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  • 1.
    Beckman, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Kihlmark, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Nucleus and Nuclear Envelope: Methods for Preparation2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell nucleus of eukaryotic organisms contains the genome surrounded by a nuclear envelope consisting of a double-lipid membrane with embedded nuclear pores and an underlying nuclear lamina. The uniformity in size and density makes it possible to isolate pure intact nuclei at high yields from tissue homogenates by centrifugation through a sucrose cushion. Nuclear envelopes can be prepared from isolated nuclei by enzymatic degradation of their nucleic acid content. The resulting nuclear envelope preparations contain structurally well-conserved inner and outer nuclear membranes with attached ribosomes, nuclear pore complexes and nuclear lamina. Reliable methods for preparation of nuclei and nuclear envelopes play an important role in the successful identification of components that are located in nuclei and in nuclear subcompartments.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Beckman, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Maxell, Danuta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Sousa, Paulo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Monitoring of the epigenetic state in live cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    An inner nuclear membrane protein induces rapid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells2017In: Stem Cell Research, ISSN 1873-5061, E-ISSN 1876-7753, Vol. 23, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) to generate any cell type in the body makes them valuable tools for cell replacement therapies. However, differentiation of iPSCs can be demanding, slowand variable. During differentiation chromatin is re-organized and silent dense heterochromatin becomes tethered to the nuclear periphery by processes involving the nuclear lamina and proteins of the INM(inner nuclearmembrane). The INM protein, Samp1 (Spindle AssociatedMembrane Protein 1) interacts with Lamin A/C and the INMprotein Emerin, which has a chromatin binding LEM(Lap2-Emerin-Man1)-domain. In this paperweinvestigate if Samp1 can play a role in the differentiation of iPSCs. Samp1 levels increased as differentiating iPSCs started to express Lamin A/C. Interestingly, even under pluripotent culturing conditions, ectopic expression of Samp1 induced a rapid differentiation of iPSCs, ofwhich some expressed the neuronal marker beta III-tubulin already after 6 days. This suggests that Samp1 is involved in early differentiation of iPSCs and could potentially be explored as a tool to promote progression of the differentiation process.

  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Santosh, Gudise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    An inner nuclear membrane protein induces rapid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Niss, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Beckman, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Maksel, Danuta
    Jafferali, Mohammed H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kulyté, Agné
    Ström, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Monitoring of chromatin organization in live cells by FRIC. Effects of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp12019In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 47, no 9, article id e49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most cells, transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin is preferentially localized in the nuclear periphery and transcriptionally active euchromatin is localized in the nuclear interior. Different cell types display characteristic chromatin distribution patterns, which change dramatically during cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence and different pathological conditions. Chromatin organization has been extensively studied on a cell population level, but there is a need to understand dynamic reorganization of chromatin at the single cell level, especially in live cells. We have developed a novel image analysis tool that we term Fluorescence Ratiometric Imaging of Chromatin (FRIC) to quantitatively monitor dynamic spatiotemporal distribution of euchromatin and total chromatin in live cells. A vector (pTandemH) assures stoichiometrically constant expression of the histone variants Histone 3.3 and Histone 2B, fused to EGFP and mCherry, respectively. Quantitative ratiometric (H3.3/H2B) imaging displayed a concentrated distribution of heterochromatin in the periphery of U2OS cell nuclei. As proof of concept, peripheral heterochromatin responded to experimental manipulation of histone acetylation. We also found that peripheral heterochromatin depended on the levels of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1, suggesting an important role in promoting peripheral heterochromatin. Taken together, FRIC is a powerful and robust new tool to study dynamic chromatin redistribution in live cells.

