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  • 1.
    Eklund, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Alcohol use and patterns of delinquent behaviour in male and female adolescents2009In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 607-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The overall aim was to study patterns of delinquent behaviour in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The more specific aims were to examine whether alcohol use varied between groups of adolescents with different patterns of delinquent behaviour, and to explore whether the association between delinquent behaviour patterns and alcohol use was similar for males and females.

    Methods:The participants were male (n = 406) and female (n = 532) adolescents in the eighth grade (age 14 years) in a medium-sized city of Sweden. We used information about self-rated alcohol use and different types of delinquent behaviour. 

    Results: The results revealed that the occurrence of excessive alcohol use and drunkenness varied between groups of adolescents with different delinquency patterns, and that the associations between alcohol use and patterns of delinquent behaviours were relatively similar for males and females. Adolescents with patterns characterized by more serious non-violent delinquency or by violent delinquency reported the highest occurrence of alcohol use and frequency of drunkenness. Adolescents with well-adjusted behaviour or occasional minor delinquency were less likely to report drinking large amounts of alcohol or to the point of feeling drunk. 

    Conclusions: The present results further emphasize the importance of distinguishing between different offender groups when examining the relationship between delinquent behaviour and associated problems, such as excessive alcohol use.

  • 2.
    Eklund, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Freidenfelt, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delinquent behaviour patterns in adolescence: Development and associated personality traits2011In: Personality and Mental Health, ISSN 1932-863X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 165-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined subgroups of delinquent adolescents and the short-term development of delinquency and personality traits characterizing these subgroups. Participants were girls and boys examined at the beginning of the 8th grade and followed up at the end of the 9th grade (n = 901). Four delinquency subgroups were identified for boys and for girls on both occasions, primarily characterized by well-adjusted behaviour, minor delinquency, serious delinquency or violent delinquency. The findings indicated that most adolescents displaying a certain delinquency pattern in 8th grade displayed a similar delinquency pattern in 9th grade. However, boys and girls involved in minor delinquency, and boys involved in violent delinquency, were more likely than expected to develop serious delinquency over time, indicating a progression towards more serious and versatile delinquency. Delinquent adolescents were in general more disinhibited, less adjusted and conforming, and more aggressive than well-adjusted adolescents, whereas boys in the serious delinquency subgroup and girls in the violent delinquency subgroup also were characterized by somatic anxiety. The findings support making a distinction between antisocial behaviour subgroups and indicate some personality traits associated with certain subgroups of delinquent adolescents.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personality Characteristics as Risk Indications of Alcohol Use and Violent Behavior in Male and Female Adolescents2005In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on personality characteristics in adolescent boys (n = 414) and girls (n = 552) in 8th grade with self-reported violent behavior and risky alcohol use. Adolescents with indications of violent behavior and/or risky alcohol use, compared to others, were generally more impulsive, had a stronger need for change and action, were less adjusted and socially conforming, as well as more aggressive. The findings pointed toward a clustering of problem behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents with a combination of violent behavior and alcohol use had more pronounced personality scores than subjects who reported only one of these behaviors. The main finding was that among girls these behaviors appeared to be associated with more deviant levels of the personality characteristics in focus.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Keeping delinquency at bay: the role of the school context for impulsive and sensation-seeking adolescents2014In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 682-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that a disadvantaged school setting is associated with increased risk of adolescent delinquency. However, there is limited research on individual differences in such contextual effects. In this study, we investigated whether the association between impulsive and sensation-seeking traits and delinquency is modified by the school setting, focusing on schools’ socioeconomic and ethnic composition and average school performance. We also examined whether the association between gender and delinquency varies by school context. Participants were adolescents in ninth grade from the Stockholm School Survey (5619 pupils in 89 schools). The findings showed an attenuating effect of school advantage on adolescents’ individual risk of delinquency. Impulsive and sensation-seeking adolescents, and boys in particular, committed less crime if they attended more advantaged schools.

  • 5.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Kerr, Margaret
    Stattin, Hakan
    Romantic relationships and delinquent behaviour in adolescence: The moderating role of delinquency propensity2010In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent behaviour and personality traits of impulsivity and thrill seeking (delinquency propensity). Sex differences also were examined. Participants were 686 7th and 8th grade students who completed three assessments over three years. The results showed that delinquency was associated with earlier romantic relationships among those who were higher in delinquency propensity one year earlier. This association was stronger among girls than boys. Thus, romantic relationships amplified girls' and boys' existing delinquency propensity, but this was strongest among girls.

