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  • 1.
    Bring, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of New Hampshire, USA.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Levi, Lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Split, Croatia.
    Pietroń, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rogberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Implications of freshwater flux data from the CMIP5 multimodel output across a set of Northern Hemisphere drainage basins2015In: Earths Future, ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) synthesizes the latest research in global climate modeling. The freshwater system on land, particularly runoff, has so far been of relatively low priority in global climate models, despite the societal and ecosystem importance of freshwater changes, and the science and policy needs for such model output on drainage basin scales. Here we investigate the implications of CMIP5 multimodel ensemble output data for the freshwater system across a set of drainage basins in the Northern Hemisphere. Results of individual models vary widely, with even ensemble mean results differing greatly from observations and implying unrealistic long-term systematic changes in water storage and level within entire basins. The CMIP5 projections of basin-scale freshwater fluxes differ considerably more from observations and among models for the warm temperate study basins than for the Arctic and cold temperate study basins. In general, the results call for concerted research efforts and model developments for improving the understanding and modeling of the freshwater system and its change drivers. Specifically, more attention to basin-scale water flux analyses should be a priority for climate model development, and an important focus for relevant model-based advice for adaptation to climate change.

  • 2.
    Darracq, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Quantification of advective solute travel times and mass transport through hydrological catchments2010In: Environmental Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1567-7419, E-ISSN 1573-1510, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated and outlined the possible quantification and mapping of the distributions of advective solute travel times through hydrological catchments. These distributions are essential for understanding how local water flow and solute transport and attenuation processes affect the catchment-scale transport of solute, for instance with regard to biogeochemical cycling, contamination persistence and water quality. The spatial and statistical distributions of advective travel times have been quantified based on reported hydrological flow and mass-transport modeling results for two coastal Swedish catchments. The results show that the combined travel time distributions for the groundwater-stream network continuum in these catchments depend largely on the groundwater system and model representation, in particular regarding the spatial variability of groundwater hydraulic parameters (conductivity, porosity and gradient), and the possible contributions of slower/deeper groundwater flow components. Model assumptions about the spatial variability of groundwater hydraulic properties can thus greatly affect model results of catchment-scale solute spreading. The importance of advective travel time variability for the total mass delivery of naturally attenuated solute (tracer, nutrient, pollutant) from a catchment to its downstream water recipient depends on the product of catchment-average physical travel time and attenuation rate.

  • 3.
    Darracq, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Scale and model resolution effects on the distributions of advective solute travel times in catchments2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1697-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advective solute travel times and their distributions in hydrological catchments are useful descriptors of the dynamics and variation of the physical mass transport among and along the different source-to-recipient pathways of solute transport through the catchments. This article investigates the scale dependence and the effects of model and data resolution on the quantification of advective travel times and their distributions in the Swedish catchment areas of Norrström and Forsmark. In the surface water networks of the investigated (sub)catchments, the mean advective travel time increases with (sub)catchment scale, whereas the relative travel time variability around the mean value (coefficient of variation, CV) is scale-invariant and insensitive to model resolution. In the groundwater and for the whole (sub)catchments, both the mean value and the CV of travel times are scale-invariant, but sensitive to model resolution and accuracy. Such quantifications and results of advective travel times constitute important steps in the development of improved understanding and modelling of nutrient, pollutant and tracer transport through catchments.

  • 4.
    Destouni, G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Persson, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    General quantification of catchment-scale nutrient and pollutant transport through the subsurface to surface and coastal waters2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 2048-2055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study develops a general quantification framework for consistent intermodel and intercatchment comparison of the nutrient and pollutant mass loading from multiple sources in a catchment area to downstream surface and coastal waters. The framework accounts for the wide spectrum of different transport pathways and travel times through the subsurface (soil, groundwater, sediment) and the linked surface (streams, lakes, wetlands) water systems of a catchment. The account is based on key flow partitioning and mass delivery fractions, which can be quantified differently by different flow and transport and reaction models. The framework application is exemplified for two Swedish catchment cases with regard to the transport of phosphorus and of a generic attenuating solute. The results show essential differences in model quantifications of transport pathways and temporal spreading, with important implications for our understanding of cause and effect in the catchment-scale nutrient and pollutant loading to downstream waters.

