In this paper, we confirm, with absolute certainty, a conjecture on a certain oscillatory behaviour of higher auto-ionizing resonances of atoms and molecules beyond a threshold. These results not only definitely settle a more than 30 year old controversy in Rittby et al. (1981 Phys. Rev. A 24, 1636-1639 (doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.24.1636)) and Korsch et al. (1982 Phys. Rev. A 26, 1802-1803 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.26.1802)), but also provide new and reliable information on the threshold. Our interval-arithmetic-based method allows one, for the first time, to enclose and to exclude resonances with guaranteed certainty. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by the fact that we are able to show that the approximations in Rittby et al. (1981 Phys. Rev. A 24, 1636-1639 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.24.1636)) do lie near true resonances, whereas the approximations of higher resonances in Korsch et al. (1982 Phys. Rev. A 26, 1802-1803 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.26.1802)) do not, and further that there exist two new pairs of resonances as suggested in Abramov et al. (2001 J. Phys. A 34, 57-72 (doi:10.1088/0305-4470/34/1/304)).

We establish new analytic results for a general class of rational spectral problems. They arise e.g. in modelling photonic crystals whose capability to control the flow of light depends on specific features of the eigenvalues. Our results comprise a complete spectral analysis including variational principles and two-sided bounds for all eigenvalues, as well as numerical implementations. They apply to the eigenvalues between the poles where classical variational principles fail completely. In the application to multi-pole Lorentz models of permittivity functions we show, in particular, that our abstract two-sided eigenvalue estimates are optimal and we derive explicit bounds on the band gap above a Lorentz pole. A high order finite element method (FEM) is used to compute the two-sided bounds for a selection of eigenvalues for several concrete Lorentz models, e.g. polaritonic materials and multi-pole models.

A complete analysis of the essential spectrum of matrix-differential operators A of the form (-d/dt p d/dt + q -d/dt b* + c*) b d/dt + c D) in L2((alpha, beta)) circle times (L-2((alpha, beta)))(n) singular at beta is an element of R boolean OR {infinity} is given; the coefficient functions p, q are scalar real-valued with p > 0, b, c are vector-valued, and D is Hermitian matrix-valued. The so-called singular part of the essential spectrum sigma(s)(ess)(A) is investigated systematically. Our main results include an explicit description of sigma(s)(ess)(A), criteria for its absence and presence; an analysis of its topological structure and of the essential spectral radius. Our key tools are: the asymptotics of the leading coefficient pi(center dot, lambda) = p - b* (D - lambda)(-1) b of the first Schur complement of (0.1), a scalar differential operator but non-linear in lambda; the Nevanlinna behaviour in lambda of certain limits t NE arrow beta of functions formed out of the coefficients in (0.1). The efficacy of our results is demonstrated by several applications; in particular, we prove a conjecture on the essential spectrum of some symmetric stellar equilibrium models.

We solve the following inverse problem for boundary value problems generated by the difference equations describing the motion of a Stieltjes string (a thread with beads). Given are certain parts of the spectra of two boundary value problems with two different Robin conditions at the left end and the same damping condition at the right end. From these two partial spectra, the difference of the Robin parameters, the damping constant, and the total length of the string, find the values of the point masses, and of the lengths of the intervals between them. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for two sets of complex numbers to be the eigenvalues of two such boundary value problems and give a constructive solution of the inverse problem.