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  • 1.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A range model and a schematized conception for intermodal comparisons2014In: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, Å. Hellström, Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, p. 13-13Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human brain is supposed to have a capacity for supramodal evaluation of information-interaction from several senses (often studied through fMRI). Gunnar Borg’s Range Model is a theoretical framework for interindividual, intermodal and interdisciplinary comparisons. The model postulates that the total natural subjective dynamic range from zero (or the threshold) to maximum (or a terminal level very close to the maximal intensity) is approximately subjectively equal for all individuals. Each individual experience is thus interpreted in relation to its position in the individual range, regardless of the size of the physical stimulus range. For interindividual and intermodal comparisons it is also important to have a good reference, a firmly schematized conception, with high interindividual agreement. A maximal perceived exertion has been found to work well for this purpose. Perceived exertion is an emergent modality consisting of many symptoms and cues with several sensory systems involved in conveying information to the brain from the muscles, respiration, skin, joints etc.; and with several important physiological correlates (e.g., heart rate, blood lactate, ventilation, skin temperature). In contrast to many other modalities, the perception of exertion comes from an active interaction of the body with the environment and the person usually regulates performance as a response to the perception. For healthy people it is also not harmful with a maximal exertion.  Thus, a maximal perceived exertion is something most of us have experienced. In a questionnaire study the idea was investigated that, at least in some cases, what schematized conception is used will have importance. This should for example be true for modalities where individual experiences vary greatly, as, e.g., for pain. Modalities included were taste (sourness and sweetness), heaviness, loudness, brightness, fear, smell, and pain. Two groups of 20 persons (10 men and 10 women) followed one of two instructions. Group A compared each item with their conception of a maximal heaviness (as “100”) and Group B used item-specific (intramodal) references of "sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc., imaginable". The cross-modal task of comparing different modalities to the conception of a maximal heaviness worked well. As expected there was a significant difference between the two kinds of instructions for pain (with a lower mean value for group B, p < 0,001), but, and more importantly, also a larger variance for group B. For most modalities, except for pain, the intramodal references (sourest, sweetest, loudest, etc.) may thus be conceived of as similar across individuals as well as approximately equal to the reference of a maximal heaviness, or at least was used that way. For a modality, such as pain, where individual experiences may differ extensively, the cross-modal task of using the conception of a maximal heaviness should be preferred.

  • 2.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perception of blackness as a training material for the Borg CR100 Scale®2013In: Fechner Day 2013: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiri Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics , 2013, p. 98-98Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg CR100 Scale® is a general intensity scale suitable formost kinds of experiences and symptoms. On the scale verbal labels are placed in congruence with a ratio scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 100 (“Maximal” and anchored in a previously experienced perception of, for example, perceived exertion), with, for example, “Strong” at 50 and with the possibility to exceed 100 in extreme situations. For instruction and training the blackness of 5x5 cm cardboard squares (varying from 5% to 95% blackness NCS) have previously been used with an exponent in the psychophysical power function of between 0.9 and 1.2 (obtained both for Magnitude estimation and previous versions of Borg CR scales). For practical reasons it is important to be able to use a Powerpoint presentation of blackness stimuli, for example when running classroom experiments. Two different randomized orders of 18 (2x9) blackness stimuli were presented in a classroom setting to 47 participants (16 men and 31 women, students of psychology). Microsoft Powerpoint for Apple was used with the 9 different greys preset in the program (5, 15, 25, 35, 50, 65, 75, 85, 95% blackness) and scaled with the Borg CR100!R  Scale. Two orders of presentation were used, the second being the reverse of the first. The responses obtained with the Borg CR100 scale!R  ranged from 2 to 90 (median values) showing that blackness worked well across the whole subjective dynamic range. This is of importance for a good training material. The group exponent, computed from geometric means, was n =  1. 3 (r =  0. 994) and thus a little higher than previously obtained. For a subgroup of 14 subjects who were retested after approximately 15 minutes the exponent for both occasions was n =  1. 1 (r =  0. 985 and r =  0. 965, respectively). From graphs it was obvious that there was a slight “dip” with relatively lower responses for 35%, 50% and 65% blackness, especially for the first presentation order. This might in part explain why the exponent was a little higher than obtained with the older cardboard presentations. If this “dip” was mainly due to design, the blackness stimuli, or the scale, remains to be tested. However, as a training material, this would have less consequence. As a conclusion, a Powerpoint presentation of blackness works well, and may be recommended as a training material for the Borg CR100 scale®.