  • 5.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Balfors, Berit
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Levi, Lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Split, Croatia.
    Olofsson, Bo
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åström, Mats
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Needs and means to advance science, policy and management understanding of the freshwater system – A synthesis report2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmented and inconsistent understanding of the freshwater system limits our ability to achieve water security and sustainability under the human-driven changes occurring in the Anthropocene. To advance system-level understanding of freshwater, gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge, data, representations and links of processes and subsystems need to be identified and bridged under consideration of the freshwater system as a continuous whole. 

    Based on such identification, a freshwater system conceptualization is developed in this report, which emphasizes four essential, yet often neglected system aspects:

    i) Distinction of coastal divergent catchments.

    ii) Four main zones (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation) of different types of freshwater change.

    iii) Water pathways as system-coupling agents that link and partition water change among the four change zones.

    iv) Direct interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system pathways across the change zones.

    We explain and exemplify some key implications of these aspects, identifying in the process also distinct patterns of human-driven changes in large-scale water fluxes and nutrient loads.

    The present conceptualization provides a basis for common inter- and trans-disciplinary understanding and systematic characterization of the freshwater system function and its changes, and of approaches to their modeling and monitoring. This can be viewed and used as a unifying checklist that can advance science, policy and management of freshwater and related environmental changes across various scales and world regions.

  • 6.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Basu, Nandita
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Dahlke, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Juston, John
    Karlsson, Elin M.
    Koussis, Antonis D.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mazi, Katerina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mård Karlsson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Rao, Suresh C.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Vercauteren, Nikki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hydro-Biogeochemical and Environmental-Management Functions of Wetland Networks in Landscapes2012In: 9th INTECOL International Wetlands Conference, Wetlands in a Complex World: Conference Abstracts, 2012, p. 915-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A main application goal of ecohydrological science is to amplify opportunities of achieving water quality improvements, biodiversity enhancements and sustainable development, by improved understanding and use of ecosystem properties as a management tool. This paper draws on and synthesizes main result implications for the function and possible enhanced use of wetland networks in the landscape as such a tool, from a series of hydro-biogeochemical and environmental economics studies of nutrient/pollutant loading and abatement in different Swedish hydrological catchments. Results show large potential of wetland networks to reduce the cost of abating nutrient and metal loads within and from hydrological catchments, and emphasize some main research questions for further investigations of actual possibilities to realize this potential. The questions regard in particular the ability of wetland networks to extend the travel times and reduce the uncertainty of hydrological nutrient/pollutant transport through catchments.

    The paper further presents and discusses some main joint conclusions of the participants in a recently held International Workshop on Ecohydrology and Integrated Water Resource Management (1) at the Navarino Environmental Observatory in Messinia, Greece (2), regarding essential goals for collaborative international efforts in wetland network research. The goals include to investigate on different spatiotemporal scales and in different world regions: a) the dynamics of natural and managed wetland networks across a gradient of different climate, human disturbance, energy and organization conditions; b) the reciprocal interactions between wetland networks and associated hydrological catchments; c) how climate change and different human activities in the wetland network catchments influence these interactions (in b) and generally the ecohydrology of individual wetlands and the whole wetland networks; and d) the ecosystem services provided by networks of wetlands.

