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  • 1. Alfsen, C.
    et al.
    Duval, A.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The urban landscape as a social-ecological system for governance of ecosystem services2011In: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes, and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1, p. 213-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Anderson, Pippin
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town: Insights Emerging from an Urban Ecology CityLab2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Andriam Parany, Rivolala
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    von Heland, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of sacred forests in pollination of livelihoods crops in southern MadagascarIn: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bai, Xuemei
    et al.
    Surveyer, Alyson
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gatzweiler, Franz W.
    Guneralp, Burak
    Parnell, Susan
    Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene
    Shrivastava, Paul
    Siri, Jose Gabriel
    Stafford-Smith, Mark
    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick
    Webb, Robert
    Defining and advancing a systems approach for sustainable cities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 23, p. 69-78Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development of cities is increasingly recognized as crucial to meeting collectively agreed sustainability goals at local, regional and global scales, and more broadly to securing human well-being worldwide. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include a goal on cities (Goal 11), with most other goals and targets have urban applications and multi scalar implications for their implementation. Further, the interdependencies - including synergies and trade-offs among the various SDGs are greater in cities, presenting both challenges and opportunities. A systems approach is urgently needed in urban research and policy analysis, but such an approach rarely features in current analysis or urban decision-making for various reasons. This paper explores four questions: why a systems approach is necessary, what defines such an approach, why has this rarely been adopted in practice, and what can be done to promote its use. We argue that a systems approach can reveal unrecognized opportunities to maximize co-benefits and synergies, guide management of inevitable trade-offs, and therefore inform prioritisation and successful solutions. We present four key issues for the effective implementation of the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda, which emerged from UN Habitat III Conference, namely: (a) a radical redesign of the multilateral institutional setup on urban issues; (b) promoting regenerative culture, behaviour, and design; (c) exploring ways to finance a systems approach; and (d) a new and enhanced role for science in sustainable development. The latter issue could be addressed through Future Earth's Urban Knowledge-Action Network, which aims at co-designing and co-producing cutting-edge and actionable knowledge for sustainable cities bringing together researchers and urban decision-makers and practitioners.

  • 6.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Norman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    The value of small size: loss of forest patches and ecological thresholds in southern Madagascar2006In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 440-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many services generated by forest ecosystems provide essential support for human well-being. However, the vulnerability of these services to environmental change such as forest fragmentation are still poorly understood. We present spatial modeling of the generation of ecosystem services in a human-dominated landscape where forest habitat patches, protected by local taboos, are located in a matrix of cultivated land in southern Madagascar. Two ecosystem services dependent on the forest habitats were addressed: (1) crop pollination services by wild and semidomesticated bees (Apoidea), essential for local crop production of, for example, beans, and (2) seed dispersal services based on the presence of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We studied the vulnerability of these ecosystem services to a plausible scenario of successive destruction of the smallest habitat patches. Our results indicate that, in spite of the fragmented nature of the landscape, the fraction of the landscape presently covered by both crop pollination and seed dispersal services is surprisingly high. It seems that the taboo system, though indirectly and unintentionally, contributes to upholding the generation of these services by protecting the forest patches. Both services are, however, predicted to be very vulnerable to the successive removal of small patches. For crop pollination, the rate of decrease in cover was significant even when only the smallest habitat patches were removed. The capacity for seed dispersal across the landscape displayed several thresholds with habitat patch removal. Our results suggest that, in order to maintain capacity for seed dispersal across the landscape and crop pollination cover in southern Androy, the geographical location of the remaining forest patches is more crucial than their size. We argue that in heavily fragmented production landscapes, small forest patches should increasingly be viewed as essential for maintaining ecosystem services, such as agricultural production, and also should be considered in the ongoing process of tripling the area of protected habitats in Madagascar.

  • 7.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Angelstam, Per
    School of Forest Engineers, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Alfsen-Norodom, Christine
    Columbia University, UENSCO Joint program on Biosphere and Society.
    Scale mismatches in management of urban landscapes2006In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world’s human population.An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scalesis, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource managementregimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads toinstitutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. Inthis paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban greenspaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of theseurban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From aqualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the GreaterStockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1) several spatial, temporal, and functional scalesare recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2) spatial and temporal meso-scalesare seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in thesehighly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystemservices. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1) developmentof an integrative view of the whole urban social–ecological landscape, and 2) creation of adaptivegovernance systems to support practical management.