  • 3.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Placing verbal descriptors on a ratio scale2011In: Fechner Day 2011: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] D. Algom, D. Zakay, E. Chajut, S. Shaki, Y. Mama, & V. Shakuf, Raanana, Israel: International Society for Psychophysics , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an article 2001 Gunnar and Elisabet Borg made a careful examination of the different principles involved in the construction of Category-Ratio (CR) scales. One of these principles is to obtain congruence between anchors and numbers, using the relation found by Stevens and Galanter (1957) between a category and a ratio scale. In an experiment 29 subjects judged lifted weights with free magnitude estimation (part A) and on a 7-point category scale (part B). For magnitude estimation an exponent of n=1,22 was obtained and for the category scale the exponent was n=0,47. From this result a simple CR-scale was constructed giving good support to the position of the anchors on the Borg CR100 scale. Secondly, a transformation equation based on Eisler (1962) and Borg, G., and Borg, P. (1987) was used as another way to obtain ratio data from category data. Both methods were found to work well.

  • 4.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    So what's that on a scale from 1 to 10?2018In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 29-35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg CR Scales® are general psychophysical intensity scales intended for measurements of all kinds of perceptions and feelings. They are based on several important principles to give level-anchored ratio data with high interindividual validity. Some of these principles are: numerical coverage of the total subjective dynamic range; quantitative semantics for finding and choosing the best verbal (or pictorial) anchors to obtain high agreement concerning quantitative interpretation and preciseness for valid level-determinations; magnitude estimation for ratio data; congruence between numbers and anchors; Gunnar Borg’s Range Model for interindividual comparisons; and a general point of reference or “fixed star” as a unit (for example a maximal perceived exertion). In this presentation, a short review is given of the rationale behind the Borg RPE scale® and Borg CR Scales®, and some examples of applications with the Borg centiMax Scale® (CR100) are given.

  • 5.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wigert, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using psychophysical scaling, the Borg centiMax® Scale (CR100), in questionnaires to study work-related needs and behaviors2017In: Fechner Day 2017: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Kazuo Ueda, Hiroyuki Ito, Gerard B. Remijn, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Fukuoka, Japan: International Society for Psychophysics , 2017, p. 108-114Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In test construction, thorough effort is put into formulating test items. Commonly, however, these are scaled with category or Likert scales. In this study, items from four work-related questionnaires were adapted and scaled with the Borg CR Scale® (CR100, centiMax®), a general intensity scale for level determination with ratio data (Borg & Borg, 2001; Borg, 2007). Tests measured Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Perceived Organizational Support, and Procedural Justice. In their original forms, Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.74–0.98, whereas this study obtained 0.83–0.92 (n=30 and n=81). Adapted to the centiMax scale, Cronbach’s alpha were 0.72–0.95 (n=81 and n=142). For Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction (n=81) and for Organizational Citizenship Behavior (n=30) correlations between centiMax and Likert scales were r=0.79 (p<0,001) and r=0.69 (p<0,001). The centiMax scale worked well and can be recommended with the advantage of more interesting statistical analysis that comes with ratio data.

  • 6.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A demonstration of level-anchored ratio scaling for prediction of grip strength2013In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 835-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Level-anchored ratio scaling, such as the Borg CR10 scale (R) and the Borg CR100 scale (R), uses verbal anchors in congruence with numbers to give ratio data together with natural levels of intensity. This presupposes that the anchors possess natural positions in the subjective dynamic range and also numerical inter-relations. In an experiment, subjects had to produce a force of handgrip corresponding to their conception of Strong, followed by a Maximal performance. By using the previously found relationship between Strong and Maximal of 1:2 together with knowledge of the exponent in the power S-R-function (R = c x S-n) for grip strength, n = 1.8, predictions of individual maximal performances were obtained. The predicted values correlated 0.76 with, and deviated only 3% (ns) from, actual maximal performances of grip strength. This result as previously also found for aerobic capacity gives a strong support for the use of verbal anchors, so common in category scaling, also in ratio scaling and that the Borg CR-scales fulfill the requirements for ratio scales. For estimation of muscular strength, such as grip strength, this present study points to the value of using submaximal determinations as a compliment to maximal performances (e.g., to obtain measures of functional capacity). The results also support the increasingly common use of the CR-methodology in other ergonomic settings concerning suitable design of tools and equipment.