  • 7.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fischer, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Water quality and ecosystem management: Data-driven reality check of effects in streams and lakes2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 6395-6406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates nutrient-related water quality conditions and change trends in the first management periods of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009) and Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007). With mitigation of nutrients in inland waters and their discharges to the Baltic Sea being a common WFD and BSAP target, we use Sweden as a case study of observable effects, by compiling and analyzing all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data across Sweden since 2003. The data compilation reveals that nutrient monitoring covers only around 1% (down to 0.2% for nutrient loads) of the total number of WFD-classified stream and lake water bodies in Sweden. The data analysis further shows that the hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both total phosphorus and total nitrogen across Sweden. Both water discharge and the related nutrient loads are in turn well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies. Nutrient concentrations do not exhibit such correlation and their changes over the study period are on average small, but concentration increases are found for moderate-to-bad status waters, for which both the WFD and the BSAP have instead targeted concentration decreases. In general, these results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components in inland waters and their discharges to the sea by the internationally harmonized applications of the WFD and the BSAP. The results call for further comparative investigations of observable large-scale effects of such regulatory/management frameworks in different parts of the world.

  • 8.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hannerz, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Shibuo, Yoshihiro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Small unmonitored near-coastal catchment areas yielding large mass loading to the sea2008In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, no GB4003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continental freshwater transports and loads excess nutrients and pollutants from various land surface sources into downstream inland and coastal water environments. This study shows that even small, hydrologically unmonitored near-coastal catchment areas may generate large nutrient and pollutant mass loading to the sea of a magnitude similar to or greater than monitored river loads. Systematic near-coastal gaps in the monitoring of freshwater discharges to the sea may therefore mislead the quantification of coastal mass loading significantly. A methodology is presented for quantifying the mass load contributions of all the different unmonitored pathways of hydrological mass transport to the coast, including unmonitored river parts, whole unmonitored streams, and submarine groundwater discharge. This can be used for guiding future efforts to improve monitoring so that it includes the essential hydrological pathways of nutrient and pollutant loading to the sea.

  • 9.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hydroclimatic shifts driven by human water use for food and energy production2013In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 213-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological change is a central part of global change(1-3). Its drivers in the past need to be understood and quantified for accurate projection of disruptive future changes(4). Here we analyse past hydro-climatic, agricultural and hydropower changes from twentieth century data for nine major Swedish drainage basins, and synthesize and compare these results with other regional(5-7) and global(2) assessments of hydrological change by irrigation and deforestation. Cross-regional comparison shows similar increases of evapotranspiration by non-irrigated agriculture and hydropower as for irrigated agriculture. In the Swedish basins, non-irrigated agriculture has also increased, whereas hydropower has decreased temporal runoff variability. A global indication of the regional results is a net total increase of evapotranspiration that is larger than a proposed associated planetary boundary(8). This emphasizes the need for climate and Earth system models to account for different human uses of water as anthropogenic drivers of hydro-climatic change. The present study shows how these drivers and their effects can be distinguished and quantified for hydrological basins on different scales and in different world regions. This should encourage further exploration of greater basin variety for better understanding of anthropogenic hydro-climatic change.

  • 10.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Van der Velde, Ype
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Från nederbörd till flöden: Vad är avgörande i processen?2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Robust Assessment of Uncertain Freshwater Changes: The Case of Greece with Large Irrigation-and Climate-Driven Runoff Decrease2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested catchments of different scales across the country and for freshwater changes from an early period (1930-1949) with small human influences on climate and irrigation to a recent period (1990-2009) with expected greater such influences. The results show more or less equal contributions from climatic decrease in precipitation and from human irrigation development to a considerable total decrease in runoff (R) over Greece. This is on average -75 +/- 10 mm/year and is greatest for the Ionian catchment in the west (-119 +/- 18 mm/year) and the Peloponnese catchment in the south (-91 +/- 16 mm/year). For evapotranspiration (ET), a climate-driven decrease component and an irrigation-driven increase component have led to a net total increase of ET over Greece. This is on average 26 +/- 7 mm/year and is greatest for the Mainland catchment (29 +/- 7 mm/year) and the Aegean catchment in the east (28 +/- 6 mm/year). Overall, the resulting uncertainties in the water-balance constrained estimates of R and ET changes are smaller than the input data uncertainties.