  • 8.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 9. Chapin, FS
    et al.
    Danell, K
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Naturresurshushållning.
    Fresco, N
    Managing climate change impacts to enhance the resilience and sustainability of Fennoscandian forests2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 528-531Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Network analysis in conservation biogeography: challenges and opportunities2010In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 414-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  To highlight the potential value of network analysis for conservation biogeography and to focus attention on some of the challenges that lie ahead in applying it to conservation problems.

    Location  Global.

    Methods  We briefly review existing literature and then focus on five important challenges for the further development of network-based approaches in the field.

    Results  Our five challenges include (i) understanding cross-scale and cross-level linkages in ecological systems (top–down and bottom–up effects, such as trophic cascades, have been demonstrated in food webs but are poorly understood in nested hierarchies such as reserve networks and stream catchments), (ii) capturing dynamic aspects of ecological systems and networks (with a few exceptions we have little grasp of how important whole-network attributes change as the composition of nodes and links changes), (iii) integrating ecological aspects of network theory with metacommunity frameworks and multiple node functions and roles (can we link the spatial patterns of habitat patches in fragmented landscapes, the parallel networks of interacting species using those patches and community-level interactions as defined by metacommunity theory in a single framework?), (iv) integrating the analysis of social and ecological networks (particularly, can they be analysed as a single interacting system?) and (v) laying an empirical foundation for network analysis in conservation biogeography (this will require a larger data bank of well-studied networks from diverse habitats and systems).

    Main conclusions  Recent research has identified a variety of approaches that we expect to contribute to progress in each of our five challenge areas. We anticipate that some of the most exciting outcomes of attempts to meet these challenges will be frameworks that unite areas of research, such as food web analysis and metacommunity theory, that have developed independently.

  • 11. Daniel, Terry C.
    et al.
    Muhar, Andreas
    Arnberger, Arne
    Aznar, Olivier
    Boyd, James W.
    Chan, Kai M. A.
    Costanza, Robert
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Flint, Courtney G.
    Gobster, Paul H.
    Gret-Regamey, Adrienne
    Lave, Rebecca
    Muhar, Susanne
    Penker, Marianne
    Ribe, Robert G.
    Schauppenlehner, Thomas
    Sikor, Thomas
    Soloviy, Ihor
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Taczanowska, Karolina
    Tam, Jordan
    von der Dunk, Andreas
    Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 23, p. 8812-8819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES approach. A selective review of work in landscape aesthetics, cultural heritage, outdoor recreation, and spiritual significance demonstrates opportunities for operationally defining cultural services in terms of socioecological models, consistent with the larger set of ES. Such models explicitly link ecological structures and functions with cultural values and benefits, facilitating communication between scientists and stakeholders and enabling economic, multicriterion, deliberative evaluation and other methods that can clarify tradeoffs and synergies involving cultural ES. Based on this approach, a common representation is offered that frames cultural services, along with all ES, by the relative contribution of relevant ecological structures and functions and by applicable social evaluation approaches. This perspective provides a foundation for merging ecological and social science epistemologies to define and integrate cultural services better within the broader ES framework.

  • 12. De Groot, Rudolf S.
    et al.
    Blignaut, James
    van der Ploeg, Sander
    Aronson, James
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Farley, Joshua
    Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration2013In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1286-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.

  • 13.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Introduction. Section 4 Ecosystem services, and social systems in Urban landscapes2011In: Urban ecology: patterns, processes, and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sustainability and resilience differ2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 546, no 7658, p. 352-352Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Alfsen, C.
    Colding, J.
    Urban Systems2008In: Encyclopedia of ecology, Elsevier, Oxford , 2008, p. 3665-3672Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. North-West University, South Africa.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, USA.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gaffney, Owen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Sustainability and resilience for transformation in the urban century2019In: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 267-273Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have entered the urban century and addressing a broad suite of sustainability challenges in urban areas is increasingly key for our chances to transform the entire planet towards sustainability. For example, cities are responsible for 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and, at the same time, 90% of urban areas are situated on coastlines, making the majority of the world's population increasingly vulnerable to climate change. While urbanization accelerates, meeting the challenges will require unprecedented transformative solutions for sustainability with a careful consideration of resilience in their implementation. However, global and local policy processes often use vague or narrow definitions of the concepts of 'urban sustainability' and 'urban resilience', leading to deep confusion, particularly in instances when the two are used interchangeably. Confusion and vagueness slow down needed transformation processes, since resilience can be undesirable and many sustainability goals contrast, or even challenge efforts to improve resilience. Here, we propose a new framework that resolves current contradictions and tensions; a framework that we believe will significantly help urban policy and implementation processes in addressing new challenges and contributing to global sustainability in the urban century.

