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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2017In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 2.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jawaid Kalyal, H.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Importance of Commitment to Change in Public Reform: an Example from Pakistan2010In: Journal of Change Management, ISSN 1469-7017, E-ISSN 1479-1811, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 347-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sectors in many developing countries have undergone major restructuring over the past decades. Earlier research suggests that such restructuring is inherently linked to feelings of ambiguity and insecurity among employees, undermining behavioral support for change, and thus, chances of change success. Using survey data from a restructured public sector organization in Pakistan, this study investigated the mediating role of commitment to change on the relationship between role ambiguity/job insecurity and behavioral support for change. The results show that role ambiguity and job insecurity were negatively related to both commitment to change and behavioral support for change. More importantly, however, the results support the notion that the negative effects of role ambiguity and job insecurity on behavioral support for change are fully mediated by individuals’ commitment to change. The study emphasizes the importance of mobilizing commitment to change in restructuring processes.

  • 3.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och Organisationspsykologi.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Contract and job choice in different employment arrangements:: Are they of importance for perceived insecurity, employability, and well-being?2007In: The 13th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the consequences of temporary employment forms have provided a plethora of different findings and a widely accepted conclusion is that individual well-being in different types of employment arrangements depend on a variety of factors and not on the contract alone. Among these factors, perceived levels of job insecurity and employability have been discussed as detrimental and beneficial, respectively, for subjective well-being. Furthermore, research has found the degree of preference for the contract and job to be of relevance for well-being when different employment forms are compared. However, most of these comparisons typically do not take into account the heterogeneity of temporary contracts. Moreover, studies differentiating choice of contract and choice of job are scarce. Thirdly, mechanisms of these choices in different employment types and their relationships to a) perceived insecurity and employability and b) well-being still remain unclear. This paper uses questionnaire data from Sweden collected in 2004 as a part of the PSYCONES project and compares choices of contract and job in 705 employees working in a permanent, fixed term or on-call arrangements. Associations of these choices in different contracts are studied with respect to perceived levels of employability, job insecurity and long-term consequences for well-being in terms of general health and life satisfaction. Results suggest that working in a chosen job is an important predictor that interacts with contract choice and type of contract. Moreover, choices together with perceived levels of job insecurity and employability predict general health and life satisfaction. Only weak support is found for the hypothesis that the relationship of choices and well-being is mediated by perceptions of job insecurity and employability.

  • 4.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östergren, P-O
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inlåsning, anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande efter en omorganisation2013In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under perioder där arbetsmarknaden erbjuder färre alternativ är det troligt att fler människor accepterar arbetsplatser där de inte trivs eller stannar kvar på arbeten som de inte vill ha och känner sig inlåsta i. Tidigare forskning har kopplat inlåsning till sämre välbefinnande. Hur inlåsning och välbefinnande förändras när människor byter jobb är mindre känt. Föreliggande studie belyser förändringar i inlåsning, upplevd anställningsbarhet och välbefinnande vid en svensk myndighet efter en organisationsförändring som medfört organisationsinterna arbetsplatsbyten. Resultaten visar på negativa effekter av inlåsning: att stanna kvar på eller flytta till en arbetsplats som man inte önskar ha i framtiden är inte gynnsamt för hälsan.

  • 5.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marknadsorienterade relationer i arbetslivet: om känslan av att vara anställningsbar2011In: Arbetets marknad / [ed] Christina Garsten, Jessica Lindvert, & Renita Thedvall, Malmö: Liber, 2011, 1, p. 150-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokbeskrivning från förlaget

    Få saker i samhället engagerar oss så som arbete. Arbete är föremål för våra drömmar och visioner om framtiden när vi är unga. Arbete engagerar våra strävanden som vuxna. Det ger en plattform för gemenskap, såväl som möjlighet att forma vår identitet. Men arbete kan också vara något som stänger människor ute; från gemenskap och deltagande, och från att forma sin egen framtid.

    Den här boken är ett resultat av flera års forskning om de förändringar som har format arbetsmarknaden och som fortfarande pågår. Den beskriver hur arbetsmarknaden blivit just en marknad och lyfter fram centrala tendenser i denna omvandling. Såväl den som söker arbete som den som har ett arbete står inför nya utmaningar:

    • Hur gör jag mig anställningsbar?

    • Vilka förväntningar och krav ställs på mig som arbetssökande?

    • Hur är förmedlingen av arbete organiserad idag?

    Arbetsmarknadspolitiken kan få oförutsedda effekter på den enskilda människans liv. Vi måste granska, diskutera och ifrågasätta vad varje politisk inriktning och dess verktyg innebär. Den här boken ger underlag och inspiration för en sådan diskussion.

    Arbetets marknad vänder sig till studerande inom följande områden: arbetsvetenskap, personaladministration, samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen och socionomutbildningen. Den lämpar sig också för verksamma inom arbetsmarknads- och arbetslivsområdet och för politiker.

