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  • 1. Bebbington, Jan
    et al.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Larrinaga, Carlos
    Russell, Shona
    Scholtens, Bert
    Accounting and accountability in the Anthropocene2019Inngår i: Accounting auditing & accountability journal, ISSN 0951-3574, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 152-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the nature and relevance of debates around the existence of, and ramifications arising from, the Anthropocene for accounting scholarship. Design/methodology/approach The paper's aim is achieved through an in-depth analysis of the Anthropocene, paying attention to cross-disciplinary contributions, interpretations and contestations. Possible points of connection between the Anthropocene and accounting scholarship are then proposed and illuminated through a case study drawn from the seafood sector. Findings This paper develops findings in two areas. First, possible pathways for further development of how accounting scholarship might evolve by the provocation that thinking about the Anthropocene is outlined. Second, and through engagement with the case study, the authors highlight that the concept of stewardship may re-emerge in discussions about accountability in the Anthropocene. Social implications Human well-being is likely to be impacted if environmental impacts accelerate. In addition, an Anthropocene framing alters the understanding of nature-human interactions and how this affects accounting thought. Originality/value This is the first paper in accounting to seek to establish connections between accounting, accountability and the Anthropocene.

  • 2.
    Blasiak, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Univ, SRC, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berger, Michael
    Blandon, Abigayil
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carneiro, Goncalo
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Davidson, Mary Frances
    Guggisberg, Solene
    Hills, Jeremy
    Mallin, Felix
    McManus, Edmund
    Ould-Chih, Karim
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Santos, Xose
    Westlund, Lena
    Wetterstrand, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wiegler, Kai
    Towards greater transparency and coherence in funding for sustainable marine fisheries and healthy oceans2019Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, artikkel-id UNSP 103508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This final manuscript in the special issue on Funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries is the result of a dialogue aimed at connecting lead authors of the special issue manuscripts with relevant policymakers and practitioners. The dialogue took place over the course of a two-day workshop in December 2018, and this coda manuscript seeks to distil thinking around a series of key recurring topics raised throughout the workshop. These topics are collected into three broad categories, or needs: 1) a need for transparency, 2) a need for coherence, and 3) a need for improved monitoring of project impacts. While the special issue sought to collect new research into the latest trends and developments in the rapidly evolving world of funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries, the insights collected during the workshop have helped to highlight remaining knowledge gaps. Therefore, each of the three needs identified within this manuscript is followed by a series of questions that the workshop participants identified as warranting further attention as part of a future research agenda. The crosscutting nature of many of the issues raised as well as the rapid pace of change that characterizes this funding landscape both pointed to a broader need for continued dialogue and study that reaches across the communities of research, policy and practice.

  • 3.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Friends or neighbors? Subgroup heterogeneity and the importance of bonding and bridging ties in natural resource governance2011Inngår i: Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, s. 206-233Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Golz, Anna-lea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conservation Success as a Function of Good Alignment of Social and Ecological Structures and Processes2014Inngår i: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 1371-1379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources.

  • 5.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Duke University, USA.
    Robins, Garry
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lubell, Mark
    Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations2016Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  • 6.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Collaborative Networks for Effective Ecosystem-Based Management: A Set of Working Hypotheses2017Inngår i: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 289-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) represents a comprehensive approach to better govern the environment that also illustrates the collaborative trend in policy and public administration. The need for stakeholder involvement and collaboration is strongly articulated, yet how and for what purposes collaboration would be effective remains largely untested. We address this gap by developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses specifying how certain patterns of collaborations among actors affect their joint ability to accomplish EBM. Content analyses of management plans drawn from five EBM planning processes in Sweden are combined with analyses of the collaborative networks through which these plans have been developed. Our results indicate that system thinking and the ability to integrate across different management phases are favored by collaborations between different kinds of actors, and by project leaders being centrally located in the networks. We also find that dense substructures of collaboration increase the level of specificity in the plans in regards to explicating constraints on human activities. Having many collaborative ties does however not enhance the overall level of specificity. Our results also show that different network characteristics can give rise to similar EBM outcomes. This observed equifinality suggests there is no single blueprint for well-performing collaborative networks.

  • 7.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s. 357-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework's usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 8.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barriers in transforming to sustainable governance: the role of key individuals2011Inngår i: Social networks in natural resource governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, Cambridge University Press, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knowledge, social networks, and leadership: setting the stage for the development of adaptive institutions?2011Inngår i: Adapting institutions: governance, complexity and social-ecological resilience / [ed] Emily Boyd, Carl Folke, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, s. 11-36Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Prell, Christina
    Reed, Mark
    Hubacek, Klas
    Combining social network approaches with social theories to improve understanding of natural resource governance2011Inngår i: Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance / [ed] Örjan Bodin, Christina Prell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, s. 44-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Importance of Interplay Between Leadership and Social Capital in Shaping Outcomes of Rights-Based Fisheries Governance2017Inngår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 91, s. 70-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As concerns about anthropogenically driven marine resource decline continue, rights-based approaches to fisheries governance have gained attention. Territorial User Rights (TURF) is one example increasingly promoted to enhancing sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Despite rising global interest empirical inquiry into the factors contributing to TURF outcomes remains limited and focus has centered on the ecological and fisheries outcomes, largely neglecting documentation of social consequences and social determinants of success. This paper aims to move the theoretical and empirical work on the role of social capital and leadership in natural resource governance (particularly fisheries) forward by deepening the discussion around the conceptualization and operationalintion of social capital. We also extend empirical work on TURF performance by examining multiple social and ecological outcomes. We put forth four theoretically informed propositions about the relationship between key explanatory variables and outcomes. Using empirical data from six Chilean Territorial User Rights areas we provide an early assessment of the validity of these propositions using a case comparative approach, and test their usefulness in operationalizing and analyzing such multifaceted data. Findings show that social capital may not be a useful predictor of success, while the presence of engaged leadership and agreement among members around sanctions appears more closely linked to performance across all social and ecological outcome variables. A key finding is that the use of social capital as a broad term encompassing multiple pro-social variables may not be a fruitful way forward for improving our understanding of the determinants of success in resource management. Instead results indicate that leadership interacts with specific aspects of what is generally referred to as social capital to affect outcomes. To allow theoretical refinement and hypotheses testing regarding determinants of governance outcomes we suggest the social processes measured under the broad umbrella of social capital should be kept separate.