  • 6.
    Dowaidar, Moataz
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gestin, Maxime
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Cerrato, Carmine Pasquale
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Margus, Helerin
    Kivistik, Paula Ann
    Ezzat, Kariem
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Pooga, Margus
    Hällbrink, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Role of autophagy in cell-penetrating peptide transfection model2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 12635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) uptake mechanism is still in need of more clarification to have a better understanding of their action in the mediation of oligonucleotide transfection. In this study, the effect on early events (1 h treatment) in transfection by PepFect14 (PF14), with or without oligonucleotide cargo on gene expression, in HeLa cells, have been investigated. The RNA expression profile was characterized by RNA sequencing and confirmed by qPCR analysis. The gene regulations were then related to the biological processes by the study of signaling pathways that showed the induction of autophagy-related genes in early transfection. A ligand library interfering with the detected intracellular pathways showed concentration-dependent effects on the transfection efficiency of splice correction oligonucleotide complexed with PepFect14, proving that the autophagy process is induced upon the uptake of complexes. Finally, the autophagy induction and colocalization with autophagosomes have been confirmed by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We conclude that autophagy, an inherent cellular response process, is triggered by the cellular uptake of CPP-based transfection system. This finding opens novel possibilities to use autophagy modifiers in future gene therapy.

  • 7.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Microtubule-associated nuclear envelope proteins in interphase and mitosis2011In: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 39, p. 1786-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex forms a transcisternal bridge across the NE (nuclear envelope) that connects the cytoskeleton with the nuclear interior. This enables some proteins of the NE to communicate with the centrosome and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The position of the centrosome relative to the NE is of vital importance for many cell functions, such as cell migration and division, and centrosomal dislocation is a frequent phenotype in laminopathic disorders. Also in mitosis, a small group of transmembrane NE proteins associate with microtubules when they concentrate in a specific membrane domain associated with the mitotic spindle. The present review discusses structural and functional aspects of microtubule association with NE proteins and how this association may be maintained over the cell cycle.

  • 8.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ramberg, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gatsinzi, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Samuelsson, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Zhang, Mu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Anchored FRET sensors detect local caspase activation prior to neuronal degeneration2011In: Molecular Neurodegeneration, ISSN 1750-1326, E-ISSN 1750-1326, Vol. 6, p. 35-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate local caspase activation in dendrites or axons during development and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidences point to soluble oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide as a causative agent in AD.

    RESULTS: Here we describe the design of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based caspase sensors, fused to the microtubule associated protein tau. Specific caspase sensors preferentially cleaved by caspase-3, -6 or -9 were expressed in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The anchoring of the sensors resulted in high FRET signals both in extended neurites and soma and made analysis of spatiotemporal signal propagation possible. Caspase activation was detected as loss of FRET after exposure to different stimuli. Interestingly, after staurosporine treatment caspase-6 activation was significantly delayed in neurites compared to cell bodies. In addition, we show that exposure to oligomer-enriched amyloid-beta peptide resulted in loss of FRET in cells expressing sensors for caspase-3 and -6, but not -9, in both soma and neurites before neurite degeneration was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results show that by using anchored FRET sensors it is possible to detect stimuli-dependent differential activation of caspases and to distinguish local from global caspase activation in live neuronal cells. Furthermore, in these cells oligomer-enriched amyloid-beta peptide induces a global, rather than local activation of caspase-3 and -6, which subsequently leads to neuronal cell death.

  • 9.
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    Södertörn University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Larsson, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    A transmembrane inner nuclear membrane protein in the mitotic spindle2010In: Nucleus (Austin), ISSN 1949-1042, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 249-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently characterized a novel transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane of mammalian cells. The protein has two very interesting features. First, despite being an integral membrane protein it is able to concentrate in the membranes colocalizing with the mitotic spindle in metaphase and anaphase. Hence, the protein was named Samp1, Spindle associated membrane protein 1. Secondly, it displays a functional connection to centrosomes. This article discusses various aspects of Samp1 in relation to possible cellular function(s).

