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  • 1. Haase, Martina
    et al.
    Rösch, Christine
    Ketzer, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    GIS-based assessment of sustainable crop residue potentials in European regions2016Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 86, s. 156-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a novel model based on a geographic information system (GIS) is presented for the assessment of sustainable crop residue potentials. The approach is applied to analyse the amount and the spatial distribution (1 km × 1 km grid cells) of cereal straw, root crop and oil plant residues for five European regions, considering spatially differentiated environmental sustainability issues, i.e. organic carbon content in topsoil, soil erodibility, and protected areas. The maximum sustainable residue potential varies strongly between the regions and residue types. In the scenarios Basis and Restrict, it accounts for 45–59% and 24–48% of the theoretical potential respectively without considering competing uses. Among the crop residues, cereal straw shows the highest energy potential in all regions under investigation. In terms of wet mass it accounts for 3.7 Mio. twet/a in North Rhine-Westphalia, 1.6 Mio. twet/a in Île-the-France, 1.2 Mio. twet/a in Wallonia, 0.9 Mio. twet/a in West Midlands, and 0.3 Mio. twet/a in South Netherlands (scenario Basis). Our survey shows that spatially differentiated potential estimations and the inclusion of crop residues other than cereal straw are urgently needed to improve the present rough estimations for crop residues which can be used in a sustainable way. The rather high spatial resolution of our analyses particularly allows for the support of regional stakeholders and prospective investors when it comes to questions of regional availability of biomass resources, transport distances to biomass conversion plants, and identification of suitable plant sites and sizes, respectively.

  • 2.
    Ketzer, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany .
    Land Use Conflicts between Agriculture and Energy Production: Systems Approaches to Allocate Potentials for Bioenergy and Agrophotovoltaics2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The developments towards a bio-based economy and a renewable energy-based power supply require thorough assessments of feedstocks and frameworks. In the past, political targets for increasing shares of renewable energies for combatting climate change have triggered direct land use changes (LUCs) and even indirect land use changes (iLUCs). As a consequence, residues from grassland and agriculture, which are not used for other purposes, got into the focus of renewable energy policies. Despite the technical feasibility, a general approach for assessing amounts of residues has been lacking, making planning processes for bioenergy highly customized. This study introduces a general, uniform modeling-approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and publicly available statistical and map data to locate potentials on a 1 km-grid throughout the European Union (EU). Sustainable potentials were calculated for five model regions in Northwest Europe considering input data such as animal livestock, regional (elevation-dependent) yield data, protection areas, and residue-to-crop ratios. Framing two scenarios, the model results were fed into a Decision Support Tool (DST) as a planning tool for bioenergy. Agricultural residues and surplus grass may provide significant potentials on regional levels, e.g. up to 52,236 TJ/ a from straw and 1,301 TJ/ a from root crop residues in Northrhine-Westphalia, or 9,141 TJ/ a from oil plant residues in Île de France, and 12,226 TJ of surplus grass in Rhineland-Palatinate.

    At the same time, ground mounted PV-systems were installed on arable land formerly used for food or feed production. Hence, high quality soils were taken out of agricultural production. For addressing this type of conflict, Agrophotovoltaic (APV) systems combine agricultural biomass and solar power production on the same site and time for increasing area use efficiency. Even though APV might prove suitable in the technical sense, it might be rejected by society i.e. due to its landscape impact. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)-concept was applied for APV by involving stakeholders already in the technology development process. In a series of workshops with citizens and experts, a comprehensive analysis of the driving and restraining forces for APV was done. A System Dynamics approach with Causal Loop Diagrams (CLD) visualizes and reveals the internal and external dynamics of the APV-technology. Stakeholders have pointed out the importance of defining a good framework for APV first, i.e. roof and industrial areas for PV system shall be exploited first. Any change in the set-up for the PV-system impacts the conditions for the agricultural cultivation conditions, i.e. the height and width of the mounting system influences the working conditions and distribution of water. The shading of the plants can increase the yields in dry and hot summers, while it may lead to yield reductions in other years. The acceptance level is driven by regional aspects such as tourism, local recreation and landscape impact. In this way, local knowledge from participatory studies is seen as prerequisite for a legitimate framework.

