment into the subpolar gyre from the Hudson Strait outlet via the Labrador, North Atlantic, and Irminger currents. The timing of freshwater release from the LIS Hudson Strait outlet in MD99-2236 matches evidence for freshwater forcing and LIS icebergs carrying foreign minerals to the SW Iceland shelf between 11.5 and 8.2 ka. The congruency of these records supports the conclusion of the entrainment of freshwater from the retreat of the LIS through Hudson Strait into the subpolar gyre and provides specific time periods when pulses of LIS freshwater were present to influence climate.

  • 9. Jennings, Anne E.
    et al.
    Andrews, John T.
    Cofaigh, Colm O.
    St-Onge, Guillaume
    Belt, Simon
    Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude
    Campbell, D. Calvin
    Baffin Bay paleoenvironments in the LGM and HS1: Resolving the ice-shelf question2018In: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 402, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Core HU2008029-12PC from the Disko trough mouth fan on the central West Greenland continental slope is used to test whether an ice shelf covered Baffin Bay during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and at the onset of the deglaciation. We use benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblages, stable isotope analysis of planktic forams, algal biomarkers, ice-rafted detritus (IRD), lithofacies characteristics defined from CT scans, and quantitative mineralogy to reconstruct paleoceanographic conditions, sediment processes and sediment provenance. The chronology is based on radiocarbon dates on planktic foraminifers using a Delta R of 140 +/- 30 C-14 years, supplemented by the varying reservoir estimates of Stern and Lisiecki (2013) that provide an envelope of potential ages. HU2008029-12PC is bioturbated throughout. Sediments between the core base at 11.3 m and 4.6 m (LGM through HS1) comprise thin turbidites, plumites and hemipelagic sediments with Greenlandic provenance consistent with processes active at the Greenland Ice Sheet margin grounded at or near the shelf edge. Abundance spikes of planktic forams coincide with elevated abundance of benthic forams in assemblages indicative of chilled Atlantic Water, meltwater and intermittent marine productivity. IRD and IP25 are rare in this interval, but brassicasterol, an indicator of marine productivity reaches and sustains low levels during the LGM. These biological characteristics are consistent with a sea-ice covered ocean experiencing periods of more open water such as leads or polynyas in the sea ice cover, with chilled Atlantic Water at depth, rather than full iceshelf cover. They do not support the existence of a full Baffin Bay ice shelf cover extending from grounded ice on the Davis Strait. Initial ice retreat from the West Greenland margin is manifested by a pronounced lithofacies shift to bioturbated, diatomaceous mud with rare IRD of Greenlandic origin at 467 cm (16.2 cal ka BP; Delta R = 140 yrs) within HS1. A spike in foraminiferal abundance and ocean warmth indicator benthic forams precedes the initial ice retreat from the shelf edge. At the end of HS1, IP 25 , brassicasterol and benthic forams indicative of sea-ice edge productivity increase, indicating warming interstadial conditions. Within the Bolling/Allerod interstadial a strong rise in IP 25 content and IRD spikes rich in detrital carbonate from northern Baffin Bay indicate that northern Baffin Bay ice streams were retreating and provides evidence for increased open water, advection of Atlantic Water in the West Greenland Current, and formation of an IRD belt along the W. Greenland margin.

  • 10.
    Keskitalo, Kirsi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. CNR-National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Bröder, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sköld, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Semiletov, Igor P.
    Dudarev, Oleg V.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sources and characteristics of terrestrial carbon in Holocene-scale sediments of the East Siberian Sea2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1213-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thawing of permafrost carbon (PF-C) due to climate warming can remobilise considerable amounts of terrestrial carbon from its long-term storage to the marine environment. PF-C can be then be buried in sediments or remineralised to CO2 with implications for the carbon-climate feedback. Studying historical sediment records during past natural climate changes can help us to understand the response of permafrost to current climate warming. In this study, two sediment cores collected from the East Siberian Sea were used to study terrestrial organic carbon sources, composition and degradation during the past similar to 9500 cal yrs BP. CuO-derived lignin and cutin products (i.e., compounds solely biosynthesised in terrestrial plants) combined with delta C-13 suggest that there was a higher input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea between similar to 9500 and 8200 cal yrs BP than in all later periods. This high input was likely caused by marine transgression and permafrost destabilisation in the early Holocene climatic optimum. Based on source apportionment modelling using dual-carbon isotope (Delta C-14, Delta C-13) data, coastal erosion releasing old Pleistocene permafrost carbon was identified as a significant source of organic matter translocated to the East Siberian Sea during the Holocene.