  • 10.
    Fisher, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Samuelsson, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jiang, Yang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Ramberg, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    Södertörn University College, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University College, Sweden.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Targeting cytokine expression in glial cells by cellular delivery of an NFκB decoy2007In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, ISSN 0895-8696, E-ISSN 1559-1166, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB has emerged as an important strategy for design of anti-inflammatory therapies. In neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory reactions mediated by glial cells are believed to promote disease progression. Here, we report that uptake of a double-stranded oligonucleotide NF-κB decoy in rat primary glial cells is clearly facilitated by noncovalent binding to a cell-penetrating peptide, transportan 10, via a complementary peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide decoy was detected in the cells within 1 h only when cells were incubated with the decoy in the presence of cell-penetrating peptide. Cellular delivery of the decoy also inhibited effects induced by a neurotoxic fragment of the Alzheimer β amyloid peptide in the presence of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 1β. Pretreatment of the cells with the complex formed by the decoy and the cell-penetrating peptide-PNA resulted in 80% and 50% inhibition of the NF-κB binding activity and IL-6 mRNA expression, respectively.

  • 11.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. Karolinska Institute (NOVUM), Sweden.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Lindberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Larsson, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Samp1 is functionally associated with the LINC complex and A-type lamina networks2011In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 124, p. 2077-2085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transmembrane inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Samp1 is required for anchoring centrosomes near the nuclei. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy we show that Samp1 is distributed in a distinct and characteristic pattern in the nuclear envelope (NE), where it partially colocalizes with the LINC complex protein Sun1. By studying the localization of Samp1 deletion mutants and fusion proteins, we conclude that the cysteine-rich N-terminal half of Samp1 is nucleoplasmically exposed and is responsible for targeting to the INM. It contains four conserved CxxC motifs with the potential to form zinc fingers. The distribution of cysteine-to-alanine substitution mutants, designed to prevent zinc finger formation, showed that NE localization of Samp1 depends on intact CxxC motifs. Overexpression of Samp1 zinc finger mutants produced an abnormal dominant phenotype characterized by disrupted organization of a selective subset NE proteins, including emerin, Sun1, endogenous Samp1 and, in some cases, lamin A/C, but not lamin B, Sun2 or nucleoporins. Silencing of Samp1 expression showed that emerin depends on Samp1 for its correct localization in the NE. Our results demonstrate that Samp1 is functionally associated with the LINC complex protein Sun1 and proteins of the A-type lamina network.

  • 12.
    Ivanova, Elena V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gatsinzi, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Anchoring of FRET Sensors-A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution2016In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 5, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling.

  • 13.
    Ivanova, Elena V.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gatsinzi, Tom
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Increased spatiotemporal resolution of caspase activation by anchoring FRET-based sensors to cytoskeletonManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    MCLIP Detection of Novel Protein-Protein Interactions at the Nuclear Envelope2016In: Intermediate Filament Associated Proteins / [ed] Katherine L. Wilson, Arnoud Sonnenberg, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 569, p. 503-515Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization and function of the nuclear envelope (NE) involves hundreds of nuclear membrane proteins and myriad protein-protein interactions, most of which are still uncharacterized. Many NE proteins interact stably or dynamically with the nuclear lamina or chromosomes. This can make them difficult to extract under non-denaturing conditions, and greatly limits our ability to explore and identify functional protein interactions at the NE. This knowledge is needed to understand nuclear envelope structure and the mechanisms of human laminopathy diseases. This chapter provides detailed protocols for MCLIP (membrane cross-linking immunoprecipitation) identification of novel protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells.

