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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Functional landscapes in cities: a systems approach2018In: Landscape and ecological engineering, ISSN 1860-1871, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human enterprise and endeavour increasingly influence global processes of change, from the planetary scale down to the very local. Cities are hubs of human activity, and as the places where the majority of the world's population live we must, when looking into an uncertain future, consider how we think about urban design. Cities are densely inhabited, lived-in landscapes where human presence and perceptions are deeply enmeshed with biophysical and built infrastructures. As such, they present complex mosaics of different habitats and competing uses, ever changing in response to human and physical drivers. If designed properly, green infrastructure can contribute many important functions to a city. Efforts to strategically make use of green infrastructure can benefit considerably from a systems perspective where linkages and cross-boundary dynamics are at the very least as important as individual components. Design, planning and governance of requirements for green infrastructure also extend far beyond biophysical elements and components. Recognition of interconnections between individual green spaces, green infrastructure and the built environment, the physical environment and diverse actors, and formal and informal governance arrangements-as outlined in the four design principles in this article-is a first important step towards a more comprehensive and inclusive approach, not least to green infrastructure planning and design.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Ahrné, K
    Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding how built urban form influences biodiversity2014In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to contribute to a more complete understanding of how urban form influences biodiversity by investigating the effects of green area distribution and that of built form. We investigated breeding bird diversity in three types of housing development with approximately the same amount of tree cover. No significant differences in terms of bird communities were found between housing types in any of the survey periods. However, detached housing, especially with interspersed trees, had more neotropical insectivores and higher overall diversity of insectivores. Based on our results and theory we suggest a complementary approach to managing biodiversity in urban landscapes - instead of maximising the value and quality of individual patches efforts could go into enhancing over-all landscape quality at the neighbourhood scale by splitting up part of the green infrastructure. The relatively small differences in bird communities also suggest that different stakeholder groups may be engaged in management.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship in Urban Landscapes2017In: The Science and Practice of Landscape Stewardship / [ed] Claudia Bieling, Tobias Plieninger, Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 219-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity - Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, United States; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, United States.
    Making Sense of Biodiversity: The Affordances of Systems Ecology2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 594Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings. Here, we review the often overlooked role of traits in the provisioning of ecosystem services as a potential bridge between affordance theory and applied systems ecology. We propose that many traits can be understood as the basis for the affordances offered by biodiversity, and that they offer a more fruitful way to discuss human-biodiversity relations than do the taxonomic information most often used. Moreover, as emerging transdisciplinary studies indicate, connecting affordances to functional traits allows us to ask questions about the temporal and two-way nature of affordances and perhaps most importantly, can serve as a starting point for more fully bridging the fields of ecology and environmental psychology with respect to how we understand human-biodiversity relationships.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Kremer, Peleg
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Haase, Dagmar
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wurster, Daniel
    Scale and context dependence of ecosystem service providing units2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services (ES) have been broadly adopted as a conceptual framing for addressing human nature interactions and to illustrate the ways in which humans depend on ecosystems for sustained life and well-being. Additionally, ES are being increasingly included in urban planning and management as a way to create multi-functional landscapes able to meet the needs of expanding urban populations. However, while ES are generated and utilized within landscapes we still have limited understanding of the relationship between ES and spatial structure and dynamics. Here, we offer an expanded conceptualization of these relationships through the concept of service providing units (SPUs) as a way to plan and manage the structures and preconditions that are needed for, and in different ways influence, provisioning of ES. The SPU approach has two parts: the first deals with internal dimensions of the SPUs themselves, i.e, spatial and temporal scale and organizational level, and the second outlines how context and presence of external structures (e.g, built infrastructure or larger ecosystems) affect the performance of SPUs. In doing so, SPUs enable a more nuanced and comprehensive approach to managing and designing multi-functional landscapes and achieving multiple ES goals.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Kremer, Peleg
    Cultural ecosystem services as a gateway for improving urban sustainability2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, p. 165-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life in cities depends, among other things, on ecosystem services (ES) generated locally within the cities by multifunctional blue and green infrastructure. Successfully protecting green infrastructure in locations also attractive for urban development requires deliberate processes of planning and policy formulation as well as broad public support. We propose that cultural ecosystem services (CES) may serve as a useful gateway for addressing and managing nature in cities. CES can help embed multifunctional ecosystems and the services they generate in urban landscapes and in the minds of urbanites and planners, and thus serve an important role in addressing urban sustainability. In the city, CES may be more directly experienced, their benefits more readily appreciated, and the environment-to-benefit linkages more easily and intuitively understood by the beneficiaries relative to many material ES. Thus, we suggest that a focus on CES supply can be a good starting point for increasing the awareness among urban residents also of the importance of ES. Furthermore, CES are often generated interdependently with other critical ES and engaging people in the stewardship of CES could provide increased awareness of the benefits of a larger group of urban non-cultural ES.