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    Land Use Conflicts between Agriculture and Energy Production: Systems Approaches to Allocate Potentials for Bioenergy and Agrophotovoltaics
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  • 3.
    Ketzer, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Roesch, Christine
    Haase, Martina
    Assessment of sustainable Grassland biomass potentials for energy supply in Northwest Europe2017Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 100, s. 39-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of grasslands in Northwest Europe is no longer needed for animal husbandry and could be used to support the energy transition towards renewable energies. For assessing the possible contribution of the feedstock grass, a new improved model based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed and applied to the model regions in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Germany within the INTERREG project BioenNW - Delivering Local Bioenergy to Northwest Europe. The grassland-to-energy model links geospatial maps data with agricultural data which had been made available by European, national, and regional authorities. The spatially differentiated grass yields rely on an elevation and soil-based classification. The so-called surplus grass is available for energy conversion after satisfying first existing fodder demands from animal husbandry, and secondly environmental sustainability criteria representing a weak sustainability (Basis) scenario and a strong sustainability (Restrict) scenario. The results show large potentials which vary strongly between the model regions. Local biomass potentials account for up to 1416 tonnes per square kilometre dry mass (t/km(2) dm) per year in the Basis scenario in South Netherlands, while the annual mean values for the regions vary between 100 t/km(2) dm in Ile de France and 374 tikm(2) dm in the West Midlands region. Five out of seven regions show surplus grass in the Basis scenario; four regions even in the Restrict scenario. Thus, the model approach provides improved quality and consistency in biomass assessment at different scales and for different regions in the EU.

  • 4.
    Ketzer, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.
    Schlyter, Peter
    Weinberger, Nora
    Rösch, Christine
    Driving and restraining forces for the implementation of the Agrophotovoltaics system technology – A system dynamics analysisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The political goal to combat climate change by a high share of renewable energy may trigger conflicts between biomass and power production, as Photovoltaic (PV) systems can be installed on arable land used for food production. The innovative Agrophotovoltaics (APV) system technology combines agricultural biomass and solar power production on the same site and aims at reducing the conflict between food and power production. A comprehensive analysis of the driving and restraining forces 15 for the implementation of APV-technology and expected or potential impacts on the environment is required. The presented study offers a so-called Systems Dynamics (SD) approach based on the results of citizen workshops, literature research, and expert discussions on the technology. This analysis produces Causal Loop Diagrams (CLDs), which describe optimization problems between power production and agriculture. Finally, these findings are criteria that may influence the local acceptance 20 in society, farmers’ motivation for APV and economic factors for the market launch of APV. Thus, this SD approach identifies bottlenecks and conflicting objectives in the technology implementation that need to be further addressed.

  • 5.
    Ketzer, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany; Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum, Germany.
    Weinberger, Nora
    Rösch, Christine
    Seitz, Stefanie B.
    Land use conflicts between biomass and power production – citizens’ participation in the technology development of Agrophotovoltaics2019Ingår i: Journal of Responsible Innovation, ISSN 2329-9460, E-ISSN 2329-9037Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the technical feasibility of renewable energy technologies and their contribution to climate-friendly power production public opposition can be a hurdle for new installations of renewable energy plants. This study assesses citizens’ perceptions of the Agrophotovoltaics (APV) technology by applying the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) concept. APV combines biomass cultivation and solar power production at the same site in order to reduce land use conflict of food vs. energy production. In a workshop, citizens’ perception on APV before building the first pilot plant was investigated to analyze relevant aspects for the innovation process and its framework at an early stage of the technology development process. This paper describes the findings from this workshop focusing on the impact of APV on landscape, biodiversity, economy, and on the requirements for regulatory framework.

  • 6. Ziemann, Saskia
    et al.
    Ketzer, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie (KIT), Germany.
    Young, Steven B.
    Weil, Marcel
    Poganietz, Witold Roger
    Increased Lifetime and Resource Efficiency in Electric Mobility – Linking Material Flow Analysis with System Dynamics2016Ingår i: 4. Symposium Rohstoffeffizienz und Rohstoffinnovationen / [ed] Ulrich Teipel, Armin Reller, Stuttgart: Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2016, Vol. 4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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