  • 15.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hasan, Mehedi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Spindle associated membrane protein 1 (Samp1) is required for the differentiation of muscle cells2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 16655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscles are developed and regenerated in a differentiation process called myogenesis, which involves components of the nuclear envelope. We have investigated Samp1 (Spindle Associated Membrane Protein 1), a transmembrane nuclear envelope protein, which interacts with emerin and lamin A, both of which are linked to Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). We found that the levels of Samp1 increased seven-fold during differentiation of mouse C2C12 muscle progenitor cells. To test if Samp1 could have a role in myogenesis we developed stable C2C12 knockdown cell lines expressing short hairpin RNA targeting Samp1 expression. The Samp1 depleted C2C12 cells displayed normal mobility and normal distribution of emerin and lamin A. However, Samp1 depletion increased ERK signaling and completely blocked differentiation of C2C12 cells, which failed to express myogenic marker proteins and failed to form myotubes. The block in myogenesis in Samp1 depleted cells was completely rescued by ectopic expression of RNAi resistant human Samp1, showing that Samp1 is required for muscle differentiation.

  • 16.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Crafoord, Ellinor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    MCLIP, an effective method to detect interactions of transmembrane proteins of the nuclear envelope in live cells2014In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1838, no 10, p. 2399-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating interactions of proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) has previously been difficult or even impossible due to their inherent resistance to extraction. We have developed a novel method, MCLIP (Membrane protein Cross-Link ImmunoPrecipitation), which takes advantage of a cell permeable crosslinker to enable effective detection and analysis of specific interactions of NE proteins in live cells using Western blot. Using MCLIP we show that, in U2OS cells, the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 interacts with Lamin B1, the LINC (Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex protein, Sun1 and the soluble small GTPase Ran. The results show that the previously detected in vitro interaction between Samp1 and Emerin also takes place in live cells. In vitro pull down experiments show, that the nucleoplasmic domains of Samp1 and Emerin can bind directly to each other. We also, show that MCLIP is suitable to coprecipitate protein interactions in different stages of the cell cycle.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    The integral nuclear membrane protein Samp1 is essential for the mitotic process by modulating the levels of importin-β and NuMA in the mitotic spindleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    The integral nuclear membrane protein, Samp1 modulates importin-β and NuMA in the mitotic spindleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Mitotic spindle assembly and correct chromosome segregation depend on the integral nuclear membrane protein, Samp1Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Mitotic spindle assembly and γ-tubulin localisation depend on the integral nuclear membrane protein, Samp12018In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 131, no 8, article id jcs211664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated a possible role of the inner nuclear membrane protein, Samp1, in the mitotic machinery. Live cell imaging showed that Samp1aYFP distributed as filamentous structures in the mitotic spindle, partially co-localising with ß-tubulin. Samp1 depletion resulted in an increased frequency of cells with signs of chromosomal mis-segregation and prolonged metaphase, indicating problems with spindle assembly and/or chromosomal alignment. Consistently, mitotic spindles in Samp1 depleted cells contained significantly lower levels of ß-tubulin and γ-tubulin, phenotypes which were rescued by overexpression of Samp1aYFP. We found that Samp1 can bind directly to γ-tubulin and that Samp1 co-precipitated with γ-tubulin and HAUS6 of the Augmin complex in live cells. The levels of Haus6, in the mitotic spindle also decreased after Samp1 depletion. We show that Samp1 is involved in the recruitment of Haus6 and γ-tubulin to the mitotic spindle. Samp1 is the first inner nuclear membrane protein shown to have a function in mitotic spindle assembly.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kinetochore microtubule stability is dependent on the integral nuclear membrane protein, Samp1Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that the transmembrane inner nuclear membrane protein, Samp1, localises to the mitotic spindle during metaphase, where it recruits γ-tubulin, which promotes spindle assembly by increasing the β-tubulin density. Samp1 depleted cells displayed signs of spindle destabilisation, such as increased spindle length, prolonged metaphase and chromosome mis-segregation. Here we show that Samp1 partially localise to cold resistant kinetochore fibres of the mitotic spindle. Posttranscriptional silencing of Samp1 decreased the number of kinetochore fibres and resulted in mis-aligned chromosomes, phenotypes that were rescued by Samp1YFP overexpression. We also show that Samp1 interacts with the Aurora B kinase and that Samp1 depletion increased the distribution of Aurora B in the metaphase plate and increased its activity. The effects of Samp1 on Aurora B increases our understanding of the kinetochore fibres and spindle stability.