  • 12.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Basurto, Xavier
    Squires, Dale
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Khan, Ahmed
    Havice, Elizabeth
    Chomo, Victoria
    Troell, Max
    Buchary, Eny A.
    Allison, Edward H.
    Towards a typology of interactions between small-scale fisheries and global seafood trade2016Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 65, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and fish-related products are among the most highly traded commodities globally and the proportion of globally harvested fish that is internationally traded has steadily risen over time. Views on the benefits of international seafood trade diverge, partly as a result from adopting either an aggregate national focus or a focus on local market actors. However, both views generally assume that the trade in question is characterized by export of fisheries resources to international markets. This is potentially misleading as empirical evidence suggests that import of seafood can also have impacts on local SSF dynamics. A systematic analysis of the different ways in which local production systems connect to international seafood markets can therefore help shed more light on why small-scale fisheries exhibit such differences in outcomes as they engage in an increasingly global seafood trade. This paper conducts a synthesis across 24 cases from around the world and develops a typology of small-scale fisheries and how they connect to and interact with international seafood trade. The analysis is based on key features drawn from trade theory regarding how trade interacts with local production. The implications of the findings for social and ecological sustainability of small-scale fisheries are discussed with the aim of identifying further research topics which deserve attention to better inform trade policy for more sustainable fisheries and more just wealth distribution from their trade.

  • 13.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, UK.
    Swartz, Wilf
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems2016Inngår i: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 1175-1182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 40% of seafood is traded internationally and an even bigger proportion is affected by international trade, yet scholarship on marine fisheries has focused on global trends in stocks and catches, or on dynamics of individual fisheries, with limited attention to the link between individual fisheries, global trade and distant consumers. This paper examines the usefulness of fish price as a feedback signal to consumers about the state of fisheries and marine ecosystems. We suggest that the current nature of fisheries systems and global markets prevent transmission of such price signals from source fisheries to consumers. We propose several mechanisms that combine to weaken price signals, and present one example - the North Sea cod - to show how these mechanisms can be tested. The lack of a reliable price feedback to consumers represents a challenge for sustainable fisheries governance. We therefore propose three complimentary approaches to address the missing feedback: (i) strengthening information flow through improved traceability and visibility of individual fishers to consumers, (ii) capitalizing on the changing seafood trade structures and (iii) bypassing and complementing market mechanisms by directly targeting citizens and political actors regarding marine environmental issues through publicity and information campaigns. These strategies each havelimitations and thus need to be pursued together to address the challenge of sustainability in global marine fisheries.

  • 14.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Parker, John N.
    Learning in support of governance: Theories, methods, and a framework to assess how bridging organizations contribute to adaptive resource governance2012Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 32-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity faces increasingly intractable environmental problems characterized by high uncertainty, complexity, and swift change. Natural resource governance must therefore involve continuous production and use of new knowledge to adapt to highly complex, rapidly changing social-ecological systems to ensure long-term sustainable development. Bridging and boundary organizations have been proposed as potentially powerful means of achieving these aims by promoting cooperation among actors from the science, policy, and management sectors. However, despite substantial investments of time, capital, and human resources, little agreement exists about definitions and measures of knowledge production and how this is achieved in bridging organizations and there is only meager understanding of how knowledge production and its use are shaped by social interactions, socio-political environments, and power relations. New concepts, methods, and metrics for conceptualizing and measuring learning in support of natural resource governance and testing the conditions under which it can be achieved are therefore badly needed. This paper presents an attempt at a holistic framework to address this, drawing on theory, methods, and metrics from three research areas: knowledge utilization, boundary organizations, and stakeholder theory. Taken together, these provide a solid conceptual and methodological toolkit for conducting cross-case comparisons aimed at understanding the social environmental conditions under which learning in such organizations does and does not occur. We use empirical data to show how the framework can be applied and discuss some of the practical considerations and important challenges that emerge. We close with a general discussion and an agenda for future research to promote discussion around the topic of how to erect systematic comparisons of learning in support of adaptive natural resource governance as it occurs in bridging organizations.