  • 6.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Typical situations for managers in the Swedish public sector: Associations with turnover intentions and employability2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector has undergone extensive changes over the past years. It has been argued that these changes, under the influence of New Public Management, have been focusing on increasing efficiency and productivity, transparency and user orientation. The new conditions have resulted in important and difficult challenges for the public sector managers to handle. Together with increasing demands it has also been emphasized that the turnover rate of public sector managers is high, and, in addition, it has also been argued that it is difficult to attract future managers to the sector. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate turnover intentions and employability of public sector managers. Primarily, the focus has been to investigate if there are specific patterns of work environment prerequisites in the Swedish public sector. In a second step the aim was to study if such patterns discriminate regarding turnover intention and employability. For this purpose, a questionnaire with 548 Swedish public sector managers was analyzed by means of a cluster analysis. The variables of the analysis were chosen following the logics of the Job Demands-Resources model, including four demands (lack of resources, conflict of logics, employee conflicts and client conflicts) and three resources (management support, employee support and client recognition). The preliminary results indicate eight typical situations for managers in the public sector. These situations reflected very beneficial as well as complicated and unhealthy situations. Furthermore, the eight clusters discriminated in a very distinct way regarding turnover intentions. For example, less than 10 percent of the individuals in the two healthiest clusters wanted to quit as managers, as compared to the two clusters with poorest health, where more than a third of all the managers wanted to quit as a manager and more than half wanted to change organizations. On the other hand, preliminary results also indicate that the eight clusters did not discriminate regarding employability, suggesting that the managers regardless of their working situation reported similar possibilities to get new employment. These results contribute with knowledge about managers working situation in the public sector.

  • 7.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    The Moderating Role of Employability in the Relationship between Organizational changes and job insecurity2007In: The XIIIth European Congress of Work, Stockholm, May 9-12, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that the world of work has changed substantially during the last decades, implying that reorganizing activities has become more common. In the same line of research it has been argued that during an organizational change working life becomes more volatile. It could thus be argued that individuals may perceive job insecurity during such changes. However, few researchers have investigated the moderating role of employability. The aim of our study is to investigate if individuals that has experienced organizational change also report more job insecurity than those individuals that has not experienced an change and also if employability has a moderating role. The present study used questionnaire data from a representative sample of Swedish citizens between 25 and 50 years of age in 2005. Preliminary results indicate that individuals that have experienced an organizational change are more likely to report high levels of job insecurity and also that individuals reporting low levels of employability are more likely to report higher levels of job insecurity. In addition we found an interaction effect between organizational change and employability indicating that the difference between experiencing a change and not when reporting low employability is greater than for those individuals reporting high employability. A possible explanation could be that individuals feeling employable are not affected by an organizational change because they have opportunities in the labour market.

  • 9.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 10.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Corin, Linda
    Hur har chefen det? Chefens perspektiv på förutsättningarna i arbetet2014In: Chefskapets förutsättningar och konsekvenser: metoder och resultat från Chefios-projektet - slutrapport del 1 / [ed] Annika Härenstam och Anders Östebo, Göteborg: Västra Götalandsregionen (ISM 14:1) , 2014, , p. 59-84p. 59-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig utgångspunkt i beskrivningen av chefers arbetsmiljö har varit att karaktärisera deras situation dels ur ett helhetsperspektiv och dels utifrån såväl negativa (belastande) som positiva (resurser) variabler. En teoretisk referensram som är särskilt lämplig i detta sammanhang har varit Job demands-resources model (JD-R) (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001).

  • 11.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Mönster av sociala relationer på arbetsplatser i Sverige2010In: Sociala relationer i arbetslivet: studier från föränderliga arbetsplatser / [ed] Annika Härenstam & Eva Bejerot, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2010, p. 27-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här boken belyser flera studier från olika forskningsdiscipliner hur ett föränderligt arbetsliv påverkar oss. Sammantaget visar de att en tydlig struktur och kollektiv gemenskap blir än viktigare under sådana omständigheter. Individer som ingår i en sådan gemenskap har större möjligheter att möta utmaningar i arbetslivet på ett konstruktivt sätt. Boken visar också hur organisationer och företag kan skapa förutsättningar för goda sociala relationer. I flera av bokens kapitel finns faktarutor där de metoder som använts i forskningen beskrivs mer generellt. Det gör att boken även kan användas som fördjupning inom samhällsvetenskaplig metod.

  • 12.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Lindgren, Hans
    Pousette, Anders
    Szücs, Stefan
    Improving Organizational Prerequisites for Public Sector Managers – a Follow-up Study With Long-term Effects2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 345-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational interventions have been suggested to be important instruments in order to improve working conditions as well as employee health and well-being. Even though such studies are relevant the effects are difficult to measure (Nielsen, 2013; Nielsen & Abildgaard, 2013). There is an ongoing discussion on why it is difficult to measure and how to do it. One aspect of this is when the effects are prevalent. In the present study we focus on long-term effects of an intervention. The study is a survey-feedback intervention directed at managers in public sector authorities. The purpose of the intervention, which was a participatory intervention, was to improve organizational prerequisites for the managers in the study.

    In a previous investigation of the effects of the intervention, the short-term effects where studied, implying mixed results. There was a tendency of a positive effect among those intervention organizations that also had a successful implementation process. On the other hand, in those organizations with an unsuccessful implementation process, the results came out negative. In the present study, the aim is to investigate long-term effects of the participatory intervention, regarding work conditions among public sector managers.