  • 7.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How well does the Wong-Baker FACES scale identify the variation of pain?2013In: Fechner Day 2013: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiri Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, Freiburg, Germany: International Society for Psychophysics , 2013, p. 97-97Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is one of the most common symtoms reported clinically. Apart from the Visual Analogue scale, several rating scales are used varying in degree of interpretability and suitability for various types of pain. One scale often used, especially for children, is the Wong–Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale where pain is expressed in six drawn faces varying in expression from (1) a smiling face denoting “no hurt” to (6) a crying face for “hurts worst”. Two experiments were carried out. Firstly, 12 university professors of psychology (8 men and 4 women, 50–79 yrs) answered where (in what face) they judged that pain with certainty started. Three answered that pain started in the sixth face. Two said that no face showed pain and the rest said that the dimension shown was degree of happiness-sadness. However, if the intensity of pain was estimated as if using cross-modality matching (sadness to pain), three said face no. 4, one no. 4-5, one no. 4,5, or 6, and two said face number 5 (median = 4.5). Secondly, sixteen university students (4 men and 12 women, mean age = 27.2, SD = 7.4 yrs) answered the same question as above and then also used the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale®  , a general 0—100 intensity Category-Ratio scale for most kinds of subjective measurement3 , to scale the pain intensity expressed in each of the six faces (presented twice in a randomized order in a Powerpoint presentation). Pain was “with certainty” judged to start at the fifth face, and several participants scaled the first two faces as “zero pain”. A continuous progression of pain intensity for the six faces was on the average obtained with the CR100 scale: medians = 0.0, 0.5, 11, 31, 48, 72 centiMax. Thus, expressed with the verbal labels on the CR100 scale, the first two faces were below “Minimal”, which indicates that these faces were not judged to show any pain, the third face was just above “Weak” (13), the fourth face just above “Moderate” (25), the 5th face just below “Strong” (50) and the 6th face was just below “Very strong” (70). The conclusion was that the faces only with hesitation can be used to estimate pain. The last face was not judged to show more than a very strong pain, thus causing a restriction of range and a ceiling effect. Aproblem with these kinds of scales is poor congruence between pictures, verbal labels and numbers.

  • 8.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Performance evaluation of diving using the Borg CR100 Scale®2012In: Fechner Day 2012: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Ottawa, Kanada: The International Society for Psychophysics , 2012, p. 143-146Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sports, as for example in diving, performance is measured as a subjectively evaluated artistic gestalt. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional scale used in competitive diving with the Borg CR100 scale®, a scale where categorical expressions are placed where they perceptually belong on a ratio scale (e.g., G. Borg and E. Borg, 2001). Two internationally recognized Swedish judges volunteered as subjects and judged a sample of 45 videotaped dives, both with the traditional scale and with the CR scale. The results show that the Borg CR100 scale® worked at least equally well as the traditional scale, even though there might have been some tendency for translation between scales.

  • 9.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Letzter, Martin
    Sundblad, B.-M.
    An index for breathlessness and leg fatigue2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The features of perceived symptoms causing discontinuation of strenuous exercise have been scarcely studied. The aim was to characterize the two main symptoms causing the discontinuation of heavy work in healthy persons as well as describe the growth of symptoms during exercise. Breathlessness (b) and leg fatigue (l) were assessed using the Borg CR10 Scale® and the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale®, during a standardized exercise test in 38 healthy subjects (24–71 years). The b/l-relationships were calculated for terminal perceptions (ERIb/l), and the growth of symptoms determined by power functions for the whole test, as well as by growth response indexes (GRI). This latter index was constructed as a ratio between power levels corresponding to a very strong and a moderate perception. In the majority (71%) of the test subjects, leg fatigue was the dominant symptom at the conclusion of exercise (P<0.001) and the b/l ratio was 0.77 (CR10) and 0.75 (CR100), respectively. The GRI for breathlessness and leg fatigue was similar, with good correlations between GRI and the power function exponent (P<0.005). In healthy subjects, leg fatigue is the most common cause for discontinuing an incremental exercise test. The growth functions for breathlessness and leg fatigue during work are, however, almost parallel.