  • 12.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 13. Georgopoulou, E.
    et al.
    Restrepo, P.
    Kotronarou, A.
    Koussis, A.D.
    Mazi, K.
    Gomez-Gotor, A.
    Rodriguez, J.J.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A Decision Aid Tool for the management of coastal aquifers based on sea-intrusion control through recharge with treated wastewater and desalination of brackish groundwater2008In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-12311, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Multimethod assessment of evapotranspiration shifts due to non-irrigated agricultural development in Sweden2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 484, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century, Sweden underwent a persistent agricultural development. In this study, we use and combine historical hydroclimatic and agricultural data to investigate how this large scale change of land use, and subsequent intensification of crop production, affected regional hydrology in two adjacent Swedish drainage basins. We find a main increase of evapotranspiration (ET) as cultivated area and/or crop production increased during the period 1901-1940. Thereafter, ET stabilized at a new higher level. Comparison between the data given, water balance constrained ET quantification (ETwb), and a range of different comparative estimates of purely climate driven ET (ETclim) shows that only 31% of the steep 1901-1940 increase of ETwb can be explained by climate change alone. The remaining 69% of this ETwb shift, which occurred in both investigated drainage basins, is instead explainable to large degree by the regional land use conversion from seminatural grasslands to cultivated land and associated enhanced productivity of herbaceous species.

  • 15.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hydrological responses to climate change conditioned by historic alterations of land use and water use2012In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 1335-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies and conditions expected hydrological responses in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB; occupying 1.3% of the earth's land surface), Central Asia, to multi-model projections of climate change in the region from 20 general circulation models (GCMs). The aim is to investigate how uncertainties of future climate change interact with the effects of historic human re-distributions of water for land irrigation to influence future water fluxes and water resources. So far, historic irrigation changes have greatly amplified water losses by evapotranspiration (ET) in the ASDB, whereas 20th century climate change has not much affected the regional net water loss to the atmosphere. Results show that errors in temperature (T) and precipitation (P) from single GCMs have large influence on projected change trends (for the period 2010-2039) of river runoff (R), even though the ASDB is spatially well resolved by current GCMs. By contrast, observed biases in GCM ensemble mean results have relatively small influence on projected R change trends. Ensemble mean results show that projected future climate change will considerably increase the net water loss to the atmosphere. Furthermore, the ET response strength to any future T change will be further increased by maintained (or increased) irrigation practices, which shows how climate change and water use change can interact in modifying ET (and R). With maintained irrigation practices, R is likely to decrease to near-total depletion, with risk for cascading ecological regime shifts in aquatic ecosystems downstream of irrigated land areas. Without irrigation, the agricultural areas of the principal Syr Darya river basin could sustain a 50% higher T increase (of 2.3 A degrees C instead of the projected 1.5 A degrees C until 2010-2039) before yielding the same consumptive ET increase and associated R decrease as with the present irrigation practices.

  • 16.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Solute transport in coupled inland – coastal water systems: General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model-independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons in SKB’s site investigation or safety assessment programmes.

    In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions (that underpin all transport results), related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was diffuse and occurring through submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), small transient streams and/ or coastal wetlands.

    Regarding transport quantifications, hydrogeochemical characteristics and pollution source loads may generally differ between larger, monitored catchments and smaller unmonitored coastal catchments. Since national hydrological monitoring data systematically exclude smaller, coastal catchments, they may not be representative for conditions in Forsmark (or Simpevarp). This emphasises the importance of extending in time the recently started hydrological and hydrogeochemical data series in the Forsmark and Simpevarp coastal catchment areas, since they are in effect unmonitored from a hydrological viewpoint, due to the lack of extended discharge time series.