  • 22.
    Lindberg, Staffan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Regberg, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Helmfors, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Muñoz-Alarcón, Andrés
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Srimanee, Artita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Ezzat, Kariem
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    A convergent uptake route for peptide- and polymer-based nucleotide delivery systems2015In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 206, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used as vehicles to deliver various cargos into cells and are promising as tools to deliver therapeutic biomolecules such as oligonucleotides both in vitro and in vivo. CPPs are positively charged and it is believed that CPPs deliver their cargo in a receptor-independent manner by interactingwith the negatively charged plasmamembrane and thereby inducing endocytosis. In this study we examine the mechanism of uptake of several different, well known, CPPs that form complexes with oligonucleotides.We show that these CPP:oligonucleotide complexes are negatively charged in transfection-media and their uptake is mediated by class A scavenger receptors (SCARA). These receptors are known to promiscuously bind to, and mediate uptake of poly-anionic macromolecules. Uptake of CPP:oligonucleotide complexes was abolished using pharmacological SCARA inhibitors as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of SCARA. Additionally, uptake of CPP:oligonucleotide was significantly increased by transiently overexpressing SCARA. Furthermore, SCARA inhibitors also blocked internalization of cationic polymer:oligonucleotide complexes.Our results demonstrate that the previous held belief that CPPs act receptor independently does not hold true for CPP:oligonucleotide complexes, as scavenger receptor class A (SCARA) mediates the uptake of all the examined CPP:oligonucleotide complexes in this study.

  • 23. Mattioli, Elisabetta
    et al.
    Columbaro, Marta
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Schena, Elisa
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lattanzi, Giovanna
    Samp1 Mislocalization in Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy2018In: Cells, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LMNA linked-Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD2) is a rare disease characterized by muscle weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. The mutated protein lamin A/C binds several nuclear envelope components including the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 (Spindle Associated Membrane Protein 1). Considering that Samp1 is upregulated during muscle cell differentiation and it is involved in nuclear movement, we hypothesized that it could be part of the protein platform formed by LINC proteins and prelamin A at the myotube nuclear envelope and, as previously demonstrated for those proteins, could be affected in EDMD2. Our results show that Samp1 is uniformly distributed at the nuclear periphery of normal human myotubes and committed myoblasts, but its anchorage at the nuclear poles is related to the presence of farnesylated prelamin A and it is disrupted by the loss of prelamin A farnesylation. Moreover, Samp1 is absent from the nuclear poles in EDMD2 myotubes, which shows that LMNA mutations associated with muscular dystrophy, due to reduced prelamin A levels in muscle cell nuclei, impair Samp1 anchorage. Conversely, SUN1 pathogenetic mutations do not alter Samp1 localization in myotubes, which suggests that Samp1 lies upstream of SUN1 in nuclear envelope protein complexes. The hypothesis that Samp1 is part of the protein platform that regulates microtubule nucleation from the myotube nuclear envelope in concert with pericentrin and LINC components warrants future investigation. As a whole, our data identify Samp1 as a new contributor to EDMD2 pathogenesis and our data are relevant to the understanding of nuclear clustering occurring in laminopathic muscle.

  • 24.
    Niss, Frida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zaidi, Wajiha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Papadopoulou, Elisavet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ström, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Polyglutamine expanded Ataxin-7 alters FUS localization and function in a SCA7 cell modelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, such as Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, are caused by the expansion of a CAG/polyglutamine repeat in a disease specific gene/protein. Misfolding and aggregation of the expanded protein can be observed in all polyQ disorders and sequestration of vital proteins into the aggregates formed have been suggested as a common pathological mechanism. FUS, an RNA binding protein, is frequently observed in polyglutamine aggregates. However, whether or not FUS disruption contributes to polyQ pathology is not clear.