  • 11. Lammertsma, Emmy I.
    et al.
    Donders, Timme H.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Cremer, Holger
    Gaiser, Evelyn E.
    Wagner-Cremer, Friederike
    Sensitivity of wetland hydrology to external climate forcing in central Florida2015In: Quaternary Research, ISSN 0033-5894, E-ISSN 1096-0287, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Available proxy records from the Florida peninsula give a varying view on hydrological changes during the late Holocene. Here we evaluate the consistency and sensitivity of local wetland records in relation to hydrological changes over the past ~ 5 ka based on pollen and diatom proxies from peat cores in Highlands Hammock State Park, central Florida. Around 5 cal ka BP, a dynamic floodplain environment is present. Subsequently, a wetland forest establishes, followed by a change to persistent wet conditions between ~ 2.5 and 2.0 ka. Long hydroperiods remain despite gradual succession and basin infilling with maximum wet conditions between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 ka. The wet phase and subsequent strong drying over the last millennium, as indicated by shifts in both pollen and diatom assemblages, can be linked to the early Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, respectively, driven by regionally higher sea-surface temperatures and a temporary northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Changes during the 20th century are the result of constructions intended to protect the Highlands Hammock State Park from wildfires. The multiple cores and proxies allow distinguishing local and regional hydrological changes. The peat records reflect relatively subtle climatic changes that are not evident from regional pollen records from lakes.

  • 12.
    Martens, Jannik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. National Research Council, Italy.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bröder, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands,.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sköld, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Gemery, Laura
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Dudarev, Oleg V.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Remobilization of Old Permafrost Carbon to Chukchi Sea Sediments During the End of the Last Deglaciation2019In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming is expected to destabilize permafrost carbon (PF-C) by thaw-erosion and deepening of the seasonally thawed active layer and thereby promote PF-C mineralization to CO2 and CH4. A similar PF-C remobilization might have contributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 during deglacial warming after the last glacial maximum. Using carbon isotopes and terrestrial biomarkers (Delta C-14, delta C-13, and lignin phenols), this study quantifies deposition of terrestrial carbon originating from permafrost in sediments from the Chukchi Sea (core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1). The sediment core reconstructs remobilization of permafrost carbon during the late Allerod warm period starting at 13,000 cal years before present (BP), the Younger Dryas, and the early Holocene warming until 11,000 cal years BP and compares this period with the late Holocene, from 3,650 years BP until present. Dual-carbon-isotope-based source apportionment demonstrates that Ice Complex Deposit-ice- and carbon-rich permafrost from the late Pleistocene (also referred to as Yedoma)-was the dominant source of organic carbon (66 +/- 8%; mean +/- standard deviation) to sediments during the end of the deglaciation, with fluxes more than twice as high (8.0 +/- 4.6 g.m(-2).year(-1)) as in the late Holocene (3.1 +/- 1.0 g.m(-2).year(-1)). These results are consistent with late deglacial PF-C remobilization observed in a Laptev Sea record, yet in contrast with PF-C sources, which at that location were dominated by active layer material from the Lena River watershed. Release of dormant PF-C from erosion of coastal permafrost during the end of the last deglaciation indicates vulnerability of Ice Complex Deposit in response to future warming and sea level changes.

  • 13.
    O'Regan, Matt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Gemery, Laura
    Kirchner, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Mayer, Larry A.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Noormets, Riko
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The De Long Trough: A newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 1269-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish - Russian - US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions). The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a > 65m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough - the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than similar to 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6).

