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  • 1. Bousquet, Francois
    et al.
    Botta, Aurelie
    Alinovi, Luca
    Barreteau, Olivier
    Bossio, Deborah
    Brown, Katrina
    Caron, Patrick
    d'Errico, Marco
    DeClerck, Fabrice
    Dessard, Helene
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Fortmann, Louise
    Hubert, Bernard
    Magda, Daniele
    Mathevet, Raphael
    Norgaard, Richard B.
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Staver, Charles
    Resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the Third International Conference on the resilience of social-ecological systems chose the theme resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation. The conference aimed specifically at fostering an encounter between the experiences and thinking focused on the issue of resilience through a social and ecological system perspective, and the experiences focused on the issue of resilience through a development perspective. In this perspectives piece, we reflect on the outcomes of the meeting and document the differences and similarities between the two perspectives as discussed during the conference, and identify bridging questions designed to guide future interactions. After the conference, we read the documents (abstracts, PowerPoints) that were prepared and left in the conference database by the participants (about 600 contributions), and searched the web for associated items, such as videos, blogs, and tweets from the conference participants. All of these documents were assessed through one lens: what do they say about resilience and development? Once the perspectives were established, we examined different themes that were significantly addressed during the conference. Our analysis paves the way for new collective developments on a set of issues: (1) Who declares/assign/cares for the resilience of what, of whom? (2) What are the models of transformations and how do they combine the respective role of agency and structure? (3) What are the combinations of measurement and assessment processes? (4) At what scale should resilience be studied? Social transformations and scientific approaches are coconstructed. For the last decades, development has been conceived as a modernization process supported by scientific rationality and technical expertise. The definition of a new perspective on development goes with a negotiation on a new scientific approach. Resilience is presently at the center of this negotiation on a new science for development.

  • 2.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological traps and transformations in dryland agro-ecosystems: Using water system innovations to change the trajectory of development2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to achieve a much needed productivity increase in farming systems across semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa have highlighted the potential of small-scale water system innovations (SWSIs). This paper takes a social-ecological resilience approach to investigate how this type of water management technology would influence agro-ecosystem dynamics, using a catchment in northeastern Tanzania as an example. The analysis finds that three external drivers (increasing dryspell frequency, population growth, and institutional changes) have interacted with a set of key variables in the studied system to shape a development trajectory over the past half-century where off-farm ecosystem services are being degraded while agricultural yields remain low and people remain poor. The analysis further finds that the evaluated SWSIs have the potential to destabilize feedbacks maintaining this social-ecological trap through several different mechanisms, and thereby open up for new development trajectories. A concluding discussion identifies a number of challenges to this type of transformation in sub-Saharan Africa, and outlines the type of investment approaches that would be needed to go from potential to reality.

  • 3.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Traps and Transformation. Water System Innovations in Dryland Environments2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Traps and transformations: Exploring the potential of water system innovations in dryland sub-Saharan Africa2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), high poverty levels and a heavy reliance on small-scale rainfed agriculture make rural livelihoods difficult. Upgrading current farming systems, in a way that safeguards productivity beyond field-scale, is urgent. This thesis builds on a case study of the Makanya catchment in Tanzania, and focuses on the potential of small-scale water system innovations (SWSIs), such as rainwater harvesting and conservation tillage, for increasing on-farm productivity while supporting multi-functional landscapes. The thesis consists of five papers that approach questions of alternative development trajectories for smallholder agro-ecosystems, and effects of SWSIs on key system variables, from varying perspectives. Paper I presents a conceptual model for interpreting multi-equilibrium dynamics in dryland agro-ecosystems, and analyzes Makanya's development over the past 50 years. Paper II investigates farmers' strategies to deal with drought and the impact of a local supplemental irrigation system on coping capacity. Paper III studies the effects of conservation tillage on yields and soil properties. Paper IV explores a set of future scenarios for the catchment. Paper V maps dryspell frequency and trends over time in a drylands-in-SSA perspective. The results show that smallholder farmers in agro-ecosystems such as Makanya depend on a wide array of on- and off-farm ecosystem services. The productivity of the surrounding landscape is especially important when crops fail. Furthermore, dryspells are a major constraint in these systems. In Makanya long dry-spells have become twice as common over the past 50 years, and frequently cause crop failures. This is a driver for land degradation, and maintains a climate-related poverty trap. SWSIs provide opportunities for dryland farmers to shift their agro-ecosystems to more productive trajectories through a number of mechanisms, including lowered crop failure frequency, altered on-farm water balances, and improved soil quality. Although this is promising, the task of transforming these systems is complex. For SWSIs to be effective, prerequisites are farming system solutions that integrate water- and nutrient management, and broad-based investments that focus on a much wider range of issues than only the water management technology. Moreover, given the uncertain future, investments in small-scale farming should be designed so that they benefit local communities across a range of pathways. Participatory scenario planning is useful both for identifying robust investment strategies and for navigating towards desirable development trajectories.