    In this study 720 managers participated. There were six intervention organizations and 22 controls, located in seven local authorities in Western Sweden. Questionnaires were answered pre and post intervention (in 2009 and 2011). In addition, register data were used and interviews made, providing a multi-method approach. During the intervention year, process support was provided. The focus of the quantitative measures was to investigate if working conditions improved as a result of the intervention. Variables such as resource problems, conflicts of logics, illegitimate tasks, supporting structures, hindrance, managerial problems but also factors such as span of control, performance and perceived stress were measured. In the present study, a follow-up questionnaire will be answered by one of the intervention organizations. Results from this third questionnaire will be analyzed and presented.

  • 13.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stjernström, Caroline
    A Holistic Approach to Work-life Balance2007In: The XIIIth European Congress of Work, Stockholm, May 9-12 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately there has been an increasing focus on how individuals balance their working life with their life outside work. The aim of the present study is to identify different working and living situations for women and men and compare them with regard to work-life balance. A holistic approach focusing on entire situations rather than specific variables is applied. The data in our study is representative of the Swedish citizens between 25 and 50 years of age. A survey was administered to a sample of appr 5000 individuals in 2004 and a follow-up was made in 2005 and 2006. In the present study a cluster analysis was performed using ten variables reflecting working conditions as well as living conditions. A thirteen cluster solution was chosen regarding both the homogeneity and the theoretical value of the solution, meaning that we found thirteen general situations describing the working and living conditions among workers on the Swedish labour market. Preliminary results indicate that there are large differences between these situations in how balance in life is reported. One conclusion is that the work-life balance is more favourable in situations common among both men and women than in more gender segregated working and living conditions. Another finding is that it seems as if individuals engaged in active jobs have difficulties upholding a good balance in life while individuals in situations characterised by for example low demands in general report a good balance.

  • 14.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S
    The relationship between employability and subsequent health.2006In: The Sixth Conference on Psychology and Health: Kerkrade, the Netherlands, 8-10 May, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    It has been implied that being employable is important for individuals on the labour market in order to feel secure. However, little research has been made considering if feelings of being employable is related to how individuals report their health status. In the present study the aim is to investigate if there exists a relationship between employability and subsequent health, when controlling for work environmental factors and previous health. A representative sample of individuals between 25 and 50 years of age living in Sweden was used where employability and health was measured at two time points, with a one-year interval. Work environment factors (ergonomical work environment exposures and psychosocial work environment exposures) were measured at time point one. Health was measured with five different indicators: global health, physical complaints, mental well-being, work ability and sickness absence. The results indicate that employability is related to all indicators except physical complaints. The strongest relationship is found between employability and mental well-being and between employability and global health.

  • 15.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Employability and work-related health2010In: The dynamics of organizations and healthy work / [ed] Staffan Marklund & Annika Härenstam, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    About the book: Increasing international interdependency has intensified the need for organizational changes and changes in employment conditions in the private sectors in Sweden. For a number of reasons, economic as well as political, even the public sector has changed. Large shares of its services have been transformed into private and semi-private forms of ownerships. Economic restrictions and new management ideologies after the early 1990’s have forced many private enterprises and public administrations to initiate organizational reforms. Some of these changes and their consequences for working conditions and health of the employees are described in the different chapters of this publication. The publication is the result of a number of research projects that were initiated at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life in the early 2000’s. The main idea behind these projects was to empirically as well as theoretically capture the dynamics of a rapidly changing working life. This means that a range of different aspects were studied from multidisciplinary perspectives. Studies of changes in how individuals’ working conditions and health had changed were related to organizational factors as well as to structural conditions. Although some of the chapters are focusing on the individual level, the work place level or the structural level, the ambition has been to integrate the different levels and to develop research designs and theories that allow such integration.The book is suitable for everyone interested in how Swedish working life has changed in later years, but it can also be used in undergraduate teaching on courses dealing with occupational health, working life and research design.

  • 16.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    The relationship between employability and working conditions: A longitudinal study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that the labor market is divided into several segments, described as primary and secondary. In this respect, the dual labor market theory states that people in the primary segment have better working conditions and better prospects as compared to those in the secondary segment. Furthermore, it is also suggested that there are difficulties in moving between these segments, implying a stigmatizing effect of being in the secondary segment. The dual labor market theory has again become interesting as the labor market today is characterized by flexibility and individualization. In this context, the notion of employability has been emphasized as an important feature of contemporary employees in order to maintain control over their working life. Employability reflects peoples perceptions of their possibilities to get new employment and it could be argued that employability, over time, strengthens employees’ positions on the labor market. As such, it is important to study if employability affects working conditions and thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between employability and subsequent demands and control. A representative sample of individuals between 25 and 50 years, working in Sweden, was used were employability was measured in 2004 and working conditions measured in 2006. The study compared the working conditions of individuals that were very high and very low in employability in 2004. Two scales of working conditions were used, reflecting the increase of demands and control over the last year. 643 individuals answered the questionnaire and preliminary results indicate that employability was associated to subsequent working conditions. When controlling for age, gender, socio-economic position and educational level employability was associated with subsequent increase in job control but not with increase in job demands. A possible explanation is that people with higher employability over time get better positions in their organizations and thereby also report better job control. Regarding demands, the results may indicate that demands increase regardless of position in the organization. The result are relevant for practice since they indicate that people with low levels of employability receive less influence over their working life.