  • 15.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Van Holt, T.
    Petersson, M.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Buchary, Eny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Using social-ecological syndromes to understand impacts of international seafood trade on small-scale fisheries2015Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, s. 162-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has increased the speed and flow of people, information, and commodities across space, integrating markets and increasing interdependence of geographically dispersed places worldwide. Places historically driven by largely local forces and market demands are now increasingly affected by drivers at multiple scales. Trade is particularly important in driving these changes and more fish is now exported to international markets than ever before. When small-scale fisheries are integrated into global markets, local social-ecological systems change with potentially both positive and negative impacts on livelihoods, economics and ecology, but few studies systematically investigate how and why the outcomes of market integration vary from case to case. This paper systematically assesses multiple (social, ecological, economic and institutional) local effects of market integration in cases around the world by drawing on the global environmental change syndromes approach. Furthermore, we examine the factors contributing to the syndromes observed. Our analysis identifies three distinct social-ecological syndromes associated with international seafood trade. Results suggest that the presence of strong and well-enforced institutions is the principal factor behind the syndrome characterized by sustained fish stocks, while a combination of weak institutions, patron-client relationships, high demand from China and highly vulnerable target species explain the other two syndromes distinguished by declining stocks, conflict and debt among fishers. A key finding is that the factors emerging as important for explaining the different syndromes derive from different scales (e.g. local market structures vs distant market characteristics), indicating a need for multi-level governance approaches to deal with the effects of market integration. Furthermore, the meta-analysis shows that each syndrome encompasses fisheries from multiple continents. This suggests that the increasingly global nature of the seafood trade appears to be driving local dynamics by creating similar conditions for vulnerabilities in localities around the world, lending support to the notion of teleconnectivity across geographic space.

  • 16.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Käll, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    van Holt, Tracy
    Fishery Improvement Projects as a governance tool for fisheries sustainability: A global comparative analysis2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 10, artikkel-id e0223054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) are a form of private governance using seafood supply chains to reduce environmental impacts of fishing in some of the most challenged fisheries. Some FIPs are industry-led, others are championed by NGOs. They range across many different fishery types, in both high- and low-income settings. Their diversity is notable, and their proliferation remarkable. This rapid growth suggests FIPs are becoming a key feature of the fisheries governance landscape globally. Based on a global sample of 107 FIPs, we systematically examined their reported actions, the actors involved, and their achievements in terms of policy and practice outputs. The most common actions were dialogues with policy stakeholders, data collection, and educational efforts directed at fishers. Common policy outputs included development of management plans and/or a management body, and rules for limiting entry and increasing compliance. Practice related outputs were dominated by gear changes, and observer and traceability programs. Only crab and lobster FIPs engaged in sustained policy conversations as one of the most common actions. Shrimp and tuna fisheries report more engagement in testing and implementing changes to fishery practices. While supply chain actors are involved in all FIPs, retailers and 1st tier suppliers are relatively absent from FIP activities, and are primarily involved in rallying financial support or some policy engagement. Based on our analysis we discuss the opportunities and challenges FIPs will likely need to engage with to contribute to a global transition to more socially and environmentally sustainable fisheries. We outline key areas where further work is needed to understand how FIPs can improve their contribution to global fisheries governance in the future.

  • 17.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Middlemen, a critical social-ecological link in coastal communities of Kenya and Zanzibar2010Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 761-771Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the middlemen-fishermen link in coastal communities along the coast of southern Kenya and Zanzibar, and explores effects of reciprocal agreements and credit arrangements on social-ecological feedbacks of coastal systems The existence and generality of such arrangements are mapped and their effect on resource use and ecosystem dynamics is then explored Data show that credit arrangements are widespread and that fishermen are bound by reciprocal agreements and financial guarantees during periods of lower catches that provide short-term stabilizing social effects These arrangements create incentives which disconnect resource extraction from ecosystem dynamics and impede development of sustainable use practices The role of middlemen is seldom accounted for in fisheries governance Scenarios for the development of small-scale fisheries in the region are outlined and the function of middlemen is discussed considering the influence of external drivers Policies that incorporate middlemen are recommended to improve the governance of fish stocks and coastal ecosystems in East Africa.

  • 18.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Parker, John N.
    Network Determinants of Knowledge Utilization: preliminary Lessons from a Boundary Organization2011Inngår i: Science communication, ISSN 1075-5470, E-ISSN 1552-8545, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 448-471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the socio-organizational model of science-policy knowledge transfer. Using social network analysis, the authors study how interactions between researchers-policy makers affect utilization of research by policy makers in a boundary organization designed to mediate between research and policy communities. Two types of social interactions with independent effects on utilization are identified. Policy makers with more direct contacts with researchers are more likely to utilize research. Policy makers interacting more with other policy makers regarding research are also more likely to utilize it. This indicates the importance of policy makers’ embeddedness in social networks and the importance of external reputation of boundary organizations for successful knowledge transfer.

  • 19.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rosendo, S.
    Outside the law?: Analyzing policy gaps in addressing fishers' migration in East Africa2011Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 379-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas, and their small-scale fisheries, are important targets for both internal and transboundary migration partly because high mobility is an inherent feature of many artisanal fisheries livelihoods. As climatic changes are forecast to occur, environmental changes may trigger increased flows of migrant fishers. Policies that seek to promote development in ways that do not extensively degrade natural resources will thus have to deal with likely increases in flows of people across administrative boundaries. However, to date little attention has been directed at this issue and little is known about how policies related to coastal resources and development address these issues. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing policies and legal documents related to coastal resource management and development to examine the extent to which they recognize and integrate fishers' migration in their provisions. Migrant well-being and vulnerabilities are also addressed by examining the extent to which existing policies dealing with socio-economic development and environmental management address migrants and their needs. The analysis shows that policies related to governance of marine resources and coastal development lack an acknowledgment of fishers' migration issues and suggests that this signals an important gap in policy. The implications of this are discussed. The paper also highlights the fact that the invisibility of the issue in policy means that institutions developed to deal with coastal management at the community level may not have sufficient support from legal and policy documents, and may not be developed or equipped to handle the possible conflicts and difficult trade-offs that need to be addressed as a result of current and potentially increasing fishers' mobility.