  • 12. Buijs, Arjen E.
    et al.
    Mattijssen, Thomas J. M.
    Van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.
    Ambrose-Oji, Bianca
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elands, Birgit H. M.
    Moller, Maja Steen
    Active citizenship for urban green infrastructure: fostering the diversity and dynamics of citizen contributions through mosaic governance2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 22, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active citizens may contribute to the environmental, social, and institutional resilience of cities. This review discusses how citizen initiatives protect biodiversity hotspots, contribute to social cohesion, institutional innovation, and diversity in urban green space management. Challenges related to social inclusiveness, ecological connectivity and continuity suggest government involvement is pertinent, but needs to be refocused. To maximise environmental outcomes of active citizenship, governments may adopt an enabling and stimulating governance style that harnesses the transformative potential of active citizenship. This paper argues for mosaic governance to work with the heterogeneous array of people, institutions, and spatial practices associated with active citizenship. Mosaic governance aims for a context-sensitive way of urban green infrastructure planning, enhancing relationships between the diversity of landscapes and communities across cities.

  • 13. Erixon, Hanna
    et al.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Challenging dichotomies - exploring resilience as an integrative and operative conceptual framework for large-scale urban green structures2013In: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 349-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing interests of urban growth and development against the need to safeguard socially equitable and ecologically functional green space is a core urban planning issue. These urban needs are still commonly seen through a modernist lens where green areas are viewed as an antithesis to the city, creating a polarized landscape seemingly free from cross-scale social and ecological interactions.

    This study aims to challenge this polarisation by using the concept of resilience both as a theoretical umbrella and applied to a case study. More operative and integrative planning approaches to large-scale urban green structures are here explored and discussed. The study reports on a trans-disciplinary work process designed by the authors as a sequence of workshops attended by ecologists, urban planners, architects, landscape architects and environmental historians and outreach meetings set in comprehensive planning and policy contexts. The explorations took the form of design experiments based in a suburban stretch of Stockholm (Sweden) which served as a basis for the discussions. This approach aimed to bring questions from a theoretical and general level and to discuss these in relation to a specific, local context in order to explore key points of conflict and possible alternatives.

    Three recurring themes upholding dichotomist views on the urban landscape were identified: 1) large size and scale mismatches, 2) problems of artificial borders; and 3) static views of urban nature leading to a lack of interest in future potential. The resilience concept was useful for highlighting options and opening up for innovation and change, but at the same time it was identified as in need of complementary approaches to identify goals and to bring people on board. Through our design experiments, we show how synergies and social-ecological resilience can encourage creative solutions rather than polarizing positions. Drawing on recent practice-based discourse on large parks, we suggest the adoption of legibility, i.e. to work with people's perceptions and understanding of their surroundings through design, within the resilience framework. There is a clear need to further explore how such approaches can complement the resilience concept in social-ecological systems governance.

  • 14.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 15. Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ventorp, David
    Lindbladh, Matts
    A comparison of avian diversity in spruce monocultures and spruce-birch polycultures in southern Sweden2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1143-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The replacement of some spruce monocultures with stands composed of planted Norway spruce (Picea abies) and naturally regenerated birch (Betula spp.) has a range of potential benefits, but the implications for biodiversity are generally unknown. Here we conduct a paired replicated study in southern Sweden of the avian biodiversity found within Norway spruce monocultures, and within Norway spruce stands possessing approximately 20% birch. Our research leads us to three findings. First, avian diversity was significantly higher in the spruce birch polycultures. Second, spruce birch polycultures exclusively attracted broadleaf-associated bird species and retained the majority of conifer-associated bird species found in the spruce monocultures. Third, avian biodiversity within the spruce birch polycultures did not incorporate threatened taxa. We suggest that in addition to the apparent benefits for stand level diversity, widespread use of spruce birch polycultures could provide a means of softening the matrix for broadleaved-associated species, while concurrently providing an increased broadleaf base from which future conservation actions could be implemented. Our results are relevant to multi-use forestry, and recent policy initiatives by forest certification agencies which aim to increase broadleaf-associated biodiversity within conifer-dominated production forest landscapes.