  • 17.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global sustainability & human prosperity: contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Pyykönen, Markku
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Rakotondrasoa, F
    Rabakonandrianina, E
    Radimilahy, C
    Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: The social institutional context2007In: Plos One, Vol. 2, no 5, p. e402-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Setala, H.
    Handel, S. N.
    van der Ploeg, S.
    Aronson, J.
    Blignaut, J. N.
    Gomez-Baggethun, E.
    Nowak, D. J.
    Kronenberg, J.
    de Groot, R.
    Benefits of restoring ecosystem services in urban areas2015In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 14, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are a key nexus of the relationship between people and nature and are huge centers of demand for ecosystem services and also generate extremely large environmental impacts. Current projections of rapid expansion of urban areas present fundamental challenges and also opportunities to design more livable, healthy and resilient cities (e.g. adaptation to climate change effects). We present the results of an analysis of benefits of ecosystem services in urban areas. Empirical analyses included estimates of monetary benefits from urban ecosystem services based on data from 25 urban areas in the USA, Canada, and China. Our results show that investing in ecological infrastructure in cities, and the ecological restoration and rehabilitation of ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, and woodlands occurring in urban areas, may not only be ecologically and socially desirable, but also quite often, economically advantageous, even based on the most traditional economic approaches.

  • 20.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Siri, José
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Pippin
    Bai, Xuemei
    Das, Pranab Kishore
    Gatere, Tatu
    Gonzalez, Andrew
    Goodness, Julie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Handel, Steven N.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kavonic, Jessica
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Maddox, David
    Maher, Raymond
    Mbow, Cheikh
    McPhearson, Timon
    Mulligan, Joe
    Nordenson, Guy
    Spires, Meggan
    Stenkula, Ulrika
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Vogel, Coleen
    Urban tinkering2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1549-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives. Moreover, it would contribute to more flexible, effective policies for urban management and the use of urban space. Four decades ago, in a seminal paper in Science, the French evolutionary biologist and philosopher Francois Jacob noted that evolution differs significantly in its characteristic modes of action from processes that are designed and engineered de novo (Jacob in Science 196(4295):1161-1166, 1977). He labeled the evolutionary process tinkering, recognizing its foundation in the modification and molding of existing traits and forms, with occasional dramatic shifts in function in the context of changing conditions. This contrasts greatly with conventional engineering and design approaches that apply tailor-made materials and tools to achieve well-defined functions that are specified a priori. We here propose that urban tinkering is the application of evolutionary thinking to urban design, engineering, ecological restoration, management and governance. We define urban tinkering as:<disp-quote>A mode of operation, encompassing policy, planning and management processes, that seeks to transform the use of existing and design of new urban systems in ways that diversify their functions, anticipate new uses and enhance adaptability, to better meet the social, economic and ecological needs of cities under conditions of deep uncertainty about the future.</disp-quote>This approach has the potential to substantially complement and augment conventional urban development, replacing predictability, linearity and monofunctional design with anticipation of uncertainty and non-linearity and design for multiple, potentially shifting functions. Urban tinkering can function by promoting a diversity of small-scale urban experiments that, in aggregate, lead to large-scale often playful innovative solutions to the problems of sustainable development. Moreover, the tinkering approach is naturally suited to exploring multi-functional uses and approaches (e.g., bricolage) for new and existing urban structures and policies through collaborative engagement and analysis. It is thus well worth exploring as a means of delivering co-benefits for environment and human health and wellbeing. Indeed, urban tinkering has close ties to systems approaches, which often are recognized as critical to sustainable development. We believe this concept can help forge much-closer, much-needed ties among engineers, architects, evolutionary ecologists, health specialists, and numerous other urban stakeholders in developing innovative, widely beneficial solutions for society and contribute to successful implementation of SDG11 and the New Urban Agenda.