  • 10.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlberg, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®2014In: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, Å. Hellström, Lund: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, p. 14-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg CR Scales® are general intensity scales suitable for most kinds of experiences and symptoms including loudness, but have predominantly been used for perceived exertion and pain assessment. Even if earlier versions have, the present Borg CR100 scale® has not, however, been tested on loudness. The scales are constructed to give ratio data and exponents that mimic what is obtained with magnitude estimation (ME). To also give level determinations and for interindividual comparisons, verbal labels are placed on the scale in congruence with the ratio scale from 0 (nothing at all) to 100 (”Maximal” and anchored in a previously experienced perception of, for example, perceived exertion), with, for example, ”Strong” at 50 and with the possibility to exceed 100 in extreme situations1. 36 university students (9 men and 27 women: mean age 22.4 years, s = 3.1 years) partook in a loudness experiment, scaling loudness with the Borg CR100 Scale®. All sounds, S ={40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 90; 100} dB(A), were presented four times in the same randomized order to all subjects. Sounds were generated by NMATLAB script, presented through earphones (Sennheiser HD 580 Precision) in a sound proof listening room using a stationary computer (Windows 7 Professional with RME Fireface 400 external sound card, sampling frequency 48 kHz, 24 bit depth). Geometric means of results obtained with the Borg CR100 scale® were R = {4.7; 7.3; 12.2; 19.2; 29.5; 51.0; 86.5} thus ranging from approx. “Very week” to just below “Extremely strong”. The power function, computed from individual geometric means, was R = 61.7 x S0.42 (r = 0.912) and thus similar to what has often been obtained with ME and also with previous versions of Borg CR scales. Coefficients of variation fell from 0.61 (40 dB) to 0.14 (100 dB), similar to what has been obtained for perceived exertion. The latest Borg CR100 scale® thus works fine for scaling loudness of pure tones.

  • 11.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaijser, L.
    A comparison between three rating scales for perceived exertion and two different work tests.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, three scales developed by Borg are compared on bicycle ergometer work. In the first study, comparing the Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Category scale with Ratio properties (CR10) scales, 40 healthy subjects (12 men and 8 women with each scale) with a mean age of about 30 years (SD ? 6) participated. A work-test protocol with step-wise increase of work loads every minute was used (20 W increase for men and 15 W for women). Ratings and heart rates were recorded every minute and blood lactates every third minute. Data obtained with the RPE scale were described with linear regressions with individual correlations of about 0.98. Data obtained with the CR10 scale could also be described by linear regressions, but when described by power functions gave exponents of about 1.2 (sd ? 0.4) (with one additional constant included in the power function). This was significantly lower than the exponent of between 1.5 and 1.9 that has previously been observed. Mean individual correlations were 0.98. Blood lactate concentration grew with monotonously increasing functions that could be described by power functions with a mean exponent of about 2.6 (SD ? 0.6) (with two additional constants included in the power functions). In the second study, where also the more recently developed Borg CR100 scale (centiMax) was included, 24 healthy subjects (12 men and 12 women) with a mean age of about 29 years (SD ? 3) participated in a work test with a step-wise increase of work loads (25 W) every third minute. Ratings and HRs were recorded. RPE values were described by linear regressions with individual correlations of about 0.97. Data from the two CR scales were described by power functions with mean exponents of about 1.4 (sd ? 0.5) (with a-values in the power functions). Mean individual correlations were about 0.98. In both studies a tendency for a deviation from linearity between RPE values and HRs were observed. The obtained deviations from what has previously been obtained for work of longer durations (4-6 minutes) points to a need of standardization of work-test protocols and to the advantage of using CR-scales.