  • 5.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dryspell frequency and trends over time in semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa: Implictions for smallholder farmersManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale farmers in semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are vulnerable to dryspells, a primary reason for agricultural droughts. We used large-scale publicly available datasets to analyze frequency and trends over time in dryspells of critical length for farmers. 54 rainfall stations across the croplands of semi-arid and dry sub-humid SSA were included. Results show that stations with long-term seasonal rainfall averages below 600 mm experience critical dryspells in more than 60% of their seasons, whereas the corresponding figure for stations with averages above 600 mm is 40% or less. Almost every season is affected by dryspells for stations below 400 mm. Further, dryspell seasons are often affected by multiple dryspells. Most stations do not show any trends of changing dryspell frequency. Among the 21 stations that do exhibit changes over time, 19 have been subjected to an increasing trend, and only 2 to a decreasing trend. For six stations the increase is statistically significant. We conclude that frequent dryspell seasons with multiple dryspells, is a reality of rainfed farming systems, especially in semi-arid SSA. Efforts to increase productivity in these systems must include strategies to manage dryspells to be effective. The publicly available data contains large gaps that restrict the analysis. This is highly problematic, particularly given the fundamental importance of rainfall dynamics for livelihoods in the poorest regions of the world.

  • 6.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Makurira, Hodson
    University of Zimbabwe.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Tumbo, Siza
    Sokoine University of Agriuclture.
    Yield and soil system changes from conservation tillage in dryland farming: A case study from North Eastern Tanzania2011In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 98, no 11, p. 1687-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield levels in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa are generally low. Water shortage in the root zone during critical crop development stages is a fundamental constraining factor. While there is ample evidence to show that conservation tillage can promote soil health, it has recently been suggested that the main benefit in semi-arid farming systems may in fact be an in situ water harvesting effect. In this paper we present the result from an on-farm conservation tillage experiment (combining ripping with mulch and manure application) that was carried out in northeastern Tanzania from 2005 to 2008, testing this hypothesis. Special attention was given to the effects on the water retention properties of the soil. The tested conservation treatment only had a clear yield increasing effect during one of the six experimental seasons (maize grain yields increased by 41%, and biomass by 65%), and this was a season that received exceptional amounts of rainfall (549 mm). While the other seasons provided mixed results, there seemed to be an increasing yield gap between the conservation tillage treatment and the control towards the end of the experiment. Regarding soil system changes, small but significant effects on chemical and microbiological properties, but not on physical properties, were observed. This raises questions about the suggested water harvesting effect and its potential to contribute to stabilized yield levels under semi-arid conditions. We conclude that, at least in a shorter time perspective, the tested type of conservation tillage seems to boost productivity during already good seasons, rather than stabilize harvests during poor rainfall seasons. Highlighting the challenges involved in upgrading these farming systems, we discuss the potential contribution of conservation tillage towards improved water availability in the crop root zone in a longer-term perspective.

  • 7.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gordon, Line
    Analysing resilience in dryland agro-ecosystems: A case study of the Makanya catchment in Tanzania over the past 50 years2007In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 680-696Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dealing with drought: The challenge of using water system technologies to break dryland poverty traps2008In: Global environmental change, ISSN 0959-3780 , Vol. 18, no 4, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore strategies among farmers in semi-arid Tanzania to cope with drought, and investigate if access to a local supplemental irrigation system (the Ndiva system) can improve coping capacity. Results show high dependency on local ecosystem services when harvests fail, and indicate that farmers commonly exhaust asset holdings during droughts. Ndiva access did not have any direct effects on coping capacity, but seemed to have some indirect effects. Drawing on our findings we discuss the complexity of escaping persistent dryland poverty, and outline the circumstances under which small-scale water system technologies, such as Ndiva irrigation, may help.