    In the performed initial demonstration analysis of solute transport pathways from deep groundwater to recipients at the surface, we considered the main scenarios: (I) transport in the quaternary deposits/bedrock interface zone only (assuming that the deep groundwater transport pathway to the coast excludes the inland surface water system), and (II) transport in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. Considering mean travel times from each model cell to the coast, and disregarding travel times in the deep bedrock domain itself (which may be added to the here presented values), results show that travel times in scenario (II) were less than 4 years in 90% of the considered model area (i.e., the Forsmark catchment area). Travel times were longer in scenario (I) with values higher than 10 years in 40% of the catchment area. These results are based on the assumption that the pathways do not go through zones of near-stagnant groundwater (found e.g. below Lake Bolundsfjärden, Lake Eckarfjärden and Lake Gällsboträsket in Forsmark). If they would do so (and the above assumption is violated), results show that travel times can be considerably longer, for instance exceeding 400 years in half of the model area in scenario (I).

    Considering possible solute attenuation (caused by e.g. biogeochemical reactions or decay) along the hydrological transport pathways to inland surface waters and to the coast, we estimate solute mass delivery factors, representing the fraction of mass released in a cell that reaches the considered recipient. Results showed that average delivery factors, representing the whole catchment and equalling expected delivery factors in the probabilistic case, can exhibit considerable differences between transport pathway scenarios (I) and (II). However, the magnitude of the differences in average delivery factors (between transport pathway scenarios as well as between considered release points) depends on the actual attenuation rates (i.e., l-values). This is because for low l (for Forsmark: l<0.01 year-1), practically all mass reaches the coast regardless of release point and scenario, and for high l (for Forsmark: l>10 year-1) only a small fraction of the mass reaches the coast regardless of release point and scenario.

    The above results imply that, in general, mass delivery factors to recipients are sensitive to both pathways and entrance points or areas in the quaternary deposits of Forsmark, with for instance a remaining key question being to which extent the deep groundwater transport pathway to the coast includes the surface water system and /or quaternary deposits/bedrock interface zone. However, given more specific sub-catchment areas (e.g., of biosphere objects of interest) and possible ranges of attenuation rates (of compounds of interest) from parallel studies, the present analyses also show that robust predictions regarding e.g. mass delivery can in some cases be obtained despite considerable pathway and entrance point uncertainties. Because such cases then can be excluded from further investigation, it appears that specific transport analyses that considers relevant combinations of possible release points, transport pathway scenarios and attenuation rates can be used for delimiting specific priority regions, where remaining uncertainties are high and further experimental investigations and/or monitoring hence may be needed to reduce the uncertainties.

  • 17. Koussis, A. D.
    et al.
    Georgopoulou, E.
    Kotronarou, A.
    Lalas, D. P.
    Restrepo, P.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Rodriguez, J. J.
    Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.
    Cordero, T.
    Gomez-Gotor, A.
    Cost-efficient management of coastal aquifers via recharge with treated wastewater and desalination of brackish groundwater: General framework2010In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1217-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-arid coastal zones often suffer water-stress, as water demand is high and markedly seasonal, due to agriculture and tourism. Driven by scarcity of surface water, the communities in semi-arid coastal regions turn to aquifers as prime water source; but intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers causes seawater intrusion, which degrades the quality of groundwater. The cost-efficient and sustainable development of coastal aquifers can be achieved through a holistic management scheme which combines two non-traditional water sources: (a) saltwater, to be treated to the desired quality, and (b) wastewater, to be re-claimed to augment aquifer recharge for control of seawater intrusion, and also to meet certain demands. This management scheme is based on the idea that it is cost-advantageous to: (i) desalt brackish groundwater, instead of seawater, as the former requires far less energy, and (ii) to re-use wastewater at only the differential cost to any treatment already practiced. In this paper, we present the general framework of the proposed management scheme, and a decision aid tool (DAT) which has been developed to assist decision makers to explore the scheme's decision space. The DAT uses cost as optimization criterion to screen various management scenarios, via modelling of the dynamic natural-engineered system behaviour, and identifies those cost-efficient ones that meet the water demand and achieve aquifer protection.