  • 12.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Love, Chantella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A demonstration of the Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100) for performance evaluation in diving2018In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 228-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports, for example in diving, figure skating, or ski jumping, judges subjectively score the performance on a category scale. The level-anchored ratio Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100), a general intensity scale from 0 to 100 commonly used for self-appraisal of exertion, is an interesting and valuable alternative. The aim was to explore the possibility of using the Borg centiMax (R) Scale (CR100), for performance evaluation in diving. In Study 1, 16 participants used the centiMax scale and the traditional diving scale (FINA) during a judicial training course on pre-recorded material; and in Study 2, six professional judges used the two scales during qualifying, semi-finals, and finals in the Swedish Championships in orebro, 2012. Strong and significant correlations were obtained between judged performances with the two scales (r >=.8), as well as with contest results (r >=.6). The continuous and finely graded centiMax scale has promising possibilities of improving measurement with both level determinations (how good) and ratio relationships (how much better). With a Borg CR scale, more interesting comparisons can be made, for example, direct comparisons between performance measures and perceptual variables (e.g., perceived exertion and motivation). This is of importance in training and coaching of athletes.

  • 13.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Love, Chantella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evaluating elite performance with the Borg CR100 scale® in a Swedish championship in diving2014In: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, Å. Hellström, Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sports, such as for example, in diving, figure skating and ski jumping, subjective assessment is essential in evaluating the performance. Judges usually score the performance according to a complicated setup of rules but uses quite simple rating scales. The Borg CR Scales®, commonly used for perceptual scaling of a variety of modalities and symptoms, may also be used for performance evaluation. The Borg CR100 Scale®, is a general intensity scale from 0 to 100,  "Maximal". For diving, “Maximal” was anchored in a "perfect dive". Five judges used the Borg CR100 scale together with the traditional scale for 4 men and 6 women who partook in the semi-finals in the Swedish Championships in diving, 2012. Judges were consistent in their way of using the scales, as can be seen from individual correlations with the contest results. Strong significant correlations were obtained between the traditional scale and the Borg CR100 scale® (r = 0.80) and for both scales with the contest results (0.63 and 0.62). With the Borg CR100 scale® several dives were assessed with a more precise differentiation between the dives. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 by the two individual dives no. 281 and 350. Since the CR100 is more finely graded, the scale gives a better flexibility in the judgments. Because the Borg CR scales can be used for self appraisal of for example perceived exertion, perceived difficulty, and motivation, the results in this study opens up an interesting field of possible comparisons in the study of performance enhancement and in the training of elite athletes.

  • 14.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Magalhães, Adsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernandes Costa, Marcelo
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    A pilot study comparing The Borg CR Scale®(centiMax®) and the Beck Depression Inventory for scaling depressive symptoms2019In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 164-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borg centiMax scale is a psychophysically constructed general intensity scale with verbal anchors placed in congruence with the numerical scale (0–100); thus, ratio data are obtained. With ratio data, quantitative relationships among perceptions and feelings can be determined in a statistically more solid way. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of using the Borg CR Scale® (centiMax®, CR100) for measuring depressive symptoms in a pilot study of 50 students, who completed the centiMax along with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Convergent validity and reliability were examined by correlation analyses (Pearson, Spearman, and Split-half with Spearman–Brown correction), and group and individual symptom profiles were constructed to illustrate the possible advantage of level anchored ratio data. The strong correlation 0.75 (p < .001) between the instruments supports an acceptable convergent validity of the centiMax and indicates a common underlying construct. Additionally, the reliability was high (cM = 0.96; BDI = 0.90). With symptom profiles, it was demonstrated that level anchored ratio data can show both how intense (level) and how many times more intense (relation) the feelings of separate symptoms are. In conclusion, the centiMax appears to be a valid and reliable instrument; however, further studies in larger samples including clinically depressed participants are needed for evaluating its diagnostic importance.