  • 9.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Bossio, Deborah
    Making investments in dryland development work: participatory scenario planning in the Makanya catchment, Tanzania2008In: Ecology and society, ISSN 1708-3087 , Vol. 13, no 2, p. 42-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Haenke, Hendrik
    et al.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Enfors-Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Drought tolerant species dominate as rainfall and tree cover returns in the West African Sahel2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 59, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the severe droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, and subsequent debates about desertification, analyses of satellite images reveal that the West African Sahel has become greener again. In this paper we report a study on changes in tree cover and tree species composition in three village landscapes in northern Burkina Faso, based on a combination of methods: tree density change detection using aerial photos and satellite images, a tree species inventory including size class distribution analysis, and interviews with local farmers about woody vegetation changes. Our results show a decrease in tree cover in the 1970s followed by an increase since the mid-1980s, a pattern correlating with the temporal trends in rainfall as well as remotely sensed greening in the region. However, both the inventory and interview data shows that the species composition has changed substantially towards a higher dominance of drought-resistant and exotic species. This shift, occurring during a period of increasing annual precipitation, points to the complexity of current landscape changes and questions rain as the sole primary driver of the increase in tree cover. We propose that the observed changes in woody vegetation (densities, species composition and spatial distribution) are mediated by changes in land use, including intensification and promotion of drought tolerant and fast growing species. Our findings, which indicate a rather surprising trajectory of land cover change, highlight the importance of studies that integrate evidence of changes in tree density and species composition to complement our understanding of land use and vegetation change trajectories in the Sahel obtained from satellite images. We conclude that a better understanding of the social-ecological relations and emerging land use trajectories that produce new types of agroforestry parklands in the region is of crucial importance for designing suitable policies for climate change adaptation, biodiversity conservation and the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services that benefit local livelihoods in one of the world's poorest regions.

  • 11. Hänke, Hendrik
    et al.
    Barkmann, Jan
    Coral, Claudia
    Enfors Kaustky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marggraf, Rainer
    Social-ecological traps hinder rural development in southwestern Madagascar2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiarid Mahafaly region in southwestern Madagascar is not only a unique biodiversity hotspot, but also one of the poorest regions in the world. Crop failures occur frequently, and despite a great number of rural development programs, no effective progress in terms of improved yields, agricultural income, or well-being among farming households has been observed. In addition to the severe development challenges in the region, environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity are prevailing issues. This paper takes a social-ecological systems perspective to analyze why the region appears locked in poverty. Specifically, we address the social-ecological interaction between environmental factors such as low and variable precipitation, the lack of sustainable intensification in agriculture resulting in recalcitrant hunger, and several environmental degradation trends. The study is based on (i) longitudinal data from 150 farming households interviewed at high temporal resolution during the course of 2014, and (ii) extensive recall surveys from the southwestern Madagascar project region. The analysis reveals a complex interplay of pronounced seasonality in income generation due to recurrent droughts and crop failures making local farmers highly risk averse. This interplay results in a gradual depletion of environmental assets and hinders the accumulation of capital in the hands of smallholder farmers, and improvements in agricultural production even where environmental conditions would allow for it. As a result, households are insufficiently buffered and insured against repetitive income and food security shocks. This can be understood as a set of interacting, partly nested social-ecological traps, which entrench the Mahafalian smallholder population in deep poverty while the productivity of the environment declines. We provide new insights on the interplay between hunger, poverty, and loss of environmental assets in a global biodiversity hotspot. Finally, we propose a set of key issues that need to be considered to unlock this severe lock-in and enable transformation toward a more sustainable development in southwestern Madagascar.