  • 17.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    The relationship between perceived employability and subsequent health2007In: Work & Stress, ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being capable of getting new employment may enable an employee to cope with turbulent situations or deteriorating job conditions. Individuals who have higher perceived employability are likely to appraise a situation at work more favourably, and consequently experience better health and wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived employability and subsequent health, while controlling for baseline health, background factors, and work environment exposures. The study is based on 53 items in the National Working Life Cohort in Sweden from two data collections (2004 and 2005), comprising 1918 individuals. Forced entry hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for demographics, psychological demands, control, and ergonomic exposures, perceived employability was positively associated with global health and mental well-being, but unrelated to physical complaints. When baseline health status was added, perceived employability was still a significant predictor of two out of three outcome variables. Individuals with higher perceived employability had a tendency to report better health and well-being a year later. It is concluded that how an employee perceives his or her possibilities in regard to acquiring new employment is relevant for well-being at a later stage. Perceived employability, which has been little studied before, is therefore a useful concept in health promotion, both at the individual and at the organizational level.

  • 18.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Gender Differences in Career Prospects: Does Work-Family Conflict Matter for Perceived Employability and Career Opportunities?2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 237-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality in the labourmarket has been emphasized as an important factor several times in European community (EU Commission, 1997; 2010). Nevertheless, differences in career opportunities have been found in previous research, indicating that women report more barriers then men regarding career aspects (Hawley McWirther, 1997). In this respect, a number of possible explanations has been put forward, for example work-family conflict (WFC) (Gali Cinnamon, 2006). In the present study we are interested in investigating possible predictors of career opportunities and more specifically the aim of the present study is to investigate antecedents of career opportunities and perceived employability.

    The present study comprised a representative sample of 1,609 Swedish workers (716 men and 883 women) in the ages of 26 to 51, who answered two questionnaires, one in 2005 and one in 2006. The study comprised questions regarding career opportunities and perceived employability (outcomes) and age, mental well-being, education, tenure, children at home, working hours (per week) and WFC (predictors). The data was analyzed by means of a regression analysis.

    Preliminary results indicate that women reported lower levels of employability as well as career opportunities. They also had a higher level of education, shorter tenure and worked fewer hours per week. Regarding the regression analysis, the results displayed a significant association between WFC and the outcomes for men but not for women. For women part-time work predicted both outcomes. It could also be found that tenure had a negative effect on both outcomes, suggesting that for both men and women (although somewhat stronger for men) working longer in one organization affects perceived career prospects in a negative way. In addition, the results indicate that subjective mental well-being is an important predictor for employability as well as for career opportunities.

    The results confirm earlier studies in that women report more career barriers. We also find it interesting that the results from the preliminary analyses suggest that WFC is primarily a problem for men. For women, the number of hours per week seems to be more important.

  • 19.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating the relationship between employability and self-efficacy: A cross-lagged analysis2008In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 413-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construct of employability has been conceptually related to self-efficacy in different ways. Employability has sometimes been regarded as an equivalent to self-efficacy, or as a distinct but related phenomenon. Since the relationship between the two phenomena has not been subjected to empirical scrutiny, the aim of the present study is to analyze whether self-efficacy and employability are two distinct but related constructs, and if they are, to investigate the direction of their relationship. The data (N = 1730) were collected through a two-wave longitudinal survey with one year between each data collection (2005 and 2006). The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the measures of employability and self-efficacy were distinct from one another, within and over measurement points, indicating that these are related but separate constructs. The results of latent variable cross-lagged analysis showed that employability predicted subsequent self-efficacy, even after controlling for age, gender, educational level, and regional differences. Thus, employability is not an expression of efficacy beliefs, but rather, the strengthening of employability perceptions may have beneficial effects on more general efficacy beliefs.

  • 20.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Should I Stay or Should I Go?: Does Employability Alter the Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect Reactions to Job Insecurity?2008In: Small Group Meeting, Leuven, Belgium, September 17-19, 2008., 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as employee responses to companies in decline have been investigated in several studies. When individuals work and act in an environment that is turbulent with organizational changes, volatile working conditions and job insecurity, they may respond to these environmental circumstances either by leaving the organization (exit), by staying and actively affect the situation (voice), by staying and be loyal to management’s decisions (loyalty) or by staying and being passive (neglect). With respect to the individualization of the labour market, it cannot be expected that people react in similar ways to organizational events. Rather, it has been suggested that employability may have a moderating effect on the responses of for example job insecurity. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate if employability moderates the effects of job insecurity on the outcomes of the framework of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Data (questionnaires) was gathered in four different companies (administrative staff of a manufacturing company, one accounting firm, administrative section of a community, teachers of a community), comprising 725 white-collar workers. The data of the present study was analysed by means of hierarchical regression analyses, one for each of the four outcome variables. The results indicate that individuals who are high in employability may have greater opportunities for gaining control over their working life. Job insecurity was found to be associated with increased exit as well as with decreased voice and loyalty, although these effects were stronger among individuals who perceived themselves to be employable. Thus, people that perceived high levels of employability, as opposed to those who perceived lower levels of employability, under the circumstance of high job insecurity also reported stronger exit intentions together with weaker tendencies to use their voice and be loyal to their company. No association was found between neglect and job insecurity or employability. In conclusion, instead of making employees more likely to use voice in times of uncertainty, employability appears to primarily induce vocational mobility.