  • 20.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Community structure and temporal variability of juvenile fish assemblages in natural and replanted mangroves, Sonneratia alba Sm., of Gazi Bay, Kenya2007Inngår i: Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 74, s. 44-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wutich, Amber
    Brewis, Alexandra
    Gartin, Meredith
    Perceptions of climate change: Linking local and global perceptions through a cultural knowledge approach2013Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 519-531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change is fundamental to both climate science and policy because it defines local and global socio-political contexts within which policy makers and scientists operate. To date, most studies addressing climate change perceptions have been place-based. While such research is informative, comparative studies across sites are important for building generalized theory around why and how people understand and interpret climate change and associated risks. This paper presents a cross-sectional study from six different country contexts to illustrate a novel comparative approach to unraveling the complexities of local vs global perceptions around climate change. We extract and compare 'cultural knowledge' regarding climate change using the theory of 'culture as consensus'. To demonstrate the value of this approach, we examine cross-national data to see if people within specific and diverse places share ideas about global climate change. Findings show that although data was collected using ethnographically derived items collected through place-based methods we still find evidence of a shared cultural model of climate change which spans the diverse sites in the six countries. Moreover, there are specific signs of climate change which appear to be recognized cross-culturally. In addition, results show that being female and having a higher education are both likely to have a positive effect on global cultural competency of individuals. We discuss these result in the context of literature on environmental perceptions and propose that people with higher education are more likely to share common perceptions about climate change across cultures and tentatively suggest that we appear to see the emergence of a 'global', cross-cultural mental model around climate change and its potential impacts which in itself is linked to higher education.

  • 22.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hicks, Christina C.
    Brown, Katrina
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Sandbrook, Chris
    Perry, Chris
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Muthiga, Nyawira A.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bosire, Jared
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being2016Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, nr 2, artikkel-id 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of ecosystem service elasticity (ES elasticity) that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and losers. We discuss conceptual and practical challenges of applying such a framework and conclude on its utility as a heuristic for structuring interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystem services and human well-being.

  • 23.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Assistance networks in seafood trade - A means to assess benefit distribution in small-scale fisheries2017Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 78, s. 196-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the connections between value chain actors in the tropical-marine small-scale fisheries of Zanzibar, Tanzania, to contribute to a better understanding of the fisher-trader link and how connections in general might feed into livelihood security. A sample of 168 fishers and 130 traders was taken across 8 sites through questionnaires and observations. The small-scale fishery system is mapped using a value chain framework both traditionally and from a less economic point of view where the assistance-exchange networks between fishery actors add another layer of complexity. Auxiliary actors previously disregarded emerge from the latter method thus shedding light on the poorly understood distribution of benefits from seafood trade. Female actors participate quite differently, relative to males in the market system, detached from high-value links such as the tourist industry, and access to predetermined or secured sales deals. Data shows that the fisher-trader link is not as one-sided as previously presented. In fact it has a more symbiotic exchange deeply nested in a broader trading and social system. Expanding the analysis from this link by taking a further step downstream highlights traders' own sales arrangements and the social pressures they are under in realizing them. A complex picture, inclusive of diversified perspectives, on interactions in the market place is presented, as well as a. reflection on the remaining critical question: how to integrate this type of data into decisions about future fisheries governance.

  • 24.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    From typhoons to traders: the role of patron-client relations in mediating fishery responses to natural disasters2019Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikkel-id 045015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world's fishers, fishworkers and their dependents live in coastal tropical areas that are, and will be, highly exposed to human-induced climate change. Projections indicate such change could result in coastal populations being more frequently and acutely impacted by natural disasters. Increasing aid interventions is a likely knock-on effect of such scenarios. How these external natural and social disturbances interact and affect local fisheries and small-scale producers is in part determined by the internal dynamics of the social-ecological system (SES). Economic vulnerability often characterizes communities in these settings and influences the means with which they navigate changes. The patron-client system is prolific in many rural economies and small-scale fisheries. It forms a central element in the organization of market interactions and often provides much needed finance for low-income households in place of formal options. How such injection of capital promotes individuals' ability to buffer income fluctuations at the expense of long-term sustainability of the broader fishery system is still an area in need of examination. This paper contributes to shed light on this issue by using a case study approach to trace the historical development of the fishery system in the Iloilo Province (Philippines) in relation to a major natural disaster-super-typhoon Haiyan, known locally as Yolanda-and the subsequent aid intervention that followed. The aim is to assess how the patron-client system filtered these two related disturbances and to highlight the resulting tensions between short-term individual resilience and longer-term SES sustainability.

  • 25.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Who benefits from seafood trade? A comparison of social and market structures in small-scale fisheries2018Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 3, artikkel-id 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the benefits flowing from a coastal seascape through seafood trade to various social groups in two distinct small-scale fishery case studies. A knowledge gap currently exists in relation to how benefits from a fishery, and the associated trade, are ultimately distributed, specifically, how market structures and relations, and the combined dynamics of the local fishing society, can mediate these flows. Previous research into improved fisheries governance for food and livelihood security has failed to integrate the structure of the market place as well as the multidimensional nature of actor relations that influence extractive behavior. Using a value chain framework, we take a relational approach to study these gaps. Surveys were conducted in two fisheries (Zanzibar and the Philippines) as part of a comparative analysis including market-types, assistance networks, and income inequality. Chain structures, gender roles, and levels of contractualization within the two cases differed vastly, appearing to give rise to different types of income inequalities and barriers to participation. In the Philippines economic exchanges revolve more around provision of financial capital, although in both systems social standing and obligations play a role in determining market structures. In Zanzibar trading agents engaging customers in predetermined sale arrangements earn relatively more than their counterpart freelancers, however at the production level no income differences are seen between those with or without arrangements. Both cases stand to be further integrated into the international seafood market, which raises questions over how certain actors will benefit, based on their current participation and access. Results emphasize the need for more evidence in regards to benefits flows and how aspects such as gender and transaction forms impact them. This is necessary for governance decisions around fisheries, poverty alleviation, and increased global market integration.