  • 21.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Tengö, M
    Spontaneous regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar2010In: Reforesting landscapes: linking pattern and process / [ed] Nagendra H and Southworth J, Dordrecht: Springer, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Social movements and ecosystem services: the role of social network structure in protecting and managing urban green areas in Stockholm2008In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations—from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups—that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  • 23. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Peterson, Garry D
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gardner, Toby A
    Gordon, Line J
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fazey, Ioan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Felton, Adam
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dovers, Stephen
    Integrating resilience thinking and optimisation for conservation.2009In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 549-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation strategies need to be both effective and efficient to be successful. To this end, two bodies of research should be integrated, namely 'resilience thinking' and 'optimisation for conservation,' both of which are highly policy relevant but to date have evolved largely separately. Resilience thinking provides an integrated perspective for analysis, emphasising the potential of nonlinear changes and the interdependency of social and ecological systems. By contrast, optimisation for conservation is an outcome-oriented tool that recognises resource scarcity and the need to make rational and transparent decisions. Here we propose that actively embedding optimisation analyses within a resilience-thinking framework could draw on the complementary strengths of the two bodies of work, thereby promoting cost-effective and enduring conservation outcomes.

  • 24.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Environmental Law and Policy Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Albaeco, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, ACT, Australia .
    Reconnecting to the biosphere2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 719-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere-a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  • 25. Gasparatos, Alexandros
    et al.
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fukushi, Kensuke
    Nagao, Masafumi
    Swanepoel, Frans
    Swilling, Mark
    Trotter, Douglas
    von Blottnitz, Harro
    Sustainability science for meeting Africa's challenges: setting the stage2017In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 635-640Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Goodness, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Pippin M. L.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring the links between functional traits and cultural ecosystem services to enhance urban ecosystem management2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 597-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional traits have been proposed as a more mechanistic way than species data alone to connect biodiversity to ecosystem processes and function in ecological research. Recently, this framework has also been broadened to include connections of traits to ecosystem services. While many links between traits and ecosystem processes/functions are easily and logically extended to regulating, supporting, and provisioning services, connections to cultural services have not yet been dealt with in depth. We argue that addressing this gap may involve a renegotiation of what have traditionally been considered traits, and a targeted effort to include and expand upon efforts to address traits-cultural ecosystem services links in traits research. Traits may also offer a better way to explore the recognition and appreciation of biodiversity. Drawing upon examples from outside the explicit traits literature, we present a number of potential connections between functional traits and cultural ecosystem services for attention in future research. Finally, we explore considerations and implications of employing a traits approach in urban areas, and examine how connections between traits and ecosystem services could be developed as indicators in a research and management context to generate a robust and resilient supply of ecosystem services.

  • 27.
    Goodness, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns of socially-valued plant traits across urban land uses in Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to contribute to urban sustainability and the generation of enjoyable, multifunctional spaces for city residents, it is crucial to gain a better understanding of the environments that are being shaped in urban areas. This study examines patterns of vegetation structure and cover, as well as tree species and socially-valued tree traits across the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden. It uses the lenses of two different land classes for this investigation: (1) seven categories of urban morphology, and (2) three categories of land management: private, public, and remnant reference vegetation sites. Results indicate significant differences across urban morphology, with the greatest extents of tree and ground cover layer in forests, the least in industrial and contiguous closed urban sites, and a near absence of shrub layer across all classes. Ground cover indicates a shift from an herbaceous mix to a combination of grass and impervious cover from more exurban to urban sites. A diversity of socially-valued tree traits is exhibited most strongly across those spaces most intensely managed for use by humans. Similar functions may be provided by different species in the landscape. While tree species differed when comparing public and private land use, their functional profiles were similar, indicating potential for response diversity and resilience across the urban area of Stockholm in the face of environmental change. Overall, this study serves as a pilot for using traits as an indicator tool for discerning and mapping social-ecological value in urban areas. We suggest that future investigations further explore the potential of using traits as both social and ecological value indicators and as cues for management actions.