  • 18. Koussis, A. D.
    et al.
    Georgopoulou, E.
    Kotronarou, A.
    Lalas, D. P.
    Restrepo, P.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Rodriguez, J. J.
    Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.
    Cordero, T.
    Ioannou, C.
    Georgiou, A.
    Schwarz, J.
    Zacharias, I.
    Cost-efficient management of coastal aquifers via recharge with treated wastewater and desalination of brackish groundwater: Application to the Akrotiri Basin and Aquifer, Cyprus2010In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1234-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the general methodology for an intensive development of coastal aquifers, described in a companion paper, through its application to the management of the Akrotiri aquifer, Cyprus. The Zakaki area of that aquifer, adjacent to Lemessos City, is managed such that it permits a fixed annual agricultural water demand to be met, as well as and a fraction of the water demand of Lemessos, which varies according to available surface water. Effluents of the Lemessos wastewater treatment plant are injected into the aquifer to counteract the seawater intrusion resulting from the increased pumping. The locations of pumping and injection wells are optimized based on least-cost, subject to meeting the demand. This strategy controls sea intrusion so effectively that desalting of only small volumes of slightly brackish groundwater is required over short times, while ∼2.3 m3 of groundwater is produced for each 1 m3 of injected treated wastewater. The cost over the 20-year period 2000-2020 of operation is ∼40 M€ and the unit production cost of potable water is under 0.2 €/m3. The comparison between the deterministic and stochastic analyses of the groundwater dynamics indicates the former as conservative, i.e. yielding higher groundwater salinity at the well. The Akrotiri case study shows that the proposed aquifer management scheme yields solutions that are preferable to the widely promoted seawater desalination, also considering the revenues from using the treated wastewater for irrigation.

  • 19.
    Persson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Propagation of environmental risk from contaminant transport through groundwater and stream networks2008In: Risk analysis VI: Simulation and hazard mitigation, 2008, p. 55-64Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a Lagrangian stochastic advective-reactive (LaSAR) approach to model coupled groundwater and surface water contaminant transport. In this approach, physical (advective) solute travel time distributions constitute main functions for the contaminant transport representation. In a specific catchment area case study, we show how these travel time distributions, for separate groundwater and stream network systems and for the linked groundwater-stream systems of whole catchments, can be modelled and quantified from available field data. We further use the LaSAR modelling approach in an extreme-scenario methodology for investigating how the risk (probability) of concentrations exceeding given environmental or health-based concentration limits may propagate downstream of a contaminant source for various spatial source extents and contaminant release magnitudes and dynamics under different aquifer conditions. Results show that the average relation between characteristic advective transport and natural attenuation time scales is essential and in some (with results identifying also in which) cases sufficient information for assessing if and where this risk may decline below acceptable levels downstream of the source zone. The presented general quantification methodology and specific exemplification results may provide useful guidelines for emergency remediation of contaminated land sites and for prioritisation decisions and scoping calculations to focus further investigations of long-term remediation options on critical site and contaminant parameters.

  • 20.
    Prieto, Carmen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Climate-Driven Phenological Change: Developing Robust Spatiotemporal Modeling and Projection Capability2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0141207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our possibility to appropriately detect, interpret and respond to climate-driven phenological changes depends on our ability to model and predict the changes. This ability may be hampered by non-linearity in climate-phenological relations, and by spatiotemporal variability and scale mismatches of climate and phenological data. A modeling methodology capable of handling such complexities can be a powerful tool for phenological change projection. Here we develop such a methodology using citizen scientists' observations of first flight dates for orange tip butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines) in three areas extending along a steep climate gradient. The developed methodology links point data of first flight observations to calculated cumulative degree-days until first flight based on gridded temperature data. Using this methodology we identify and quantify a first flight model that is consistent across different regions, data support scales and assumptions of subgrid variability and observation bias. Model application to observed warming over the past 60 years demonstrates the model usefulness for assessment of climate-driven first flight change. The cross-regional consistency of the model implies predictive capability for future changes, and calls for further application and testing of analogous modeling approaches to other species, phenological variables and parts of the world.