  • 26.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    An Experimental Approach to Exploring Market Responses in Small-Scale Fishing Communities2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishing communities are increasingly connected to international seafood trade via exports in a growing global market. Understanding how this connectedness impacts local fishery systems, both socially and ecologically, has become a necessary challenge for fishery governance. Market prices are a potential mechanism by which global market demands are transferred to small-scale fishery actors. In most small-scale fisheries (SSF) this happens through various traders (intermediaries, middlemen/women, or patrons). By financing fishing operations, buying and selling products and transferring market information, traders can actively pass international market signals, such as price, to fishers. How these signals influence fishers' decisions and the consequent fishing efforts, is still poorly understood yet significant for future social-ecological sustainability. This paper uses an economic framed field experiment, in combination with interviews, to shed light on this. It does so in the context of the Philippine patron-client suki arrangement. Over 250 fishers in Concepcion, Iloilo were asked in an economic experiment, to make decisions about fuel loans in light of changing market prices. Interviews with participants and their patrons gathered additional information on relevant contextual variables potentially influencing borrowing. They included fisher characteristics and socio-economic conditions. Contrary to our hypotheses, fishers showed no response in their borrowing behavior to experimental price changes. Instead, gender and the previous experiment round were predictive of their choice of loans in the experiment. We explore possible reasons for this and discuss potential implications for social-ecological sustainability and fishery governance.

  • 27. Ekstrom, Julia A.
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, s. 599-608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013); but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions.

  • 28. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Andrew, Neil
    Wilen, James
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Contagious exploitation of marine resources2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 435-440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global seafood sourcing networks are expanding to meet demand. To describe contemporary fishery expansion patterns, we analyzed the worldwide exploitation of sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) traded via Hong Kong for consumers in China. In just 15 years (1996-2011), the sea cucumber sourcing network expanded from 35 to 83 countries; sea cucumber fisheries serving the Chinese market now operate within countries cumulatively spanning over 90% of the world's tropical coastlines. The emergence of such fisheries in nations where they were previously absent could not be explained either by their national governance capacity or by their distance from Hong Kong. Surging imports from these new fisheries have compensated for declines in long-standing fisheries elsewhere. The case of commercial sea cucumber trade for the Chinese market exemplifies a new global extraction phenomenon that we call contagious resource exploitation - a fast-moving system resembling a disease epidemic, where long-distance transport expedites large-scale expansion followed by diffusive local spread into neighboring areas. Multi-level and multi-scale decision making is urgently needed to control and mitigate the effects of contagious exploitation.

  • 29.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Lambin, Eric F.
    Adger, W. Neil
    Scheffer, Marten
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Levin, Simon A.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Anderies, John M.
    Chapin, Stuart
    Crepin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Walker, Brian H.
    Watson, James R.
    Wilen, James
    de Zeeuw, Aart
    Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship2019Inngår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, nr 10, s. 1396-1403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporations could either hinder or promote a global shift towards sustainability. We show that a handful of transnational corporations have become a major force shaping the global intertwined system of people and planet. Transnational corporations in agriculture, forestry, seafood, cement, minerals and fossil energy cause environmental impacts and possess the ability to influence critical functions of the biosphere. We review evidence of current practices and identify six observed features of change towards 'corporate biosphere stewardship', with significant potential for upscaling. Actions by transnational corporations, if combined with effective public policies and improved governmental regulations, could substantially accelerate sustainability efforts.

  • 30. Fortnam, M.
    et al.
    Brown, K.
    Chaigneau, T.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Goncalves, D.
    Hicks, C.
    Revmatas, M.
    Sandbrook, C.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Gendered Nature of Ecosystem Services2019Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, s. 312-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the extent to which our conceptualisation, understanding and empirical analysis of ecosystem services are inherently gendered; in other words, how they might be biased and unbalanced in terms of their appreciation of gender differences. We do this by empirically investigating how women and men are able to benefit from ecosystem services across eight communities in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Our results highlight different dimensions of wellbeing affected by ecosystem services, and how these are valued differently by men and women. However, it is not just the division of costs and benefits of ecosystem services that is gendered. Using a heuristic device of the 'ecosystem-wellbeing chain', we explain patterns within our primary data as an outcome of gendered knowledge systems, gendered behavioural expectations, gendered access to resources and gendered institutions. We conclude that this holistic, gendered understanding of ecosystem services is important not just for how ecosystem services are conceptualised, but also for the development and implementation of sustainable and equitable policy and interventions.

  • 31.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biermann, Frank
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Loorbach, Derk
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Allouche, Jeremy
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    'Planetary boundaries' - exploring the challenges for global environmental governance2012Inngår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 80-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of studies from Earth system scientists argue that human activities drive multiple, interacting effects that cascade through the Earth system. Recent contributions state and quantify nine, interacting 'planetary boundaries' with possible threshold effects. This article provides an overview of the global governance challenges that follow from this notion of multiple, interacting and possibly non-linear 'planetary boundaries'. Here we discuss four interrelated global environmental governance challenges, as well as some possible ways to address them. The four identified challenges are related to, first, the interplay between Earth system science and global policies, and the implications of differences in risk perceptions in defining these boundaries; second, the capacity of international institutions to deal with individual 'planetary boundaries', as well as interactions between them; third, the role of international organizations in dealing with 'planetary boundaries' interactions; and fourth, the role of global governance in framing social ecological innovations.