  • 14.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The timing of the Gold Cove glacial event: A comment on "Signature of the Gold Cove event (10.2 ka) in the Labrador Sea"2015In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 377, p. 157-159Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent paper in Quaternary International, Rashid et al. (2014) €œSignature of the Gold Cove event (10.2 ka) in the Labrador Sea” attributes sediment layers rich in detrital carbonate (DC) in several marine sediment cores in the Labrador Sea to the so-called Gold Cove (GC) glacial advance of the early Holocene. The age estimate for the GC event as well as the correlations between sediment cores in this study are based on radiocarbon dates, mostly from previously published studies. Although this work provides a good overview of an apparently widespread DC layer in the early Holocene, the reported age of 10.2 cal. ka BP for the actual Gold Cove event is too young, due to a mistake made during re-calibration of the original radiocarbon dates used to describe the event. The 14C dates have been corrected to compensate for the marine reservoir effect two times, leading to an unrealistically large total reservoir age of more than thousand years. By applying such a large marine reservoir offset, the final calibrated age becomes too young. Originally the GC event was described to consist of an advance and retreat phase, in total spanning several centuries. The Gold Cove event should therefore more accurately be reported as an age range, and it occurred most likely ca. 500 years earlier than 10.2 ka BP, the age reported by Rashid et al. (2014).

  • 15.
    Pearce, Christof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Andrews, J. T.
    Bouloubassi, I.
    Hillaire-Marcel, C.
    Jennings, A. E.
    Olsen, J.
    Kuijpers, A.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Heinrich 0 on the east Canadian margin: Source, distribution and timing2015In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 1613-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last deglaciation was marked by intervals of rapid climatic fluctuations accompanied by glacial advances and retreats along the eastern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). One of these climatic events, the Younger Dryas cold reversal, was accompanied by a detrital carbonate event referred to as "Heinrich event 0" (H0) that deposited ice-rafted debris and especially detrital carbonate-rich (DC) sediment layers in the western and southern Labrador Sea. The precise age, duration, source, and geographical distribution of the H0 DC event, however, are not entirely clear. A high-sedimentation rate sequence cored off southern Newfoundland yielded an age of ca. 11.5 – 11.3 cal. kyr BP for this layer, thus pointing to its deposition directly following the Younger Dryas termination, likely associated with rapid ice retreat and warming at the onset of the Holocene. At the study site, the H0 layer contains increased concentrations of detrital carbonates (calcite/dolomite ratio ~ 2.5:1) and a mature biomarker composition, similar to that found in Heinrich Layers 1, 2, 4 and 5, which together suggest an origin from Hudson Strait. Grain size analysis indicates that the H0-sediments were transported to the study site mostly through shallow plumes along the Labrador Shelf, with some hyperpycnal dispersal, deeper, along the slope and rise. Our data thus point to a large meltwater release caused by retreat of the ice margin in the Hudson Strait area. The relvatively short duration of the H0 layer, and its timing right after a major climatic transition, combined with its ubiquitous regional occurence makes it valuable for correlating different sediment records from the western Labrador Sea.

  • 16.
    Pearce, Christof
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
    Kuijpers, Antoon
    Reynisson, Njall Fannar
    A multi-proxy reconstruction of oceanographic conditions around the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland2014In: Marine Micropaleontology, ISSN 0377-8398, E-ISSN 1872-6186, Vol. 112, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A marine sediment core from Placentia Bay off the south coast of Newfoundland was studied to reconstruct past oceanographic conditions based on a multiproxy approach, including diatoms, benthic foraminifera, grain size analysis, IP25, X-Ray fluorescence, calcium carbonate and total organic carbon content. Based on 6 radiocarbon dates, the 513.5 cm long core spans the age interval from ca. 13 to 10 cal kyrs BP and thus captures the transition from the Younger Dryas stadial into the Holocene at sub-decadal resolution. The Younger Dryas was characterized by cold Arctic water taxa of diatoms and benthic foraminifera and a stratified water column with high sea ice cover and low productivity due to strong influence of the Labrador Current. During the second half of the Younger Dryas, after ca. 12.2 cal kyrs BP, the influence of the Labrador Current gradually decreased and sea ice conditions became more variable. The transition towards the Holocene is characterized by a sequence of events starting with turnovers in the biogenic proxies followed by an abrupt retreat of sea ice and a rise in productivity. These events are believed to be related to a northward migration of the Gulf Stream-Labrador Current oceanic front. The Younger Dryas termination is directly followed by a detrital carbonate layer associated with the final phase of the Heinrich 0 event, linked to laurentide Ice Sheet dynamics. During the early Holocene productivity remained high, with minimal sea ice cover, reduced stratification and stronger influence of warmer, Gulf Stream-derived waters.