  • 15.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Sundell, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scaling depression with psychophysical scaling: A comparison between the Borg CR Scale® (CR100, centiMax®) and PHQ-9 on a non-clinical sample2017In: Fechner Day 2017: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Kazuo Ueda, Hiroyuki Ito, Gerard B. Remijn, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Fukuoka, Japan: International Society for Psychophysics , 2017, p. 101-107Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-clinical sample (n=71) answered an online survey containing the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), that rates the frequency of symptoms of depression (DSM-IV). The questions were also adapted for the Borg CR Scale® (CR100, centiMax®) (0–100), a general intensity scale with verbal anchors from a minimal to a maximal intensity placed in agreement with a numerical scale to give ratio data). The cut-off score of PHQ-9?10 was found to correspond to ?29 cM. Cronbach's alpha for both scales was high (0.87) and the correlation between the scales was r=0.78 (rs=0.69). Despite restriction of range, the cM-scale works well for scaling depression with added possibilities for valuable data analysis.

  • 16.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Statistik för Beteendevetare2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Statistik för beteendevetare: faktabok2012 (ed. 3)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statistik för beteendevetare är en heltäckande grundbok i statistik. Författarna går steg för steg igenom hur du planerar, genomför och redovisar en statistisk undersökning:

    • Vilken undersökningsdesign ska jag välja?

    • Hur går jag till väga för att pröva min hypotes?

    • Vilka statistiska analyser kan jag göra?

    • Hur kan jag tolka och redovisa mina resultat?

  • 18.
    Borg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Statistik för beteendevetare: övningsbok2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Övningsbok till Statistik för beteendevetare är ett komplement till faktaboken med samma namn. Boken inleds med en kort repetition av grundläggande matematik och på omslagets insida finns ett flödesschema till hjälp för att avgöra vilken statistisk analys som bör väljas i en specifik situation.

  • 19.
    Borg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    To determine the magnitude of pain with Borg CR-scales®2014In: Fechner Day 2014: Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G. R. Patching, M. Johnson, E. Borg, Å. Hellström, Lund, Sweden: International Society for Psychophysics , 2014, p. 16-16Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many demands on a good pain-scale. It should be possible to: use for all kinds of pain; determine direct levels of intensity over the total range; treat responses with statistical methods, preferably parametric statistics; study degrees of changes with stimulus intensity, medication and time; make interindividual, intermodal and psychophysiological comparisons; avoid ceiling and floor effects; make estimations and also productions; determine psychophysical S-R-functions, possible to describe with a general equations as, e.g., R=a+c(S-b)^n, where a is the basic “noise” at rest  (or the absolute threshold), and b is the starting point of the function; make two-way communication; handle round off tendencies; use internationally. To meet these demands the scale must be constructed according to basic psychophysical and linguistic knowledge, and tested in relevant experiments. To cover the total subjective range there is a need of a number variation from 0 to 50 or a little more, about 26. Several anchors should be used that people understand very well, and that are placed correctly. Most existing scales do not fulfill these demands. A common drawback is that there is a too limited range, or a maximal endpoint defined as “Highest (or Worst) Imaginable”, which is not a schematized conception and problematic for interindividual comparisons. Examples are the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and is the "Labeled Magnitude Scale" (LMS) for oral sensation. On the LMS verbal anchors are placed to give ratio data, but “Strong” is 34.7, “Very strong” 52,5. For general usage, e.g., in two-way communication for prescription of exercise, this is not good, nor does the scales facilitate predictions of max-levels from sub-max estimations. The best scales are the Borg CR Scales® (CR10 and CR100). In these scales quantitative semantics is used by applying ratio scaling to determine interpretation, meaning position in the range for congruence between anchors (labels) and numbers, and preciseness meaning interindividual agreement. It is especially important that the anchors for Zero and Maximal refer to schematized conceptions. A maximal magnitude is defined as a maximal perceived exertion and effort, for example a maximal heaviness. These ideas have been presented during several ISP meetings by G. Borg, last time in Freiburg 2013. The CR10 has been used in many studies, e.g., during tests of functional capacity and chest pain, and muscular-skeletal pain. The CR100 scale has, however, a greater potential as a general scale making possible determinations of most kinds of perceptual magnitudes. An advantage to the CR10 is that decimals need not be used and that the dynamic range is bigger and more in accordance with the psychophysical demands. The extra constants in the power function can then better reflect the true sensory processes.