  • 6.
    Freidenfelt Liljeberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Eklund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Väfors Fritz, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Poor school bonding and delinquency over time: Bidirectional effects and sex differences2011In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents’ experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788 adolescents (353 boys and 435 girls) were investigated by questionnaire at age 14 and 16. Poor school attachment and commitment as well as poor teacher attachment were found to be stronger determinants of delinquency for males than for females. Delinquency predicted poor school commitment for both boys and girls, and poor school attachment for girls, thus indicating bidirectional effects over time and sex differences in some of the bidirectional effects. The study concludes that the delinquency propensity of adolescent boys may be affected by all school bonding dimensions, whereas for girls it is their relationship with their teachers that is of significance.

  • 7. Molero, Y.
    et al.
    Larsson, A.
    Larm, P.
    Eklund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Tengström, A.
    Violent, non-violent and substance-related offending over the life course in a cohort of males and females treated for substance misuse as youths2011In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 338-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on adolescent offending heterogeneity are based on general population samples, and few include individuals with substance misuse or look specifically at substance-related offending. It is also unclear how offender subtypes develop after young adulthood or how offending heterogeneity varies between genders. This study aimed to identify subgroups of offending among adolescents with misuse problems and to examine associations with offending in adulthood. The study included 1,992 females and males that consulted a clinic for adolescents with misuse problems between 1968 and 1971. Latent Class Analyses were conducted to identify subgroups based on violent and nonviolent offending before age 20. Participants were then followed until age 50 and reexamined regarding violent, nonviolent, and substance-related crimes. Associations between subgroups before age 20 and subgroups age 21–50 were examined. Before age 20, three subgroups were identified among the females and six among the males. Males were more specialized in their offending and demonstrated higher levels of offending. Results pointed to both stability and decrease of violent and nonviolent offending, and to the emergence of substance-related offending in adulthood in both genders. The connection between substance-related crimes and general delinquency in adulthood among individuals treated for substance misuse suggests that interventions should also address substance misuse for reducing the overall volume of crime. This study also highlights the importance of including females in research on offending heterogeneity

  • 8. Molero, Yasmina
    et al.
    Larsson, Agne
    Tengström, Anders
    Eklund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Are offending trajectories identified in population sample studies relevant for treatment settings? A comparison of long-term offending trajectories in individuals treated for substance abuse in adolescence, to a matched general population sample2015In: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 416-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically.

    Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect.

    Method: Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population-based sample of 1500 individuals.

    Results: Several parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusersdecreasing high level and decreasing low level offending.

    Conclusions: Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population-based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity.

  • 9. Sundell, Knut
    et al.
    Eklund, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and Change in Patterns of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior2019In: Journal for Person-Oriented Research, ISSN 2002-0244, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining relations between various types of antisocial behavior (ASB) have generally been based on cross-sectional data. Although there is a strong correlation between types of ASB, it has been less common to examine how patterns of adolescents’ problems vary over time. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine patterns of ASB in adolescents longitudinally and also investigated how these patterns were associated with three outcomes. The sample con-sisted of 778 Swedish adolescents in grade 7 (13 years old) followed over time to grade 9. Patterns of ASB were identified based on adolescent-reported tobacco and alcohol use, truancy, bullying in school, and delinquency. The outcomes were drug use, depressive symptoms, and missing grades in grade 9. Results revealed an escalation in the frequency and seriousness of ASB over time, although the largest single cluster over time evidenced no ASB. One cluster in particular increased the risk of drug use, depression, and missing grades at grade 9. Results are discussed in relation to school-based prevention efforts.

  • 10. Väfors Fritz, M.
    et al.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Liljeberg, J.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Quality of Life in Different Male Offender Groups – Possible Underlying Effects of Intelligence and Psychopathic Tendencies2016In: Journal of Forensic Science & Criminology, ISSN 2348-9804, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of psychopathic tendencies and intelligence on Quality of life (QoL) ratings in different male offender groups was explored. Participants were 199 Swedish males with a history of criminality at age 11-14 and matched controls from the longitudinal project Young Lawbreakers as Adults. Based on registered crimes prior to 15 years and up to 34 years of age, four criminal groups were yielded: non-criminals (NC); adolescence-limited (AL); persistent (P); and adult-onset (AO). The QoL construct consists of the following dimensions: Self-perception, Psychological health, Family, Children, Education, Work, and Finances, all self-rated at age 38-41 when also psychopathic tendencies were clinically assessed using the Psychopathy Check List (PCL). The P group reported lower QoL in all dimensions compared to the NC and AL groups and lower QoL regarding Family and Education than the AO group. When controlling for psychopathic tendencies, the group differences in QoL regarding Self-perception and Children was no longer significant. Generally, individuals with higher IQ scores rated higher QoL than individuals with lower IQ scores. IQ however did not explain the divergence in QoL between offender groups. Psychopathic tendencies are suggested to overtake the importance of group belonging regarding the QoL dimensions of Self-perception and Children.

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