  • 21.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating role of employability in the association between job insecurity and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect2010In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 215-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exit, voice, loyalty, or neglect as employee responses to organizations in decline have been investigated in several studies. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether employability moderates the effects of job insecurity on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect. The results, based on questionnaire data from white-collar workers in Sweden (N = 725), indicate that individuals who are high in employability may have greater opportunities for gaining control over their working life. Job insecurity was found to be associated with increased exit as well as with decreased voice and loyalty, although these effects were stronger among individuals who perceived themselves to be employable. Thus, instead of making employees more likely to use voice in times of uncertainty, employability appears to primarily induce vocational mobility.

  • 22.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att vara anställningsbar i en turbulent omvärld2012In: Socialförsäkringsforskning: en vänbok till Staffan Marklund / [ed] Kristina Alexanderson, Karolinska Institutet , 2012, p. 36-49Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialförsäkringarna är centrala för oss som individer och för vårt samhälle, samtidigt som den vetenskapliga kunskapen om dem är mycket begränsad. Detta större seminarium, som vi arrangerade den 31 augusti 2012, hade till syfte att främja diskussioner om socialförsäkringsforskningens villkor. Ett ytterligare syfte var att uppmärksamma professor Staffan Marklunds 40-åriga forskargärning inom området.

  • 23.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S.
    Predicting perceived employability: Human capital or labour market opportunities?2006In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employability is believed to be a crucial concept concerning employees’ job security. This study investigates whether factors associated with human capital and the dual labour market predict perceived employability. Two national representative Swedish samples are used, representing economic recession (1993, N 1³4 4952) and prosperity (1999, N 1³4 6696). Employability was perceived as higher during prosperity, but human capital factors as well as dual labour market factors predicted perceived employability, irrespective of the time period. These findings indicate that the understanding of employability is enhanced by considering both structural and individual dimensions.

  • 24.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Department of Education.
    The relationship between self-efficacy and employability.2006In: The 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Several researchers have emphasized that the labour market is being restructured and characterized by more frequently occurring organizational changes. In this sense, it has also been maintained that employability is a gradually more important asset for individuals in contemporary working life. It has been argued that the modern way of job security should be seen in the light of employability, the so called employability security, where security comes from the feeling of being able to get a new job rather than from the feeling of maintaining the current employment position.

    Employability is defined as an individual’s perception of his or her possibilities of getting new employment. Feeling employable thus reflects the perception of having great possibilities to get a new job, if necessary. In earlier research employability has been described as a concept depending on individual assets as well as contextual prerequisites. For instance, Fugate, Kinicki and Ashforth (2004) argued that employability is comprised of three distinct dimensions, one motivational component, one component reflecting adaptability and a third component formed by the human and social capital. Berntson, Sverke and Marklund (in press), on the other hand, argued that employability also shall be seen in the light of the context of the individual. Thus, national economic situation as well as local labour markets are important predictors of an individual’s employability.

    Although the concept of employability has been argued to be dependent on individual assets, few or no studies have been made to investigate if employability is something else than a dispositional characteristic such as efficacy beliefs. It is important to know if employability shall be viewed as a dispositional factor or if it shall be seen as something apart from dispositional traits when it comes to reinforcing employability. The first aim of the present study is to investigate if employability is a concept distinct from self-efficacy. It is however also of importance to investigate if employability gives rise to efficacy beliefs or if it is feelings of efficacy that influence the levels of employability. A second aim, therefore, is to investigate if self-efficacy affects employability or the other way around.

    Questionnaire data is being used comprising white-collar workers in a Swedish organization. The results of the initial confirmatory factor analysis (on Wave 1 data) indicate that employability is distinct from self-efficacy. Longitudinal data are being collected with the specific aim of performing a cross-lagged analysis. However, the cross-sectional data imply that the two concepts are positively correlated, indicating that individuals experiencing high levels of self-efficacy also report higher levels of employability.

  • 25.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallin, Linda
    Härenstam, Annika
    Typical situations for managers in the Swedish public sector: cluster analysis of working conditions using the job demands resources model2012In: International Public Management Journal, ISSN 1096-7494, E-ISSN 1559-3169, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 100-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers in many public domains have to meet major challenges today, which is why it is essential to focus on their working conditions in order to develop a sustainable situation. In the present study, the aim was to explore different types of managerial situations and how they discriminate in health, motivation, and performance outcomes. Using the job demands-resources model as a framework, four demands and three resources were included in a cluster analysis in order to answer the research question. In total, 548 managers in Sweden participated, including heads of department, middle managers, firstline managers, team leaders, and functional managers. The most important finding was that the eight clusters of managerial situations that were found discriminated in a distinct way against each other regarding health, motivation, and performance. The results can be used as guidance for organizational intervention as both very satisfactory and very unsatisfactory situations are identified.

  • 26. Corin, Linda
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managers’ Turnover in the Public Sector: The Role of Psychosocial Working Conditions2016In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 790-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for public organizations is to attract and retain skilled managers. The present study explores how profiles of psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the combination of managerial-specific job demands and job resources, longitudinally predict managers’ turnover intentions and actual turnover in Swedish municipalities. Considerable effects of managers’ psychosocial working conditions on turnover intentions but not on actual turnover were found. Thus, poor working conditions may result in psychologically detached managers in public organizations, which may have considerable and costly effects on both the organizations and the managers, in terms of decreased commitment, performance, and impaired health.