  • 16. Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Lindbladh, Matts
    Elmberg, Johan
    Felton, Annika M.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sekercioglu, Cagan H.
    Collingham, Yvonne
    Huntley, Brian
    Projecting impacts of anthropogenic climatic change on the bird communities of southern Swedish spruce monocultures: will the species poor get poorer?2014In: Ornis Fennica, ISSN 0030-5685, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of climatic change on bird species' distributions in Europe was recently modeled for several scenarios of projected late 21st century climate. The results indicate mean range shifts of hundreds of kilometres north for many of European bird species. Here we consider the implications from such distributional shifts for the bird communities of Norway spruce (Picea abies) monocultures in southern Sweden, a forest type likely to remain prevalent due to forestry, despite climate change. Our assessment led us to three key findings. First, the monocultures offer suitable habitat to only two bird species projected to extend their breeding distribution northwards into southern Sweden this century. Second, species richness was projected to decline overall, which would accentuate the depauperate nature of these stands. Third, all conifer-associated arboreal granivores and three of four conifer-associated arboreal insectivores were projected not to occur, reducing both the functional richness and functional redundancy. We discuss caveats related to our approach, including the potential for bioclimatic projections - used in this study - to be hampered by the artificial retention of dominant vegetation. We also discuss the implications of our results for avian biodiversity in what is today the most prevalent forest type in southern Sweden and in many other regions of Europe.

  • 17. Gamfeldt, Lars
    et al.
    Snäll, Tord
    Bagchi, Robert
    Jonsson, Micael
    Gustafsson, Lena
    Kjellander, Petter
    Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Stendahl, Johan
    Philipson, Christopher D.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Bertil
    Andren, Henrik
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moen, Jon
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species2013In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4, p. 1340-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000 km(2), we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests.

  • 18.
    Goodness, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Pippin M. L.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring the links between functional traits and cultural ecosystem services to enhance urban ecosystem management2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 597-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional traits have been proposed as a more mechanistic way than species data alone to connect biodiversity to ecosystem processes and function in ecological research. Recently, this framework has also been broadened to include connections of traits to ecosystem services. While many links between traits and ecosystem processes/functions are easily and logically extended to regulating, supporting, and provisioning services, connections to cultural services have not yet been dealt with in depth. We argue that addressing this gap may involve a renegotiation of what have traditionally been considered traits, and a targeted effort to include and expand upon efforts to address traits-cultural ecosystem services links in traits research. Traits may also offer a better way to explore the recognition and appreciation of biodiversity. Drawing upon examples from outside the explicit traits literature, we present a number of potential connections between functional traits and cultural ecosystem services for attention in future research. Finally, we explore considerations and implications of employing a traits approach in urban areas, and examine how connections between traits and ecosystem services could be developed as indicators in a research and management context to generate a robust and resilient supply of ecosystem services.

  • 19.
    Goodness, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns of socially-valued plant traits across urban land uses in Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to contribute to urban sustainability and the generation of enjoyable, multifunctional spaces for city residents, it is crucial to gain a better understanding of the environments that are being shaped in urban areas. This study examines patterns of vegetation structure and cover, as well as tree species and socially-valued tree traits across the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden. It uses the lenses of two different land classes for this investigation: (1) seven categories of urban morphology, and (2) three categories of land management: private, public, and remnant reference vegetation sites. Results indicate significant differences across urban morphology, with the greatest extents of tree and ground cover layer in forests, the least in industrial and contiguous closed urban sites, and a near absence of shrub layer across all classes. Ground cover indicates a shift from an herbaceous mix to a combination of grass and impervious cover from more exurban to urban sites. A diversity of socially-valued tree traits is exhibited most strongly across those spaces most intensely managed for use by humans. Similar functions may be provided by different species in the landscape. While tree species differed when comparing public and private land use, their functional profiles were similar, indicating potential for response diversity and resilience across the urban area of Stockholm in the face of environmental change. Overall, this study serves as a pilot for using traits as an indicator tool for discerning and mapping social-ecological value in urban areas. We suggest that future investigations further explore the potential of using traits as both social and ecological value indicators and as cues for management actions.