  • 28. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1051-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 29. Guerry, Anne D.
    et al.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Lubchenco, Jane
    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Griffin, Robert
    Ruckelshaus, Mary
    Bateman, Ian J.
    Duraiappah, Anantha
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Feldman, Marcus W.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Hoekstra, Jon
    Kareiva, Peter M.
    Keeler, Bonnie L.
    Li, Shuzhuo
    McKenzie, Emily
    Ouyang, Zhiyun
    Reyers, Belinda
    Ricketts, Taylor H.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallis, Heather
    Vira, Bhaskar
    Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7348-7355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  • 30. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Larondelle, Neele
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Artmann, Martina
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Gren, Åsa
    Hamstead, Zoé
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Kremer, Peleg
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Lorance Rall, Emily
    McPhearson, Timon
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Qureshi, Salman
    Schwarz, Nina
    Voigt, Annette
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Quantitative Review of Urban Ecosystem Service Assessments:Concepts, Models, and Implementation2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, p. 413-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of comprehensive reviewshave examined global ecosystem services (ES), few havefocused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services(UES). Given that more than half of the world’s populationlives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provisionof and need for UES is of critical importance. Which UESare the focus of research, and what types of urban land useare examined? Are models or decision support systemsused to assess the provision of UES? Are trade-offs con-sidered? Do studies of UES engage stakeholders? Toaddress these questions, we analyzed 217 papers derivedfrom an ISI Web of Knowledge search using a set ofstandardized criteria. The results indicate that most UESstudies have been undertaken in Europe, North America,and China, at city scale. Assessment methods involve bio-physical models, Geographical Information Systems, andvaluation, but few study findings have been implementedas land use policy.

  • 31.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Polasky, Stephen
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Four perspectives on ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32. Krasny, Marianne E.
    et al.
    Russ, Alex
    Tidball, Keith G.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Civic ecology practices: Participatory approaches to generating and measuring ecosystem services in cities2014In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 7, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civic ecology practices are community based, environmental stewardship actions taken to enhance green infrastructure, ecosystem services, and human well-being in cities and other human-dominated landscapes. Examples include tree planting in post-Katrina New Orleans, oyster restoration in New York City, community gardening in Detroit, friends of parks groups in Seattle, and natural area restoration in Cape Flats, South Africa. Whereas civic ecology practices are growing in number and represent a participatory approach to management and knowledge production as called for by global sustainability initiatives, only rarely are their contributions to ecosystem services measured. In this paper, we draw On literature sources and our prior research in urban social-ecological systems to explore protocols for monitoring biodiversity, functional measures of ecosystem services, and ecosystem services valuation that can be adapted for use by practitioner-scientist partnerships in civic ecology settings. Engaging civic ecology stewards in collecting such measurements presents opportunities to gather data that can be used as feedback in an adaptive co-management process. Further, we suggest that civic ecology practices not only create green infrastructure that produces ecosystem services, but also constitute social-ecological processes that directly generate ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, education) and associated benefits to human well-being.

  • 33. Kremer, Peleg
    et al.
    Hamstead, Zoe
    Haase, Dagmar
    McPhearson, Timon
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Larondelle, Neele
    Rall, Emily L.
    Voigt, Annette
    Baro, Francesc
    Bertram, Christine
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kaczorowska, Anna
    Kain, Jaan-Henrik
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Rehdanz, Katrin
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van Ham, Chantal
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing >50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  • 34.
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Haase, Dagmar
    Scheuer, Sebastian
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bridging the gap between ecosystem service assessments and land-use planning through Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 62, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use planning is an important determinant for green space policy in cities. It defines land covers and hence the structure and function of urban ecosystems and the benefits these provide to humans, such as air purification, urban cooling, runoff mitigation, and recreation. The ecosystem service approach has helped to attract policy attention to these benefits but the concept remains poorly implemented in urban policy and governance. To address this gap, we advance a framework to bridge ecosystem services into policy processes through Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) as decision support tool. The paper is organized in three main parts. First, we conduct a systematic literature review to assess state-of-the-art knowledge on ecosystem service assessments through MCDA. Next, we build on insights from the literature review to develop the 'ecosystem services policy-cycle', a conceptual framework that merges the 'ecosystem service cascade' and 'policy cycle' models to reinforce the link between ecosystem service assessments and practical applications in urban policy and governance. Next, we illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework along an example about conflicting interests on land use and green space planning following the closure of the Airport Tempelhof in Berlin, Germany. Our results highlight the scope of MCDA as a decision support tool for integrating ecosystem service assessments in green space governance. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of different methodological choices in the use of MCDA in ecosystem service assessments and note that a key strength of this tool in informing green space policies lies in its capacity to accommodate conflicting stakeholder perspectives and to address trade-offs between ecological, social and economic values.