  • 17.
    Pearce, Christof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Varhelyi, Aron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Wastegård, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Columbia University, USA; Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Norway.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Gemery, Laura
    Semiletov, Igor
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    The 3.6 ka Aniakchak tephra in the Arctic Ocean: a constraint on the Holocene radiocarbon reservoir age in the Chukchi Sea2017In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 303-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The caldera-forming eruption of the Aniakchak volcano in the Aleutian Range on the Alaskan Peninsula at 3.6 cal kyr BP was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found as a visible sediment layer in several Alaskan sites and as a cryptotephra on Newfoundland and Greenland. This large geographic distribution, combined with the fact that the eruption is relatively well constrained in time using radiocarbon dating of lake sediments and annual layer counts in ice cores, makes it an excellent stratigraphic marker for dating and correlating mid-late Holocene sediment and paleoclimate records. This study presents the outcome of a targeted search for the Aniakchak tephra in a marine sediment core from the Arctic Ocean, namely Core SWERUS-L2-2-PC1 (2PC), raised from 57m water depth in Herald Canyon, western Chukchi Sea. High concentrations of tephra shards, with a geochemical signature matching that of Aniakchak ash, were observed across a more than 1.5m long sediment sequence. Since the primary input of volcanic ash is through atmospheric transport, and assuming that bioturbation can account for mixing up to ca. 10 cm of the marine sediment deposited at the coring site, the broad signal is interpreted as sustained reworking at the sediment source input. The isochron is therefore placed at the base of the sudden increase in tephra concentrations rather than at the maximum concentration. This interpretation of major reworking is strengthened by analysis of grain size distribution which points to ice rafting as an important secondary transport mechanism of volcanic ash. Combined with radiocarbon dates on mollusks in the same sediment core, the volcanic marker is used to calculate a marine radiocarbon reservoir age offset Delta R = 477 +/- 60 years. This relatively high value may be explained by the major influence of typically carbon-old Pacific waters, and it agrees well with recent estimates of Delta R along the northwest Alaskan coast, possibly indicating stable oceanographic conditions during the second half of the Holocene. Our use of a volcanic absolute age marker to obtain the marine reservoir age offset is the first of its kind in the Arctic Ocean and provides an important framework for improving chronologies and correlating marine sediment archives in this region. Core 2PC has a high sediment accumulation rate averaging 200 cm kyr(-1) throughout the last 4000 years, and the chronology presented here provides a solid base for high-resolution reconstructions of late Holocene climate and ocean variability in the Chukchi Sea.

  • 18. Sheldon, C. M.
    et al.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Frandsen, P.
    Jacobsen, H. V.
    Van Nieuwenhove, N.
    Solignac, S.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Palitzsch, M. G.
    Kuijpers, A.
    Variable influx of West Greenland Current water into the Labrador Current through the last 7200 years: a multiproxy record from Trinity Bay (NE Newfoundland)2015In: arktos, ISSN 2364-9453, Vol. 1, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiproxy study of marine sediment gravity core AI07-06G from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, recorded changes in the strength of the Labrador Current (LC) during the Holocene. From ca. 7.2–5.7 cal kyr BP, Trinity Bay’s seafloor was influenced by cooled Atlantic water derived from the West Greenland Current (WGC) Davis Strait branch, merging into the relatively cold LC. This Atlantic water influence gradually decreased after ca. 5.7 cal kyr BP, reaching a minimum at ca. 4.9 cal kyr BP. In contrast, surface temperatures were relatively low due to cold surface water dominated by sea ice and meltwater carried south by the LC. Icebergs from outlet glaciers around Baffin Bay were abundant in the LC prior to ca. 5.5 cal kyr BP. From ca. 4.9–2.9 cal kyr BP, bottom waters became slightly colder and salinity decreased, as increased mixing of the water column brought less saline surface waters towards the seafloor. This may be explained by a weaker North Atlantic subpolar gyre, transporting less Atlantic water from the WGC to the (outer) LC. Arctic meltwater transport was reduced as glacial melting decreased at the end of the Holocene Thermal Optimum. At ca. 2.9 cal kyr BP, bottom waters returned to colder, more stable conditions, indicating a slight decrease in bottom-water ventilation. After ca. 2.1 cal kyr BP, surface water temperatures dropped and sea ice flux increased. The seafloor of Trinity Bay saw warmer conditions, consistent with a stronger subpolar gyre and increased influx of Atlantic-sourced water.