  • 20. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1051-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 21. Gren, Asa
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Being efficient and green by rethinking the urban-rural divide-Combining urban expansion and food production by integrating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning2018In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 40, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pressing issue for mankind is how to combine urban expansion and food production for present and future generations. Using a case study example -the Stockholm County in Sweden-we illustrate how incorporating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning may help us rethink the urban-rural divide in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the urban agricultural landscape of Stockholm. In our case study we show that semi-natural pollinator habitats will be 12 times as affected by the planned urban expansion than farmland. Hence, the fate and management of semi-natural pollinator habitats need to be prioritized at least as much as saving productive areas for farming in the urban expansion process. We also show that urban green areas, through their potential to act as semi-natural habitats, provide a tangible link between the pollination service and the urban planning process, contributing to a better grounding of the urban expansion in an ecosystem service reality. Also, acknowledging that land use types typically classified as urban, such as urban green areas, can ecologically support many rural ecosystem services, like pollination and food production, contributes to overcoming the, often unconstructive, urban-rural divide. We conclude that beneath the apparent direct trade-offs between finding suitable land for urban expansion and preserving land for food production, there is potential for compromises, opportunities and synergies.

  • 22. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Kabisch, Sigrun
    Haase, Annegret
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Banzhaf, Ellen
    Baro, Francesc
    Brenck, Miriam
    Fischer, Leonie K.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Krellenberg, Kerstin
    Kremer, Peleg
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Larondelle, Neele
    Mathey, Juliane
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Ring, Irene
    Rink, Dieter
    Schwarz, Nina
    Wolff, Manuel
    Greening cities - To be socially inclusive? About the alleged paradox of society and ecology in cities2017In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 64, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greening cities, namely installing new parks, rooftop gardens or planting trees along the streets, undoubtedly contributes to an increase in wellbeing and enhances the attractiveness of open spaces in cities. At the same time, we observe an increasing use of greening strategies as ingredients of urban renewal, upgrading and urban revitalization as primarily market-driven endeavours targeting middle class and higher income groups sometimes at the expense of less privileged residents. This paper reflects on the current debate of the social effects of greening using selected examples. We discuss what tradeoffs between social and ecological developments in cities mean for the future debate on greening cities and a socially balanced and inclusive way of developing our cities for various groups of urban dwellers. We conclude that current and future functions and features of greening cities have to be discussed more critically including a greater awareness of social impacts.

  • 23. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Larondelle, Neele
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Artmann, Martina
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Gren, Åsa
    Hamstead, Zoé
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Kremer, Peleg
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Lorance Rall, Emily
    McPhearson, Timon
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Qureshi, Salman
    Schwarz, Nina
    Voigt, Annette
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Quantitative Review of Urban Ecosystem Service Assessments:Concepts, Models, and Implementation2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, p. 413-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of comprehensive reviewshave examined global ecosystem services (ES), few havefocused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services(UES). Given that more than half of the world’s populationlives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provisionof and need for UES is of critical importance. Which UESare the focus of research, and what types of urban land useare examined? Are models or decision support systemsused to assess the provision of UES? Are trade-offs con-sidered? Do studies of UES engage stakeholders? Toaddress these questions, we analyzed 217 papers derivedfrom an ISI Web of Knowledge search using a set ofstandardized criteria. The results indicate that most UESstudies have been undertaken in Europe, North America,and China, at city scale. Assessment methods involve bio-physical models, Geographical Information Systems, andvaluation, but few study findings have been implementedas land use policy.

  • 24. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden.
    Flexible land-use and undefined governance: From threats to potentials in peri-urban landscape planning2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 63, p. 523-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification of cities is presently one of the dominating strategies for urbanization globally. However, how densification of cities is linked to processes in the peri-urban landscapes is rather unknown. The aim of this paper is to highlight the potentials in of peri-urban landscapes to be recognized as complementary providers of urban ecosystem services when green areas in cities are reduced by densification. We suggest that the way forward is to change the perceptions of peri-urban areas from being defined as located between cities and rural areas with a specific population density or a geographical distance, to become recognized as a landscape defined by its functionality. By identifying and describing the functionality in peri-urban landscapes the existing governance gaps can be recognized and thus dealt with through adaptation of existing planning tools. Although not yet articulated, peri-urban areas should be used to facilitate integration of top down and bottom up approaches and thereby closing the governance gaps. We illustrate this reasoning by two examples; one of the establishment of green wedges in Stockholm, Sweden, and the other with the establishments of international Model forests. We conclude that further densification of cities will create a lack of ecosystem services in cities by putting an even higher pressure on the peri-urban landscape and not as suggested today that densification lower pressure on peri-urban landscapes. Rethinking and reframing the peri-urban areas by adapting existing platforms will potentially contribute to a more nuanced discussion on strategies for urban development generally.