  • 32.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fichtner, Jan
    Tax havens and global environmental degradation2018Inngår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, nr 9, s. 1352-1357Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of classified documents in the past years have offered a rare glimpse into the opaque world of tax havens and their role in the global economy. Although the political, economic and social implications related to these financial secrecy jurisdictions are known, their role in supporting economic activities with potentially detrimental environmental consequences have until now been largely ignored. Here, we combine quantitative analysis with case descriptions to elaborate and quantify the connections between tax havens and the environment, both in global fisheries and the Brazilian Amazon. We show that while only 4% of all registered fishing vessels are currently flagged in a tax haven, 70% of the known vessels implicated in illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing are, or have been, flagged under a tax haven jurisdiction. We also find that between October 2000 and August 2011, 68% of all investigated foreign capital to nine focal companies in the soy and beef sectors in the Brazilian Amazon was transferred through one, or several, known tax havens. This represents as much as 90-100% of foreign capital for some companies investigated. We highlight key research challenges for the academic community that emerge from our findings and present a set of proposed actions for policy that would put tax havens on the global sustainability agenda.

  • 33.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Dauriach, Alice
    Scholtens, Bert
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Finance and the Earth system – Exploring the links between financial actors and non-linear changes in the climate system2018Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 53, s. 296-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial actors and capital play a key role in extractive economic activities around the world, as well as in current efforts to avoid dangerous climate change. Here, in contrast to standard approaches in finance, sustainability and climate change, we elaborate in what ways financial actors affect key biomes around the world, and through this known “tipping elements” in the Earth system. We combine Earth system and sustainability sciences with corporate finance to develop a methodology that allows us to link financial actors to economic activities modifying biomes of key importance for stabilizing Earth's climate system. Our analysis of key owners of companies operating in the Amazon rainforest (Brazil) and boreal forests (Russia and Canada) identifies a small set of international financial actors with considerable, but as of yet unrealized, globally spanning influence. We denote these “Financial Giants” and elaborate how incentives and disincentives currently influence their potential to bolster or undermine the stability of the Earth's climate system.

  • 34.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, T
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Can web crawlers revolutionize ecological monitoring?2010Inngår i: Frontiers in ecology and the environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 99-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent advances, ecosystem service monitoring is limited by insufficient data, the complexity of social–ecological systems, and poor integration of information that tracks changes in ecosystems and economic activities. However, new information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the generation of, and access to, such data. Can researchers who are interested in ecological monitoring tap into these increased flows of information by “mining” the internet to detect “early-warning” signs that may signal abrupt ecological changes? Here, we explore the possibility of using web crawlers and internet-based information to complement conventional ecological monitoring, with a special emphasis on the prospects for avoiding “late warnings”, that is, when ecosystems have already shifted to less desirable states. Using examples from coral reef ecosystems, we explore the untapped potential, as well as the limitations, of relying on web-based information to monitor ecosystem services and forewarn us of negative ecological shifts.

  • 35.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries: Emerging governance of climate change—ocean acidification—marine biodiversity2012Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 81, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary boundaries and their interactions pose severe challenges for global environmental governance due to their inherent uncertainties and complex multi-scale dynamics. Here we explore the global governance challenge posed by planetary boundaries interactions by focusing on the role of polycentric systems and order, a theoretical field that has gained much interest in the aftermath of claims of a stagnant UN-process. In the first part we work toward a clarification of polycentric order in an international context, and develop three propositions. We then present a case study of the emergence of international polycentricity to address interacting planetary boundaries, namely the climate change, ocean acidification and loss of marine biodiversity complex. This is done through a study of the Global Partnership on Climate, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) initiative. As the case study indicates, a range of mechanisms of polycentric order (ranging from information sharing to coordinated action and conflict resolution) operates at the international level through the interplay between individuals, international organizations and their collaboration patterns. While polycentric coordination of this type certainly holds potential, it is also vulnerable to internal tensions, unreliable external flows of funding, and negative institutional interactions.

  • 36.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Global networks and global change-induced tipping points2016Inngår i: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 189-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of tipping points in human-environmental systems at multiple scales-such as abrupt negative changes in coral reef ecosystems, runaway climate change, and interacting nonlinear planetary boundariesaEurois often viewed as a substantial challenge for governance due to their inherent uncertainty, potential for rapid and large system change, and possible cascading effects on human well-being. Despite an increased scholarly and policy interest in the dynamics of these perceived tipping points, institutional and governance scholars have yet to make progress on how to analyze in which ways state and non-state actors attempt to anticipate, respond, and prevent the transgression of tipping points at large scales. In this article, we use three cases of global network responses to what we denote as global change-induced tipping pointsaEuroocean acidification, fisheries collapse, and infectious disease outbreaks. Based on the commonalities in several research streams, we develop four working propositions: information processing and early warning, multilevel and multinetwork responses, diversity in response capacity, and the balance between efficiency and legitimacy. We conclude by proposing a simple framework for the analysis of the interplay between perceived global change-induced tipping points, global networks, and international institutions.