  • 35. Larigauderie, Anne
    et al.
    Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Lonsdale, Mark
    Mooney, Harold A.
    Brussaard, Lijbert
    Cooper, David
    Cramer, Wolfgang
    Daszak, Peter
    Diaz, Sandra
    Duraiappah, Anantha
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Faith, Daniel P.
    Jackson, Louise E.
    Krug, Cornelia
    Leadley, Paul W.
    Le Prestre, Philippe
    Matsuda, Hiroyuki
    Palmer, Margaret
    Perrings, Charles
    Pulleman, Mirjam
    Reyers, Belinda
    Rosa, Eugene A.
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Spehn, Eva
    Turner, B. L. , I I
    Yahara, Tetsukazu
    Biodiversity and ecosystem services science for a sustainable planet: the DIVERSITAS vision for 2012-202012In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DIVERSITAS, the international programme on biodiversity science, is releasing a strategic vision presenting scientific challenges for the next decade of research on biodiversity and ecosystem services: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Science for a Sustainable Planet. This new vision is a response of the biodiversity and ecosystem services scientific community to the accelerating loss of the components of biodiversity, as well as to changes in the biodiversity science-policy landscape (establishment of a Biodiversity Observing Network - GEO BON, of an Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - IPBES, of the new Future Earth initiative; and release of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020). This article presents the vision and its core scientific challenges.

  • 36.
    Lewis, Joshua A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Tulane University, USA.
    Zipperer, Wayne C.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Bernik, Brittany
    Hazen, Rebecca
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blum, Michael J.
    Socioecological disparities in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e01922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in urban resilience, remarkably little is known about vegetation dynamics in the aftermath of disasters. In this study, we examined the composition and structure of plant communities across New Orleans (Louisiana, USA) following catastrophic flooding triggered by levee failures during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Focusing on eight neighborhoods that span a range of demographic and topographical conditions, we assessed whether plant communities in post-Katrina New Orleans reflect flooding disturbance and post-disaster landscape management policies. We then contextualized vegetation patterns and associated ecosystem services and disservices with census-based demographic trends and indepth interviews to draw inferences about the drivers and outcomes of urban land abandonment in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. We found that areas subject to the greatest flooding disturbance exhibit the highest rates of vegetation response. Disturbance intensity and elevation, however, are relatively weak drivers of vegetation differences among the studied neighborhoods. Rather, we found that household income, racial demographics, and land abandonment are important drivers of vegetation community composition and structure across the city. Our findings indicate that resettlement and landscape management policies can mediate post-flooding ecological outcomes and demonstrate that unmanaged, emergent vegetation on abandoned lands can be an environmental justice concern in underserved and historically marginalized communities.

  • 37.
    Lewis, Joshua A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Zipperer, Wayne C.
    Hazen, Rebecca
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Socioecological dynamics in response to urban flooding and land abandonment in New Orleans following Hurricane KatrinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cleary, Grainne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Linkages beyond borders: targeting spatial processes in fragmented urban landscapes2008In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 717-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of ecosystems often focuses on specific species chosen for their habitat demand, public appeal, or levels of threat. We propose a complementary framework for choosing focal species, the mobile link concept, which allows managers to focus on spatial processes and deal with multi-scale ecological dynamics. Spatial processes are important for three reasons: maintenance, re-organization, and restoration of ecological values. We illustrate the framework with a case study of the Eurasian Jay, a mobile link species of importance for the oak forest regeneration in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden, and its surroundings. The case study concludes with a conceptual model for how the framework can be applied in management. The model is based on a review of published data complemented with a seed predation experiment and mapping of Jay territories to reduce the risk of applying non-urban site-specific information in an urban setting. Our case study shows that the mobile link approach has several advantages: (1) Reducing the vulnerability of ecological functions to disturbances and fluctuations in resources allocated to management, (2) Reducing management costs by maintaining natural processes, and (3) Maintaining gene flow and genetic diversity at a landscape level. We argue that management that includes mobile link organisms is an important step towards the prevention of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss in increasingly fragmented landscapes. Identifying and managing mobile links is a way to align management with the ecologically relevant scales in any landscape.

  • 39. McPhearson, Timon
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Frantzeskaki, Niki
    Resilience of and through urban ecosystem services2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, p. 152-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities and urban areas are critical components of global sustainability as loci of sustainability progress and drivers of global transformation, especially in terms of energy efficiency, climate change adaptation, and social innovation. However, urban ecosystems have not been incorporated adequately into urban governance and planning for resilience despite mounting evidence that urban resident health and wellbeing is closely tied to the quality, quantity, and diversity of urban ecosystem services. We suggest that urban ecosystem services provide key links for bridging planning, management and governance practices seeking transitions to more sustainable cities, and serve an important role in building resilience in urban systems. Emerging city goals for resilience should explicitly incorporate the value of urban ES in city planning and governance. We argue that cities need to prioritize safeguarding of a resilient supply of ecosystem services to ensure livable, sustainable cities, especially given the dynamic nature of urban systems continually responding to global environmental change. Building urban resilience of and through ecosystem services, both in research and in practice, will require dealing with the dynamic nature of urban social-ecological systems and incorporating multiple ways of knowing into governance approaches to resilience including from scientists, practitioners, designers and planners.