  • 27. Corin, Linda
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Patterns of Psychosocial Working Conditions as Predictors of Public Sector Manager’s Sustainability: A Two Year Follow Up2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past-planning for the future: Capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] N.J.A. Andreou, A. Jain, D. Hollis, J. Hassard & K. Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 316-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that by applying the Job Demand- Resources (JD-R) framework using cluster analysis and logistic regression, one important challenge that has been identified as central in the future JD-R research, can be met, i.e. helping organizations to identify potentially hazardous patterns or profiles of psychosocial working conditions. Such profiles are crucial for targeting groups of employees with specific needs, and thus facilitate interventions and prevention strategies relevant to particular profiles of psychosocial working conditions in contemporary working life. Although the body of research in line with the JD-R model is extensive, variable-centered approaches as well as cross-sectional studies are dominating. Thus, the aim of this study is to validate the JD-R model by using a person-centered approach and longitudinal data. Specifically, the study examines whether different patterns of psychosocial working conditions i.e. job demands and job resources are predictors of public sector manager’s sustainability in terms of health, turnover intentions and actual turnover.

    The study uses a manager sensitive instrument developed from numerous qualitative studies in the Swedish public sector. In a baseline study (N=548, Response rate 72.5 %), eight clusters with different patterns of psychosocial working conditions were identified by means of cluster analysis. In the present study, these eight clusters were followed up by a questionnaire two years after baseline (N=491, Response rate 66.5 %) resulting in a longitudinal response rate of 56.7 % (N=311). Logistic regression analyses were used to establish whether any of the eight clusters were associated with the outcomes of interest.

    In line with the JD-R model, the clusters of psychosocial working conditions display a clear association with health and turnover intentions and to some extent even actual turnover. The results support the hypothesis that different patterns of psychosocial working conditions influence the sustainability of managers. Hence, the JD-R model is a framework that can be used in order for organizations to promote managerial health as well as improving organizational outcomes in terms of turnover and can thus be considered a valuable complement to traditional risk-identification strategies.

  • 28. De Cuyper, N
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, H
    Employability among insecure/temporary workers.2006In: The 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Dublin, 8-10 November., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of job insecurity and employability in employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. More speficially, we investigate possible differential effects of job insecuirty and employability of fixed-term workers as compared to permanent workers. Job insecurity in this context refers to perceptions about the continuity of the current job in the future, while employability concerns perceptions about availabel alternatives on the external labour market. Recent research consistently shows that job insecurity yiels unfavourable attitudes among permanents, while it is not predictive for the attitudes of temporary workers. Various authors have suggested that employability may explain these puzzling findings. first, it has been speculated that temporaries increasingly rely on employability rather than job security to safeguard their position on the labour market. Accordingly, employability may represent an alternative form of security, which is highly predictive for temporaries' attitudes. On the other hand, it may be that job insecurity yields negative effects only for temporary employees who feel they may not be able to find alternative employment (interactive effect). Simple slope regression analyses on a sample of 539 Belgian employees supported earlier findings on the role of job insecurity: job insecurity was associated with lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among permanent, but not temporary workers. However, results did not support explanations in terms of employability: neither employability nor the interaction of it with job insecurity was predictive for temporaries' attitudes, while they were for permanents: employability buffered negative effects of job insecurity in the permanent sample. Implications for future research are discussed.

  • 29. De Cuyper, Nele
    et al.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Witte, Hans
    Alarco, Barbara
    Employability and Employees' Well-Being: Mediation by Job Insecurity2008In: Applied Psychology, ISSN 0269-994X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 488-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study's aims are twofold: first, we investigate the relationship between employability and both work-related (engagement) and general (life satisfaction) well-being. Second, we study how employability may be relevant in times of high job insecurity. Specifically, we hypothesise (1) a positive relationship between employability and employees’ well-being, (2) a negative relationship between employability and job insecurity, and (3) a negative relationship between job insecurity and employees’ well-being, so that (4) job insecurity mediates the relationship between employability and employees’ well-being. Results based on a sample of 559 respondents from divisions of seven Belgian organisations support our hypotheses. We conclude that employability may be a means to secure one's labour market position, rather than a means to cope with job insecurity.

  • 30.
    Hansen, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How is privatization related to empowerment?: A longitudinal study with a person-oriented approach in a Swedish hospital2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Privatization of health care has increased in recent decades in order to improve cost effectiveness and quality of care. An underlying assumption is that HRM systems in privatized organizations are more progressive and aimed at developing internal staff resources. According to the “cultural thesis”, work environments in privatized organizations are more homogeneous due to more active management systems. However, it has also been argued that privatization may lead to differentiation of working conditions. In this respect, the “winner-loser thesis” states that privatized organizations differ between high and low performing employees, thereby strengthening groups of both winners and losers. Using a person-oriented approach where individuals are seen as systems of interacting elements, the present study aims at identifying psychological mechanisms that may be central to the privatization process by highlighting patterns, rather than single variables. In this study, we propose that one such system of interacting elements may be psychological empowerment. Empowerment has in previous research been found to be related to positive work behaviors, attitudes and performance. It could therefore be assumed that psychological empowerment is an important prerequisite for successful privatization in terms of higher efficiency and quality of care. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine how empowerment changes – both structurally and individually – among hospital staff during privatization. Longitudinal questionnaire data was used and analyzed by means of cluster analyses. Preliminary results indicate a general homogenization of empowerment structure of the organization, supporting the “cultural thesis”. However, our analysis also indicate that health professionals with modest empowerment profiles tend to move to extreme cluster profiles after privatization. In addition, existing groups of extreme cluster profiles double in size after privatization, indicating an increased differentiation among hospital staff. Thus, privatization also seems to be related to an increasing polarization of health professionals' ability to deliver high quality care. The study contributes to existing knowledge of the psychological impact of financially driven change in organizations.