  • 19. Sheldon, Christina M.
    et al.
    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark .
    Kuijpers, Antoon
    Hansen, Mette J.
    Christensen, Eva Zilmer
    Holocene oceanographic changes in SW Labrador Sea, off Newfoundland2016In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 274-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages supported by selected geochemical data from three marine sediment cores collected in Placentia Bay, SE Newfoundland, are used to construct an ~13,000-year-long record of regional oceanographic changes in the SW Labrador Sea. The area is located in the boundary zone between the cold, ice-loaded Labrador Current (LC) in the north and the warm Gulf Stream (GS) waters to the south. After the Younger Dryas termination, the influence of GS-derived water increased and was further strengthened at 10.7 cal. kyr BP through enhanced northward flow of Atlantic water via the Slopewater Current. A short-term event of increased terrestrial input and water column stratification at 8.4 cal. kyr BP was likely linked to the distal drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. After 7.3 cal. kyr BP, a stronger LC weakened the inflow of warmer subsurface waters from the GS. This may be explained by extensive meltwater release from ice sheets in Arctic Canada and is concurrent with a general shift in oceanographic conditions in the Labrador Sea region. Around 4.0 cal. kyr BP, conditions became more stable with a slight increase in salinity, indicating a decrease in meltwater transported via the LC. The Northern Hemisphere neoglacial cooling around 2.8 cal. kyr BP was characterized off SE Newfoundland by a further stabilization of the current system, dominated by the LC with some continued influx of GS water.

  • 20.
    Swärd, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Björck, Svante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Kylander, Malin E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    A chronology of environmental changes in the Lake Vättern basin from deglaciation to its final isolation2018In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 609-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During and after deglaciation, Lake Vättern developed from a proglacial lake situated at the westernmost rim of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL), into a brackish water body connecting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and finally into an isolated freshwater lake. Here we present geochemical and mineralogical data from a 70‐m composite sediment core recovered in southern Lake Vättern. Together with a radiocarbon age model of this core, we are able to delineate the character and timing of the different lake stages. In addition to a common mineralogical background signature seen throughout the sediment core, the proglacial sediments bear a calcite imprint representing ice‐sheet transported material from the limestone bedrock that borders the lake basin in the northeast. The proglacial fresh to brackish water transition is dated to 11 480±290 cal. a BP and is in close agreement with other regional chronologies. The brackish period lasted c. 300 years and was followed by a c. 1600 year freshwater period before the Vättern basin became isolated from the Initial Littorina Sea. Decreasing detrital input, increasing δ13C values and the appearance of diatoms in the upper 15 m of the sediment succession are interpreted as an overall increase in biological productivity. This mode of sedimentation continues until the present and is interpreted to mark the final isolation of the lake at 9530±50 cal. a BP. Consequently, the isolation of Lake Vättern was not an outcome of the Ancylus Lake regression, but rather because of ongoing continental uplift in the early Littorina period.

  • 21.
    Swärd, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Tarras, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Sedimentary proxies for Pacific water inflow through the Herald Canyon, western Arctic OceanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR), Italy.
    Geibel, Marc C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Panova, Elena
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Karlsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Salvado, Joan A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Krusa, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bröder, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Carbon geochemistry of plankton-dominated samples in the Laptev and East Siberian shelves: contrasts in suspended particle composition2017In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 735-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (>10 mu m) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25 ) and dual-carbon isotopes (delta C-13 and Delta C-14). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (>10 mu m) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. delta C-13 and Delta C-14 exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 mu m) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), delta C-13 and Delta C-14 of POM (> 10 mu m) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between delta C-13 of POM (> 10 mu m) samples and CO(2)aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in delta C-13 between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi-synoptic study.

1 - 22 of 22
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