  • 37.
    Garavito, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Systems dynamics thinking and conceptual development: the case of fishermen’s understanding of eco systems2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Garavito, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding Natural Complex Systems: The Case of Fishers’ Conceptualizations of Ecosystems2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (CeSam).
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Linking a conceptual framework on systems thinking with experiential knowledge2016Inngår i: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 89-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a systemic approach for the study of fishers’ ecological knowledge in order to describe fishers’ ways of knowing and dealing with com- plexity in ecosystems, and discusses how knowledge is generated through, e.g. apprenticeship, experiential knowledge, and testing of hypotheses. The descrip- tion and analysis of fishers’ ecological knowledge has been done using the Structure–Dynamics–Functions conceptual framework. Fishers identify 5–50 feeding interactions (Structure), recognize populations’ dynamics over time, and, the impact of external factors (climate change, water quality and overfishing) (Dynamics) and finally, acknowledge different values or services (Functions) of the ecosystem (drinking water and fishing). Knowing about these three main aspects seems to be core knowledge embedded in fishers’ ecological knowledge, which comprises systems thinking. Systems thinking is arguably part of fishers’ professional skills and significant for sustainable natural resource management yet understanding ecosystem complexity is also a cognitive challenge.

  • 40.
    Gartin, Meredith
    et al.
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wutich, Amber
    Center for the Study of Institutional Diversity, Arizona State University.
    Westerhoff, Paul
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University.
    Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City2010Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 36-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Popular concern over water quality has important implications for public water management because it can both empower water utilities to improve service but also limit their ability to make changes. In the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, obtaining sufficient high-quality water resources for a growing urban population poses a major challenge. Decision makers and urban hydrologists are aware of these challenges to water sustainability but the range of acceptable policy and management options available to them is constrained by public opinion. Therefore, this study examines cultural models of water quality and water management, termed ethnohydrology, among urban residents. The study yields three key findings. First, urban residents appear to have a shared model of ethnohydrology which holds that a) there are significant water quality risks associated with low financial investments in city-wide water treatment and the desert location of Phoenix, and b) government monitoring and management combined with household-level water treatment can yield water of an acceptable quality. Second, people with high incomes are more likely to engage in expensive water filtration activities and to agree with the cultural ethnohydrology model found. Third, people living in communities that are highly concerned about water quality are less likely to share high agreement around ethnohydrology. The results have implications for water policy making and planning, particularly in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities where water quality is perceived to be low.

  • 41.
    Gonzalez-Mon, Blanca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nenadovic, Mateja
    Basurto, Xavier
    Small-scale fish buyers' trade networks reveal diverse actor types and differential adaptive capacities2019Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 164, artikkel-id 106338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of understanding how social-ecological interdependencies deriving from global trade influence sustainability has been argued for decades. Even if substantial progress has been made, a research gap remains regarding how the adaptability of small-scale fish buyers, whose daily operations have implications for the livelihood of more than 100 million people, are affected by networks of trade relationships. Adaptability is here defined as fish buyers' abilities to adapt using their relationships with others. We elaborate how these capacities relate to the precise patterns in which a fish buyer is entangled with other fish buyers, with the fishers, and with the targeted fish species, by combining a multilevel social-ecological network model with empirical data from a small-scale fishery in Mexico. Further, we also identify types of fish buyers distinguishable by how they operate, and how they are embedded in the trading network. Our results suggest that adaptability differs substantially amongst these types, thus implying that fish buyers' abilities to respond to changes are unevenly distributed. This study demonstrates the need for a more profound understanding of the consequences of the different ways in which fish buyers operate commercially, and how these operations are affected by patterns of social and social-ecological interdependencies.

  • 42.
    Gordon, Line J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bignet, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Center for Sustainable Business, United States of America.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship2017Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikkel-id 100201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  • 43. Hughes, TP
    et al.
    Gunderson, LH
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Baird, AH
    Bellwood, D
    Berkes, F
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Helfgott, A
    Leslie, H
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Per
    Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Scheffer, M
    Schuttenberg, H
    Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon world heritage areas2007Inngår i: Ambio, Vol. 36, nr 7, s. 586-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wassénius, Emmy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Bebbington, Jan
    Scholtens, Bert
    Leverage points in the financial sector for seafood sustainability2019Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, nr 10, artikkel-id eaax3324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Can finance contribute to seafood sustainability? This is an increasingly relevant question given the projected growth of seafood markets and the magnitude of social and environmental challenges associated with seafood production. As more capital enters the seafood industry, it becomes crucial that investments steer the sector toward improved sustainability, as opposed to fueling unsustainable working conditions and overexploitation of resources. Using a mixed-methods approach, we map where different financial mechanisms are most salient along a seafood firm's development trajectory and identify three leverage points that can redirect capital toward more sustainable practices: loan covenants, stock exchange listing rules, and shareholder activism. We argue that seafood sustainability requirements need to be integrated into traditional financial services and propose key research avenues for academic, policy, and practice communities. While our study focuses on the role of finance in seafood sustainability, the insights developed are also of high relevance to other extractive industries.

  • 45.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Vaccaro, Ismael
    Chapman, Lauren J.
    Chapman, Colin A.
    Microeconomic relationships between and among fishers and traders influence the ability to respond to social-ecological changes in a small-scale fishery2017Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, nr 2, artikkel-id 26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the cross-scale nature of how natural resource trading links to local extraction patterns remains a topic of great relevance to stewardship and sustainable use of ecological systems. Microeconomic influences on a society's pattern of small-scale natural resources utilization can exacerbate resource overuse, especially under increased population pressure. In many rural communities that are based on a limited diversity of resource industries, quantifying the response of extractors and traders to market and environmental fluctuations is critical to understanding management constraints. We examine the fishing practices of a small lake in Uganda, East Africa, from the dual perspectives of the traders and the fishers using a Bayesian Belief Network approach based on detailed interview surveys. Fishers in this small lake target Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), two fish species of high commercial and food security significance in East Africa. We combined data on financial, social, and ecological systems to understand how aspects of trading quantitatively relate to fish extraction patterns in Lake Nabugabo Uganda. Importantly, we find that the patron-client type relationships generate incentives to extract specific fish, whereas freelancer independent fishers are able to create responsive and flexible extraction practices that match market and environmental fluctuations. Management of fishing administered by local Beach Management Units will likely have a higher probability of success when in synchrony with trading relationships and ecological dynamics. We use this study in Uganda to reflect on methodological challenges and opportunities of combining multiple types of data sets for cross-scale analysis of social-ecological system dynamics.