  • 21.
    Prieto, Carmen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Is submarine groundwater discharge predictable?2011In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 38, p. L01402-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the total hydrological discharges to the sea may be large but has been difficult to quantify. We have tested the applicability and generality of a suggested linear relationship between annual average total SGD and its fresh groundwater component against various SGD simulation results and field data. This relationship is found to constitute a general attractor for hydrologically simulated and directly measured SGD values across a wide range of conditions and world regions. But these consistent SGD quantifications differ systematically and largely from indirect SGD interpretations of tracers in seawater. This is an essential gap between inland- and sea-based methods of SGD estimation that needs to be bridged.

  • 22.
    Shibuo, Yoshihiro
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Climate change and irrigation expansion: Land-water-atmosphere interactions in the Aral Sea basin2007In: Proceedings of the third international conference on climate and water, 2007, p. 430-435Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Aral Sea drainage basin (ASDB), covering an area of totally 1,874,000 km2 in Central Asia, has experienced an enormous expansion of irrigated agriculture during the past century. Presently, water is diverted from the two principal rivers, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, to such an extent that the Aral Sea receives only about 10% of its former 70 km3 annual freshwater input through river discharge. As a result, the Aral Sea started to shrink in the 1960’s, and is expected to continue to shrink in the foreseeable future accompanied by desertification of surrounding areas. In addition to these water diversions, however, regional climate may also have changed significantly in the region since the 1960’s as a regional manifestation of global climate change over this period. We investigate here land -water-atmosphere interactions in the Aral Sea basin using a basin-scale hydrological balance modelling approach, in which the locally created runoff (i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration) is estimated using precipitation and temperature as driving boundary conditions. The runoff is routed through a flow network derived from a 30” 30” digital elevation model. Results show that the major irrigation areas in the ASDB yields a considerable 17% increase in evapotranspiration flux from land to the atmosphere, which is not balanced by a corresponding increase in observed precipitation. Despite the expected surface cooling effects of increased evapotranspiration, temperature data shows that the basin manifestation of global climate change appears to be a warming trend. In addition, our results show specifically that more than 90% of the irrigation water input in the ASDB returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, which is at the high end of previous estimates. This indicates possible non-local and climate driving effects of water management that are relatively large.

  • 23.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Basu, Nandita B.
    Chalov, Sergey R.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Creed, Irena F.
    Goldenberg, Romain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hylin, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Koussis, Antonis D.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Mazi, Katerina
    Mård, Johanna
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Pietroń, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van Meter, Kimberly
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wetlands as large-scale nature-based solutions: Status and challenges for research, engineering and management2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 108, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are often considered as nature-based solutions that can provide a multitude of services of great social, economic and environmental value to humankind. Changes in land-use, water-use and climate can all impact wetland functions and services. These changes occur at scales extending well beyond the local scale of an individual wetland. However, in practical applications, engineering and management decisions usually focus on individual wetland projects and local site conditions. Here, we systematically investigate if and to what extent research has addressed the large-scale dynamics of landscape systems with multiple wetlands, hereafter referred to as wetlandscapes, which are likely to be relevant for understanding impacts of regional to global change. Although knowledge in many cases is still limited, evidence suggests that the aggregated effects of multiple wetlands in the landscape can differ considerably from the functions observed at individual wetland scales. This applies to provisioning of ecosystem services such as coastal protection, biodiversity support, groundwater level and soil moisture regulation, flood regulation and contaminant retention. We show that parallel and circular flow-paths, through which wetlands are interconnected in the landscape, may largely control such scale-function differences. We suggest ways forward for addressing the mismatch between the scales at which changes take place and the scale at which observations and implementation are currently made. These suggestions can help bridge gaps between researchers and engineers, which is critical for improving wetland function-effect predictability and management.

1 - 23 of 23
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