  • 31.
    Hansen, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Privatizing health care in times of new public management: Investigating the role of psychological empowerment using cluster analysis2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 190-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although privatization within health care is usually justified using arguments based on efficiency and productivity, the empirical investigations underpinning such arguments are few and ambiguous in their results. Presenting a new theoretical and analytical approach to this research field, we argue that psychological empowerment, reflecting individuals' intrinsic change motivation state, is a crucial prerequisite for the transformation of a nonprofit health care organization to a for-profit one. The general aims of this study were to explore empowerment cognitions during a privatization, to relate these to a selection of key work-related outcome variables, and to identify the effects of privatization in terms of individual level changes in empowerment after privatization. A sample of health care workers (n = 210) provided survey longitudinal data that were analyzed using cluster analysis. Eight clusters were identified at both pre- and postprivatization with each cluster mirroring specific empowerment patterns: Empowered, In Control, Quasi-Empowered, Competent/Normed, Reference, Underused, Misfit, and Powerless. The clusters discriminated on positive work attitudes, mental health complaints, and turnover intentions. The analysis also revealed the complexity of privatization in that a homogenization as well as a differentiation tendency was observed, thereby implicating both socio-structural equality and inequality effects. The results highlighted the relevance of allocating importance to health care workers' psychological empowerment during the privatization process, and of viewing such organizational transformations not as simple shifts in the state of affairs, but as nonlinear processes involving dynamic changes in individual perceptions over time.

  • 32.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Turnover as a response to job insecurity: The moderating effect of employability.2006In: The Sixth Conference on Psychology and Health: Kerkrade, the Netherlands, 8-10 May, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a link between job insecurity perceptions and turnover intentions among employees. It has also been suggested that in times of turmoil and insecurity in the organization, employees who perceive themselves as employable are more prone to voluntarily leave the organization as compared to employees perceiving themselves as less employable and attractive on the labor market. Along this line it has also been proposed that the individuals most attractive on the labor market are often key-persons that the organization want to keep, and consequently, the organization may suffer if employable employees leave the organization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of job insecurity perceptions on two different types of turnover intentions, namely organizational turnover and occupational turnover. Secondly, this study aims at investigating the potential moderating role of employability on the relationship between job insecurity and the two types of turnover intention, suggesting that employees perceiving themselves as more employable will be more prone to leave the organization when experiencing job insecurity. The study is based on questionnaire data collected in an acute care hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicate that employability perceptions may play an important role in employees’ turnover intentions during organization turmoil and in connection with feelings of job insecurity.

  • 33. Härenstam, Annika
    et al.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bolin, Malin
    Ylander, John
    Understanding the organisational impact on working conditions and health.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been known that organisational conditions affect working conditions and occupational health. However, the transfer of knowledge about risk factors from traditional occupational health research into prevention requires insight into the organisational context. Moreover, there is a breach between organisational research and health research in terms of concepts, theories, and methodologies, and there is a lack of useful theories and models for how organisational conditions are linked to working conditions and health. One argument for the development of concepts, theoretical models, and methodological tools for studies of the organisational impact on psychosocial working conditions and health is that working life is changing. Another argument is that organisation at the meso level and work practices at the worker level are greatly interdependent. Thus, when the organisation of work changes, our understanding of how organisations, work practices, and working conditions affect health must be scrutinised. We cannot take it for granted that traditional theories are still valid. This report discusses some suggestions for the design and methodology of empirical studies aimed at bridging the gap between research on organisations and research on individual working conditions and health. This approach in work-life research can be described as organisation-oriented work and health research. Our main aim is to discuss the conceptual, theoretical, analytical, and empirical difficulties and options involved with such an approach. Using the examples of a number of research projects with different specific questions and different empirical designs, we attempt to detect some of the most common stumbling blocks and to find some pragmatic solutions to the problems which arise in this type of research. We discuss some specific problems with the integration of organisational studies and health research, and draw conclusions about the application of such research results to prevention and intervention. There are several conceptual and theoretical challenges associated with the design of studies that try to integrate organisational-level data with working conditions and health data at the individual level. Firstly, there is a wide gap between organisational research and occupational health research in the use of theoretical concepts, in the choice of focal units of analysis, and in data treatment. Secondly, in relation to intervention and prevention, not all factors that affect working conditions and health may be equally easy to change, and there is thus a need to focus on factors that the employer and the representatives of the workers may be willing to adjust. Finally, although powerful statistical techniques such as multilevel analysis are available to link organisational and micro-level data, understanding of the causal mechanisms becomes even more complicated when individual and organisational conditions are to be interpreted. Thus, there is a need for improved analytical tools in order to understand such complex associations. There are also a number of empirical issues involved in the linking of organisations and individuals. One is the determination of what aspects at the organisational level are important and another is how such organisational aspects can be measured and assessed. It is also important to decide what level within organisations is most relevant to a specific study. Another problem that is particularly important, as many contemporary organisations are volatile and have diffuse boundaries, is how organisations should be defined and how individual employees should be linked to a specific part of an organisation. This means, for example, that formal and informal power and responsibility structures for coping with the psychosocial work environment are very complex in contemporary organisations. Some of our most important observations have arisen as a consequence of an attempt to empirically explore contemporary organisations. One conclusion is that selection mechanisms should be taken into account, as many individuals move between occupational conditions. Additionally, these changes may be very different for different groups, depending on individual and organisational conditions. As a consequence of this insight, workers and managers cannot be seen as passive victims of conditions at the workplace or in the organisation, but must be viewed as elective and active humans. This is the case even when there are strong restrictions on their room for manoeuvre.