  • 46.
    Loderer, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Jonna, Venkateswara Rao
    Crona, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Rozman Grinberg, Inna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sahlin, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Hofer, Anders
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    A unique cysteine-rich zinc finger domain present in a majority of class II ribonucleotide reductases mediates catalytic turnover2017Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, nr 46, s. 19044-19054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides, used in DNA synthesis and repair. Two different mechanisms help deliver the required electrons to the RNR active site. Formate can be used as reductant directly in the active site, or glutaredoxins or thioredoxins reduce a C-terminal cysteine pair, which then delivers the electrons to the active site. Here, we characterized a novel cysteine-rich C-terminal domain (CRD), which is present in most class II RNRs found in microbes. The NrdJd-type RNR from the bacterium Stackebrandtia nassauensis was used as a model enzyme. We show that the CRD is involved in both higher oligomeric state formation and electron transfer to the active site. The CRD-dependent formation of high oligomers, such as tetramers and hexamers, was induced by addition of dATP or dGTP, but not of dTTP or dCTP. The electron transfer was mediated by an array of six cysteine residues at the very C-terminal end, which also coordinated a zinc atom. The electron transfer can also occur between subunits, depending on the enzyme's oligomeric state. An investigation of the native reductant of the system revealed no interaction with glutaredoxins or thioredoxins, indicating that this class II RNR uses a different electron source. Our results indicate that the CRD has a crucial role in catalytic turnover and a potentially new terminal reduction mechanism and suggest that the CRD is important for the activities of many class II RNRs.

  • 47.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (CeSam).
    Stöhr, Christian
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Participation, dialogue and learning: sustainable fisheries and the case of co-management2013Inngår i: EARLI 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013, s. 114-114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More inclusive forms of governance are increasingly advocated that allow for stakeholder participation and joint capacity building. Platforms for dialogue and the exchange of knowledge are seen as one tool to integrate different knowledge systems such as science and local knowledge. In this study, we examine a Swedish Co-management Initiative of fisheries using an integrated version of Plummer and Fitzgibbon’s ‘Adaptive Co-Management’ (2004) and Senecah’s ‘Trinity of Voice’ (2004) frameworks in analysing the participation process, communication, and learning outcomes. The results show that participating actors were successful in developing trust and enhancing learning, starting with a conflict situation and diverging interests. Attention to ‘access’ and ‘standing’ as part of participation, and skilled facilitation, were key issues in achieving these results. The article provides insights with regard to the use of established frameworks, here applied to an empirical case, enhance our understanding of learning in conflicted contexts, and helps practitioners in designing and institutionalizing learning processes and platforms in other contexts.

  • 48.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för de samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik (CeSam).
    Stöhr, Christian
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Participation, learning and sustainable fisheries: the case of co-management at lake Vättern, Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we apply multiple perspectives in order to investigate a co- management initiative of fisheries in Sweden, using the frameworks of Adaptive Co-Management and the Trinity of Voice along with a cognitive and social perspective. The analysis and evaluation of participation in environmental governance, here fisheries, focuses on the context, pre-conditions and outcomes, as well as the participatory and communicative process of the initiative, identifying critical factors supporting and hindering the success of the exercise in relation to expected outcomes. We conclude that the project generated positive outcomes and discuss the supporting factors of this result. The discussion also focuses on the need to bring a cognitive and social perspective in to the analysis as it explains the pre-conditions - in terms of the differing ways that participants view and understand ecological problems and changes - and that these views are crucial aspects of the communicative process and need to be addressed and attended to.

  • 49.
    Malin, Jonell
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Brown, Kelsey
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Eco-labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue) Green Consumption2016Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 884Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371). Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i) recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV); and (ii) concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  • 50.
    Malin, Jonell
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sustainable Seafood Purchasing in Sweden - Unpacking Drivers and BarriersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study focuses on drivers and barriers for furthering consumer driven demand for eco-labeled seafood in Sweden. The purpose was to increase the understanding of two internal variables identified in earlier work as particularly important for pro-environmental seafood consumption: (1) concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production and (2), recognition and understanding of seafood eco-labels.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 seafood consumers in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Findings - The majority expressed concern about how seafood is produced but few stated that they buy eco-labeled seafood. A number of potential barriers against increased consumer demand for eco-labeled seafood were delineated: (i) limited knowledge of how seafood is produced, (ii) lack of affective narratives stimulating concern, (iii) animal welfare is less of a concern for seafood in comparison to other animal sourced foods, (vi) lack of familiarity with seafood eco-labels, and (v) a mismatch between motives for eco-labeled food purchase and criteria for eco-labeled seafood.

    Practical implications - The results suggest that consumer demand likely is a limited driver for a transformation towards seafood sustainability. The burden of responsibility for environmentally sound seafood production may therefore need to be shifted towards large market actors and governmental institutions.

    Originality/value - To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate internal drives and barriers for increased demand for eco-labeled seafood in Sweden. Moreover, qualitative studies on consumer perceptions of sustainable seafood have to date been rare. 

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