  • 12.
    Järnberg, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Green niche actors navigating an opaque opportunity context: Prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 71, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying trajectories of agricultural development that enable substantial increases in food production is of prime importance for food security and human development in Sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Ethiopia in particular. To ensure long-term welfare for people and landscapes, it is imperative that such agricultural transformations sustain and enhance the natural resource base upon which agriculture depends. To understand the prospects for a sustainable transformation of Ethiopian agriculture we develop a new conceptual framework for sustainability transformations that combines insights from the social-ecological transformations literature with research on socio-technical transitions and institutional entrepreneurship. Using this framework, we analyse the agricultural development trajectory currently envisaged by the government, as expressed in policy narratives and public institutions. We also explore the opportunity context facing non-state actors who promote sustainable intensification (referred to as green niche actors), as well as the strategies they employ to navigate this context and lever change in the direction they perceive as desirable. We find that current policies for agricultural development are primarily dominated by a narrative of Agriculture as an engine for growth, which focuses on the role of external inputs and commercialisation in boosting agricultural production so as to drive economic growth. While another narrative of Natural resource rehabilitation exists in policy, it sees natural resource management as a means of reducing degradation rather than a crucial component of enhanced and sustainable agricultural production, and the policies largely decouple issues of natural resources from issues of agricultural production. Institutional structures in the agricultural sector are found to reflect these discursive patterns. Further, the general institutional context in the country is characterised by strong government domination and rigid structures, which indicates an opaque opportunity context with limited opportunities for niche actors to have an impact. Given these challenging conditions, green niche actors adapt their strategies to fit the existing opportunity context and choose to collaborate closely with the government and the extension system. While this strategy offers the possibility of a direct impact at potentially large scale, it also leads to a range of trade-offs for the green niche actors and ultimately reduces the prospects for a sustainable agricultural transformation. In conclusion, an adaptation of the regime's proposed development trajectory for Ethiopian agriculture is, under current conditions, a more likely scenario than a more fundamental sustainability transformation, although options remain for more transformative action. Through the case of Ethiopian agriculture, this study adds insights into how transformation processes could play out in non-Western contexts where a strong state plays a dominant role, thus broadening the scope of empirical applications of the emerging research field on social-ecological transformations. We also demonstrate how the multilevel perspective from the transition literature and the concepts of opportunity context and situated agency from the literature on institutional entrepreneurship can be fruitfully merged with the social-ecological transformations literature, thereby moving towards a more comprehensive conceptual framework for analysing sustainability transformations.

  • 13.
    Malmborg, Katja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sinare, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ouedraogo, Issa
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping livelihood benefits from ecosystem services in rural Sahel: Developing a method for up-scaling community based assessments of a multifunctional landscapeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Malmborg, Katja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sinare, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ouedraogo, Issa
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multi-functionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  • 15. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    Tjornbo, Ola
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Knapp, Corrie
    Hodbod, Jennifer
    Baggio, Jacopo A.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Duan
    Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 54-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES) that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  • 16.
    Rockström, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Falkenmark, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Lannerstad, Mats
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Heinke, Jens
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Water resilience for human prosperity2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's human population now constitutes the largest driving force of changes to the biosphere. Emerging water challenges require new ideas for governance and management of water resources in the context of rapid global change. This book presents a new approach to water resources, addressing global sustainability and focusing on socio-ecological resilience to changes. Topics covered include the risks of unexpected change, human impacts and dependence on global water, the prospects for feeding the world's population by 2050, and a pathway for the future. The book's innovative and integrated approach links green and blue freshwater with terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem functions and use. It also links changes arising from land-use alteration with the impacts of those changes on social-ecological systems and ecosystem services. This is an important, state-of-the-art resource for academic researchers and water resource professionals, and a key reference for graduate students studying water resource governance and management.

  • 17.
    Sinare, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Assessment of ecosystem services and benefits in village landscapes – A case study from Burkina Faso2016In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 21, p. 141-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most methods to assess ecosystem services have been developed on large scales and depend on secondary data. Such data is scarce in rural areas with widespread poverty. Nevertheless, the population in these areas strongly depends on local ecosystem services for their livelihoods. These regions are in focus for substantial landscape investments that aim to alleviate poverty, but current methods fail to capture the vast range of ecosystem services supporting livelihoods, and can therefore not properly assess potential trade-offs and synergies among services that might arise from the interventions. We present a new method for classifying village landscapes into social-ecological patches (landscape units corresponding to local landscape perceptions), and for assessing provisioning ecosystem services and benefits to livelihoods from these patches. We apply the method, which include a range of participatory activities and satellite image analysis, in six villages across two regions in Burkina Faso. The results show significant and diverse contributions to livelihoods from six out of seven social-ecological patches. The results also show how provisioning ecosystem services, primarily used for subsistence, become more important sources of income during years when crops fail. The method is useful in many data poor regions, and the patch-approach allows for extrapolation across larger spatial scales with similar social-ecological systems.

  • 18.
    Sinare, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Changes in ecosystem services in Sahelian village landscapes 1952-2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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