  • 20. Braun, Ulrike
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy2015In: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, p. 12-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacological treatment predicts successful treatment outcomes in conjunction with self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder (with or without elements of ICBT). Two treatment groups (n = 138) underwent a six-week self-help treatment. Treatment for one of the groups included a mobile application. Measurements using the Liebowitz So-cial Anxiety Scale Self-Report as the main outcome measure were taken before, during, and in connection with the completion of treatment. Recruitment via DN was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.1) compared to recruitment via Facebook. Similarly, absence of previous psychological treatment was associated with higher odds of a successful treatment outcome (OR = 4.4).

  • 21.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Assessing traits in a psychophysical way: Reassessing need for cognition and behavioral inhibition/approach2018In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 36-42Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if different scale formats affect what conclusion one can draw about the prevalence of a specific trait in a sample. More specifically, we compared the original scale format of Need for cognition (1-5) and Behavioral Inhibition/Approach (1-4) with an 11-point scale (0-10), and a psychophysical scale originally developed to measure physical exertion, Borg centiMax Scale®. Forty-eight psychology undergraduate students participated in return for course credit. In a within-subjects design, all participants completed both questionnaires in all three versions. Results revealed that the mean was consistently reaching ceiling effects when using the original scale formats, and the variation was relatively low compared to the other scales. In sum, the results revealed that the scale format plays a significant role in how prevalent a specific trait becomes in a sample.

  • 22. Impellizzeri, Franco M.
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coutts, Aaron J.
    Intersubjective Comparisons Are Possible with an Accurate Use of the Borg CR Scales2011In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 2-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Lohmander, Anette
    et al.
    Yamashita, Renata
    Granqvist, Svante
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Reliability of auditory perceptual assessment of hypernasality in speech using different scales2018In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 43-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory-perceptual assessment has been criticized because of its inherent subjectivity. However, perceptual judgments are the primary tool in the clinical assessment of voice and resonance parameters and a key task for the speech–language pathologist/therapist (SLP/T). Decision on treatment or further examination is based on the perceptual speech assessment which need to be reliable. Of all perceptual dimensions used to distinguish normal from abnormal speech the most difficult to judge reliably is hypernasality (Watterson et al., 2017). Nevertheless, the final decision regarding whether an individual has nasality or other speech problems is based on the listener’s subjective measurement (Moll, 1λ64). Nasality is present in normal voice production and refers to perceived nasal sounds arising from the coupling of the oral and nasal resonating cavities. Nasal consonants are common in the languages. Normal nasal resonance has a range of acceptability and is perceived along a continuum, while nasal resonance disorders are associated with defects or dysfunction in the palate. In the current study the reliability of perceptual assessment of hypernasality with three different methods were compared. Standardised audio recordings of 5-year-old Swedish-speaking children with repaired cleft palate consisting of 73 stimuli in three different randomised orders were perceptually assessed by four experienced speech-language pathologists using three different methods: a sort and rate procedure (VISOR) allowing comparison between and ordering stimuli along a visual analogue scale; a 2- step method beginning with determination whether the speech resonance is within normal range or not. If not, the stimulus is rated along a 3 point ordinal category scale; a combined category-ratio scale (Borg centiMax®(cM)), where verbally well-defined categories are levelanchored to a ratio scale. Each listener completed a total of 657 hypernasality ratings (73 stimuli in 3 orders by 3 methods) for the rating task. Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found within each listener for all methods. The highest inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for VISOR and the Borg cM. High consistency within each method was found with the highest for the Borg cM. In conclusion, both the VISOR and the Borg centiMax® seem appropriate for auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality with similar and high reliability. However, the Borg cM showed slightly better consistency and seems easiest to use in a clinical setting. Further research should aim for valid definitions of how hypernasality corresponds to the categories along the scale.

  • 24. Magalhães, Adsson
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Costa, Marcelo
    Improving the psychological assessment of patients by using psychophysical methods2018In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 45-49Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, psychologists have developed instruments for assessing disorders based on ordinal scales. These scales, despite being widely used, easy to apply, and producing good results, have some imperfections. By bringing the knowledge acquired by the psychophysics field during the last century, it is possible to improve psychological assessment creating new instruments based in psychophysical methods of measurement like ratio scaling.