    To address this question we used confocal microscopy, cell fractionation, filter traps and western blot, to study how FUS localization and function is affected by the SCA7 disease protein ataxin-7 (ATXN7). We found that aggregates formed by polyQ expanded ATXN7 were to a high degree also FUS positive and FUS re-distributed into the insoluble cell fraction together with mutant ATXN7. Moreover, a shift in abundance of FUS from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was observed and associated with altered levels of FUS regulated mRNAs in mutant ATXN7 expressing cells. However, some of the affected mRNAs are also regulated by the RNA binding protein TDP-43, which we could also show co-localized with ATXN7 aggregates using microscopy. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of serine 409/410 in TDP-43, which has been linked to TDP-43 neurotoxicity, could be observed in mutant ATXN7 expressing cells. Taken together, these findings lead us to conclude that disruption of FUS and also TDP-43 could potentially play a role in SCA7 pathology.

  • 25. Shimoji, Miyuki
    et al.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Neve, Etienne
    Maksel, Danuta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Imreh, Gabriela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Morgenstern, Ralf
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Molecular basis for the dual subcellular distribution of microsomal glutathione transferase 12017In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1859, no 2, p. 238-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is a membrane bound enzyme involved in the detoxification of reactive electrophiles and protection of membranes from oxidative stress. The enzyme displays an unusual and broad subcellular distribution with especially high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here we examined the molecular basis for this dual distribution. We hypothesized that the amphipathic properties of the first transmembrane segment (TMS), that contains a positively charged lysine (K25), is a central feature guiding dual targeting. The lysine-25 was substituted to alanine by site directed mutagenesis. We also increased the amphipathic character of the helix by inserting an additional lysine either one turn above or below K25. Expressing these constructs in simian COS cells, and analyzing subcellular distribution by immunocytochemistry, we observed an increased ER targeting of K25A-MGST1. In contrast I22K-MGST1 and F28K-MGST1 displayed pronounced mitochondrial targeting. By using in vitro transcription-translation we examined whether insertion of WT-MGST1 into ER is co- or post-translational and provide evidence for the former. In the same experimental set-up, mitochondrial insertion was shown to depend on the positive charge. Together these results show that removing the positive charge of lysine-25 promotes ER incorporation, but counteracts mitochondrial insertion. In contrast, introducing an extra lysine in the first TMS of MGST1 had opposite effects. The amphipathic character of the first TMS thus constitutes a molecular determinant for the dual targeting of MGST1. Broad subcellular distribution is consistent with a physiological role in protection from reactive intermediates and oxidative stress.

  • 26. Thanisch, Katharina
    et al.
    Song, Congdi
    Engelkamp, Dieter
    Koch, Jeannette
    Wang, Audrey
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Foisner, Roland
    Leonhardt, Heinrich
    Stewart, Colin L.
    Joffe, Boris
    Solovei, Irina
    Nuclear envelope localization of LEMD2 is developmentally dynamic and lamin A/C dependent yet insufficient for heterochromatin tethering2017In: Differentiation, ISSN 0301-4681, E-ISSN 1432-0436, Vol. 94, p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral heterochromatin in mammalian nuclei is tethered to the nuclear envelope by at least two mechanisms here referred to as the A- and B-tethers. The A-tether includes lamins A/C and additional unknown components presumably INM protein(s) interacting with both lamins A/C and chromatin. The B tether includes the inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Laurin B-receptor, which binds B-type lamins and chromatin. Generally, at least one of the tethers is always present in the nuclear envelope of mammalian cells. Deletion of both causes the loss of peripheral heterochromatin and consequently inversion of the entire nuclear architecture, with this occurring naturally in rod photoreceptors of nocturnal mammals. The tethers are differentially utilized during development, regulate gene expression in opposite manners, and play an important role during cell differentiation. Here we aimed to identify the unknown chromatin binding component(s) of the A-tether. We analyzed 10 mouse tissues by immunostaining with antibodies against 7 INM proteins and found that every cell type has specific, although differentially and developmentally regulated, sets of these proteins. In particular, we found that INM protein LEMD2 is concomitantly expressed with A-type lamins in various cell types but is lacking in inverted nuclei of rod cells. Truncation or deletion of Lmna resulted in the downregulation and mislocalization of LEMD2, suggesting that the two proteins interact and pointing at LEMD2 as a potential chromatin binding mediator of the A-tether. Using nuclei of mouse rods as an experimental model lacking peripheral heterochromatin, we expressed a LEMD2 transgene alone or in combination with lamin C in these cells and observed no restoration of peripheral heterochromatin in either case. We conclude that in contrary to the B-tether, the A-tether has a more intricate composition and consists of multiple components that presumably vary, at differing degrees of redundancy, between cell types and differentiation stages.