  • 25. Kremer, Peleg
    et al.
    Hamstead, Zoe
    Haase, Dagmar
    McPhearson, Timon
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Larondelle, Neele
    Rall, Emily L.
    Voigt, Annette
    Baro, Francesc
    Bertram, Christine
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kaczorowska, Anna
    Kain, Jaan-Henrik
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Rehdanz, Katrin
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van Ham, Chantal
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing >50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  • 26. Kronenberg, Jakub
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    Connecting the social and the ecological in the focal species concept: case study of White Stork2017In: Nature Conservation, ISSN 1314-6947, E-ISSN 1314-3301, no 22, p. 79-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we provide an overview of five case studies of initiatives using the image of White Stork as a focal species. Our case studies are preceded by a short overview of existing approaches to achieve broader environmental goals through species conservation and a review of the social, ecological and social-ecological importance of White Stork. With the use of the above, we investigate linkages, complementarity and friction between the ecological, social and social-ecological perspectives on focal species, and eventually propose a framework for a more multi-targeted approach. The proposed concept of a social-ecological keystone species recognises social-ecological system complexity and goes beyond traditional divisions into ecological and social. Our approach extends the cultural keystone species concept to tie into new spheres -modern societies with more indirect connections to nature as well as indigenous communities, and all forms of human relationships with other species, not just for consumption -and to explicitly include the ecological significance of a species. Apart from serving as a potentially highly useful conservation proxy, a social-ecological keystone species emerges as a vehicle for ecological literacy, expanding from an interest in a species to learn more about the system of which it is part. White Stork, with its long history of coexistence with humans and many linkages with specific cultural practices offers an excellent example for discussing the broader social-ecological relevance of species in establishing meaningful connections to nature.

  • 27.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Graham, Jewitt
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other side of the ditch: The stark contrasts between smallholder and commercial farmers' contribution to multiple ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28. McPhearson, Timon
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Resilience of and through urban ecosystem services2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, p. 152-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities and urban areas are critical components of global sustainability as loci of sustainability progress and drivers of global transformation, especially in terms of energy efficiency, climate change adaptation, and social innovation. However, urban ecosystems have not been incorporated adequately into urban governance and planning for resilience despite mounting evidence that urban resident health and wellbeing is closely tied to the quality, quantity, and diversity of urban ecosystem services. We suggest that urban ecosystem services provide key links for bridging planning, management and governance practices seeking transitions to more sustainable cities, and serve an important role in building resilience in urban systems. Emerging city goals for resilience should explicitly incorporate the value of urban ES in city planning and governance. We argue that cities need to prioritize safeguarding of a resilient supply of ecosystem services to ensure livable, sustainable cities, especially given the dynamic nature of urban systems continually responding to global environmental change. Building urban resilience of and through ecosystem services, both in research and in practice, will require dealing with the dynamic nature of urban social-ecological systems and incorporating multiple ways of knowing into governance approaches to resilience including from scientists, practitioners, designers and planners.

  • 29.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Richter, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping bundles of ecosystem services reveals distinct types of multifunctionality within a Swedish landscape2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s89-S101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services (ES) is a valuable concept to be used in the planning and management of social-ecological landscapes. However, the understanding of the determinant factors affecting the interaction between services in the form of synergies or trade-offs is still limited. We assessed the production of 16 ES across 62 municipalities in the Norrstrom drainage basin in Sweden. We combined GIS data with publically available information for quantifying and mapping the distribution of services. Additionally, we calculated the diversity of ES for each municipality and used correlations and k-means clustering analyses to assess the existence of ES bundles. We found five distinct types of bundles of ES spatially agglomerated in the landscape that could be explained by regional social and ecological gradients. Human-dominated landscapes were highly multifunctional in our study area and urban densely populated areas were hotspots of cultural services.

1 - 29 of 29
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