  • 40. McPhearson, Timon
    et al.
    Pickett, Steward T. A.
    Grimm, Nancy B.
    Niemela, Jari
    Alberti, Marina
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Weber, Christiane
    Haase, Dagmar
    Breuste, Juergen
    Qureshi, Salman
    Advancing Urban Ecology toward a Science of Cities2016In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 198-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecology is a field encompassing multiple disciplines and practical applications and has grown rapidly. However, the field is heterogeneous as a global inquiry with multiple theoretical and conceptual frameworks, variable research approaches, and a lack of coordination among multiple schools of thought and research foci. Here, we present an international consensus on how urban ecology can advance along multiple research directions. There is potential for the field to mature as a holistic, integrated science of urban systems. Such an integrated science could better inform decisionmakers who need increased understanding of complex relationships among social, ecological, economic, and built infrastructure systems. To advance the field requires conceptual synthesis, knowledge and data sharing; cross-city comparative research, new intellectual networks, and engagement with additional disciplines. We consider challenges and opportunities for understanding dynamics of urban systems. We suggest pathways for advancing urban ecology research to support the goals of improving urban sustainability and resilience, conserving urban biodiversity, and promoting human well-being on an urbanizing planet.

  • 41. Niemelä, Jari
    et al.
    Breuste, J.H
    McIntyre, N.E
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    James, P.
    Concluding remarks: the way forward for urban ecology2011In: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes, and applications / [ed] Juri Niemelä, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42. Niemelä, Jari
    et al.
    Breuste, Jürgen H.
    Guntenspergen, H.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Introduction2011In: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes, and applications / [ed] Niemelä et al., Ney York: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 319-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43. Niemelä, Jary
    et al.
    Breuste, Jürgen H.
    Guntenspergen, Glenn
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Perrings, Charles
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University.
    Naeem, Shahid
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University.
    Ahrestani, Farshid S
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bunker, Daniel E
    Department of Biological Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
    Ecosystem services, targets, and indicators for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity2011In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 512-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the collective failure to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's (CBD's) 2010 target to substantially reduce biodiversity losses, the CBD adopted a plan composed of five strategic goals and 20 “SMART” (Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Realistic, and Time-bound) targets, to be achieved by 2020. Here, an interdisciplinary group of scientists from DIVERSITAS – an international program that focuses on biodiversity science – evaluates these targets and considers the implications of an ecosystem-services-based approach for their implementation. We describe the functional differences between the targets corresponding to distinct strategic goals and identify the interdependency between targets. We then discuss the implications for supporting research and target indicators, and make several specific suggestions for target implementation.

  • 45.
    Reyers, Belinda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa.
    Biggs, Reinette Oonsie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hejnowicz, Adam P.
    Polasky, Stephen
    Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social-ecological approach2013In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 268-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest and investment in ecosystem services across global science and policy arenas, it remains unclear how ecosystem services - and particularly changes in those services - should be measured. The social and ecological factors, and their interactions, that create and alter ecosystem services are inherently complex. Measuring and managing ecosystem services requires a sophisticated systems-based approach that accounts for how these services are generated by interconnected social-ecological systems (SES), how different services interact with each other, and how changes in the total bundle of services influence human well-being (HWB). Furthermore, there is a need to understand how changes in HWB feedback and affect the generation of ecosystem services. Here, we outline an SES-based approach for measuring ecosystem services and explore its value for setting policy targets, developing indicators, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs.

  • 46. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Hansjuergens, Bernd
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wittmer, Heidi
    Sukhdev, Pavan
    Challenges in framing the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: the TEEB initiative2010In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 15-26Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study is a major international initiative to draw attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions moving forward. TEEB seeks to show that economics can be a powerful instrument in biodiversity policy, both by supporting decision processes and by forging discourses between science, economics and governing structures. The legitimate and effective use of economic instruments in biodiversity conservation depends on applying and interpreting them appropriately, taking into account the ecological, economic and political challenges associated with valuing biodiversity and nature's services to society.