  • 27.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueora, Ricardo
    Bergqvist, Cecila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gupta, Amit
    Sousa, Paulo
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    RanGTPase regulates the interaction between the inner nuclear membrane proteins, Samp1 and EmerinManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gupta, Amit J.
    Sousa, Paulo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    RanGTPase regulates the interaction between the inner nuclear membrane proteins, Samp1 and Emerin2018In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1860, no 6, p. 1326-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samp1, spindle associated membrane protein 1, is a type II integral membrane protein localized in the inner nuclear membrane. Recent studies have shown that the inner nuclear membrane protein, Emerin and the small monomeric GTPase, Ran are direct binding partners of Samp1. Here we addressed the question whether Ran could regulate the interaction between Samp1 and Emerin in the inner nuclear membrane. To investigate the interaction between Samp1 and Emerin in live cells, we performed FRAP experiments in cells overexpressing YFP-Emerin. We compared the mobility of YFP-Emerin in Samp1 knock out cells and cells overexpressing Samp1. The results showed that the mobility of YFP-Emerin was higher in Samp1 knock out cells and lower in cells overexpressing Samp1, suggesting that Samp1 significantly attenuates the mobility of Emerin in the nuclear envelope. FRAP experiments using tsBN2 cells showed that the mobility of Emerin depends on RanGTP. Consistently, in vitro binding experiments showed that the affinity between Samp1 and Emerin is decreased in the presence of Ran, suggesting that Ran attenuates the interaction between Samp1 and Emerin. This is the first demonstration that Ran can regulate the interaction between two proteins in the nuclear envelope.

  • 29.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Samp1, a RanGTP binding transmembrane protein in the inner nuclear membrane2016In: Nucleus, ISSN 1949-1034, E-ISSN 1949-1042, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 415-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samp1 is a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which interacts with the nuclear lamina and the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex in interphase and during mitosis, it localizes to the mitotic spindle. Samp1 was recently found to coprecipitate a protein complex containing Ran, a GTPase with fundamental regulatory functions both in interphase and in mitosis. To investigate the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in further detail, we have designed and expressed recombinant fusion proteins of the Chaetomium thermophilum homolog of Samp1 (Ct. Samp1) and human Ran. Pulldown experiments show that Samp1 binds directly to Ran and that Samp1 binds better to RanGTP compared to RanGDP. Samp1 also preferred RanGTP over RanGDP in living tsBN2 cells. We also show that the Ran binding domain is located between amino acids 75-135 in the nucleoplasmically exposed N-terminal tail of Samp1. This domain is unique for Samp1, without homology in any other proteins in fungi or metazoa. Samp1 is the first known transmembrane protein that binds to Ran and could provide a unique local binding site for RanGTP in the INM. Samp1 overexpression resulted in increased Ran concentrations in the nuclear periphery supporting this idea.

  • 30.
    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Figueroa, Ricardo A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    The nucleoplasmically exposed N-terminal domain of the inner nuclear membrane protein, Samp1, directly binds to the small monomeric GTPase, RanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 30 of 30
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