  • 25. Molander, Bo
    et al.
    Olsson, C.-J.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Regulating force in putting by using the Borg CR100 scale®2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularly so in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise force is of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, the Borg CR100 scale® (Borg and Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force as well as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length of putting shots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flat and uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distances putted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale were observed between younger (mean age ≈37 years) and older (mean age ≈69 years) players or between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of an existing instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale®, in order to understand the regulation of force needed for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential future benefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed.

  • 26. Paciello Yamashita, Renata
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Granqvist, Svante
    Lohmander, Anette
    Reliability of Hypernasality Rating: Comparison of 3 Different Methods for Perceptual Assessment2018In: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, ISSN 1055-6656, E-ISSN 1545-1569, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1060-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare reliability in auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality for 3 different methods and to explore the influence of language background.

    Design: Comparative methodological study.

    Participants and Materials: Audio recordings of 5-year-old Swedish-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate consisting of 73 stimuli of 9 nonnasal single-word strings in 3 different randomized orders. Four experienced speech-language pathologists (2 native speakers of Brazilian-Portuguese and 2 native speakers of Swedish) participated as listeners. After individual training, each listener performed the hypernasality rating task. Each order of stimuli was analyzed individually using the 2-step, VISOR and Borg centiMax scale methods.

    Main Outcome Measures: Comparison of intra- and inter-rater reliability, and consistency for each method within language of the listener and between listener languages (Swedish and Brazilian-Portuguese).

    Results: Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found within each listener for all methods, 2-step:kappa = 0.59-0.93; VISOR: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.99; Borg centiMax (cM) scale: ICC = 0.80-1.00. The highest inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for VISOR (ICC = 0.60-0.90) and Borg cM-scale (ICC = 0.40-0.80). High consistency within each method was found with the highest for the Borg cM scale (ICC = 0.89-0.91). There was a significant difference in the ratings between the Swedish and the Brazilian listeners for all methods.

    Conclusions: The category-ratio scale Borg cM was considered most reliable in the assessment of hypernasality. Language background of Brazilian-Portuguese listeners influenced the perceptual ratings of hypernasality in Swedish speech samples, despite their experience in perceptual assessment of cleft palate speech disorders.

  • 27. Tubagi Polito, Luis Felipe
    et al.
    Borg, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Figueira Junior, Aylton José
    Callegari Zanetti, Marcelo
    Giuliano de Sá Pinto Montenegro, Carla
    Magalhães Dias, Helton
    Popp Marin, Douglas
    Ferreira Brandão, Maria Regina
    Validity evidence of the specific pictorial scale of perceived exertion for football players - GOL Scale: The pictorial scale to measure the perceived exertion in sport2018In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 50-55Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the methods usually used for ratings of perceived exertion to estimate the internal training load and monitoring the exercise, few instruments have been developed and validated for specific sports using just pictorial anchors. This study aimed: (1) to suggest one specific theoretical model to elaborate a pictorial scale; (2) to analyze the evidences of validation of a scale for football players named GOL Scale. In the first phase of the development the cartoons of the scale were drawn based on the theoretical construction of perceived exertion. The final version of the scale is composed by six cartoons which show different grades of effort. To ensure the representativeness of the cartoons they were validated by nine judges from seven different research lines in Sports Science. In the second phase, thirteen male football players were evaluated by a three-minute progressive protocol up to voluntary exhaustion with a one-minute recovery between stages (Maximal Cardiopulmonary Effort Test – MCET), and by Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test – Level 1. The Borg RPE Scale (6-20), The Cavasini Scale, The cartoon GOL Scale, Heart Rate (HR), Percentage of Heart Rate (%HR) and Blood Lactate Concentration ([La]) were immediately determined after each stage of both tests. The level of significance was 0.05. In the MCET, significant correlation between the GOL Scale and RPE 6 – 20 Borg Scale (r = 0.92), Cavasini Scale (r = 0.93), %HR (r = 0.86), HR (r = 0.80), and blood lactate (r = 0.58) were found, whereas during Yo-Yo Test, significant correlation between the GOL Scale and Borg RPE Scale (r = 0.93), Cavasini Scale (r = 0.93), %HR (r = 0.82), HR (r = 0.80), and Blood Lactate (r = 0.77) were found. These results showed that the GOL Scale is a promissory instrument to measure perceived exertion, without the translation problems commonly found in the verbal scales.

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