  • 47.
    Schewenius, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Opportunities for Increasing Resilience and Sustainability of Urban Social-Ecological Systems: Insights from the URBES and the Cities and Biodiversity Outlook Projects2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 434-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban futures that are more resilient and sustainable require an integrated social-ecological system approach to urban policymaking, planning, management, and governance. In this article, we introduce the Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) and the Cities and Biodiversity Outlook (CBO) Projects as new social-ecological contributions to research and practice on emerging urban resilience and ecosystem services. We provide an overview of the projects and present global urbanization trends and their effects on ecosystems and biodiversity, as a context for new knowledge generated in the URBES case-study cities, including Berlin, New York, Rotterdam, Barcelona, and Stockholm. The cities represent contrasting urbanization trends and examples of emerging science-policy linkages for improving urban landscapes for human health and well-being. In addition, we highlight 10 key messages of the global CBO assessment as a knowledge platform for urban leaders to incorporate state-of-the-art science on URBES into decision-making for sustainable and resilient urban development.

  • 48. Takeuchi, K.
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hatakeyama, M.
    Kauffman, J.
    Turner, N.
    Zhou, D.
    Using sustainability science to analyse social-ecological restoration in NE Japan after the great earthquake and tsunami of 20112014In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 513-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami that devastated part of northeastern Japan in March 2011, proposals for reconstruction and rehabilitation are still subjects of debate. The claim by many climate scientists that large-scale extreme events can be expected in the future, with similar catastrophic effects in coastal areas, suggests the need for long-term planning that aims at building resilience, the ability for socio-ecological systems to withstand and recover quickly from natural disasters, and continue to develop. We hypothesize that ecosystems and socio-economic resilience will provide affected communities with flexible barriers against future disasters and greater protection in the long run than will hard/engineering solutions such as high seawalls aimed at ensuring only physical security. Building social/ecological resilience in the Tohoku region will increase general security and is anticipated also to contribute to an enhanced quality of life now and for generations to come. This paper argues that building resilience in the affected area requires a transformation to sustainable agriculture, forestry and fisheries and we describe how the links between satoyama and satoumi, traditional rural territorial and coastal landscapes in Japan, can contribute to this revitalization and to strengthening the relationship between local residents and the landscape in the affected communities. Decision makers at local, regional and national levels need to take a holistic approach based on sustainability science to understand the inter-relationships between these landscapes and ecosystems to develop a robust rebuilding plan for the affected communities. Moreover, this paper suggests that building resilient communities in Japan that demonstrate the strategic benefits of satoyama and satoumi linkages can be a model for building resilient rural and urban communities throughout the world.

  • 49. Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    et al.
    Ichikawa, Kaoru
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Satoyama landscape as social-ecological system: historical changes and future perspective2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 19, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many production landscapes around the world have been sustained through appropriate use and management of natural resources, but many are now facing overuse or underuse. This paper explores future perspectives on the satoyama landscape (traditional Japanese rural landscape) as a social-ecological system through an overview of its transformation. Two phases in the human-nature relationship are observed: before the fossil fuel revolution of the late 1950s, people maintained a direct relationship with nature, and the landscape was integrally managed through community cooperation to avoid overuse; then, after the late 1950s, inflow of goods and services from outside and outflow of the population resulted in underuse of natural resources, and the human-nature relationship became weakened and more indirect. Rebuilding the human-nature relationship in the present day calls for efforts that go beyond the local level toward cross-scale, connected and coupled social-ecological systems.

  • 50.
    Tengö, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Malmer, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Connecting Diverse Knowledge Systems for Enhanced Ecosystem Governance: The Multiple Evidence Base Approach2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 579-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous and local knowledge systems as well as practitioners' knowledge can provide valid and useful knowledge to enhance our understanding of governance of biodiversity and ecosystems for human well-being. There is, therefore, a great need within emerging global assessment programs, such as the IPBES and other international efforts, to develop functioning mechanisms for legitimate, transparent, and constructive ways of creating synergies across knowledge systems. We present the multiple evidence base (MEB) as an approach that proposes parallels whereby indigenous, local and scientific knowledge systems are viewed to generate different manifestations of knowledge, which can generate new insights and innovations through complementarities. MEB emphasizes that evaluation of knowledge occurs primarily within rather than across knowledge systems. MEB on a particular issue creates an enriched picture of understanding, for triangulation and joint assessment of knowledge, and a starting point for further knowledge generation.

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