  • 34. Härenstam, Annika
    et al.
    Pousette, Anders
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindgren, Hans
    Szücs, Stefan
    Utvärdering av Chefios-interventionerna2014In: Förändringsprocesser och utvärderingar av interventioner i kommunala förvaltningar: metoder och resultat från CHEFiOS-projektet - slutrapport del 2 / [ed] Annika Härenstam och Anders Östebo, Göteborg: Västra Götalandsaregionen (ISM 14:2) , 2014, p. 100-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel redovisas Chefios-projektets utvärderingsdesign och metoder och resultat av de effektutvärderingar som gjorts. Kapitlet inleds med att beskriva problem med utvärderingar av interventioner i organisationer och rekommendationer för att öka validiteten och generaliserbarheten av effektutvärderingar som tidigare forskning har visat på.

  • 35.
    Kalyal, Hina Jawaid
    et al.
    NUST Business School, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating role of employability on the relationship between job insecurity and commitment to change2010In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 327-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of commitment to change is an underresearched area especially in non-western settings. The aim of the present study was to determine whether employability can moderate the negative effects of job insecurity on individuals’ commitment to change. A survey method approach was used to collect 149 responses from managers of a large public sector organization in Pakistan undergoing restructuring. Hierarchical multiple regression results suggest that employability is an important coping resource during organizational change as it helps mitigate the negative effects of job insecurity on the most desirable form of commitment to change, namely affective commitment to change. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.

  • 36.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Measuring quantitative and qualitative aspects of the job insecurity climate: Scale validation2015In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 202-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a measure of job insecurity climate by: first, testing whether job insecurity climate and individual job insecurity are two separate constructs; and second, investigating the relative importance of individual job insecurity and job insecurity climate in predicting work-related and health-related outcomes.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected by questionnaires in a simple stratified random sample of 1,380 white-collar workers in Sweden. The response rate was 56 percent.

    Findings – Confirmatory factor analyses showed that job insecurity climate was distinct from individual job insecurity. Four separate ridge regression analyses showed that qualitative job insecurity climate was a significant predictor of demands, work-family conflict, psychological distress, and poor self-rated health and that quantitative job insecurity climate predicted demands and work-family conflict.

    Research limitations/implications – The study is based on self-reports, which may involve common method bias. The cross-sectional study design limits the possibility to make causal inferences regarding the relationship between job insecurity climate and outcomes.

    Practical implications – Future studies may consider measuring job insecurity climate in line with a referent-shift model. Work environment surveys in organizations that include measures of individual job insecurity and job insecurity climate can provide practitioners with a fuller picture of the psychosocialwork environment.

    Originality/value – The present study adds to previous research by introducing a new approach to measuring and conceptualizing job insecurity climate.

  • 37.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury , New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand; North-West University, South Africa.
    Do core self-evaluations and coping style influence the perception of job insecurity?2014In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 680-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, increased flexibility and lack of stability in employment has made job insecurity a work stressor that affects more and more employees. Since worrying about potential job loss (quantitative job insecurity) or possible loss of valued job features (qualitative job insecurity) constitutes a subjective perception, it has been claimed that personality factors may be decisive for job insecurity perceptions. Furthermore, the perception of a stressor, in this case job insecurity, could be argued to be dependent on appraisals of available coping resources. This study investigates whether core self-evaluations predict job insecurity perceptions, and whether coping mediates this relationship, in a two-wave data set from a Swedish sample of white-collar workers (N = 425). The results show that core self-evaluations had a negative total effect on both qualitative and quantitative job insecurity. Core self-evaluations were positively related to problem-focused coping but not to emotion-focused coping. However, there was no mediating effect of coping style on the association between core self-evaluations and job insecurity.

  • 38.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Stress Center, Sweden.
    Job insecurity climate perceptions: Scale validation and a qualitative exploration2012In: Book of Proceedings: 10th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology / [ed] Jain, A., Hollis, D., Andreou, N., Wehrle, F., Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2012, p. 32-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity is a modern work stressor negatively affecting work attitudes, wellbeing and the health of employees worldwide. It has mainly been investigated as an individual level phenomenon, but drawing on the theoretical framework of social cognitive theory, it could be argued that job insecurity is also a social phenomenon. Behavioral, cognitive or other person-related factors as well as contextual factors interact in a reciprocal relationship, and shape individuals’ perceptions and interpretations of organizational events. Shared perceptions of job insecurity could be referred to as a job insecurity climate (Sora, Caballer, Peiró, & De Witte, 2009). However, it is not yet clear how job insecurity climate should be conceptualized. The multiple operationalizations of climate constructs found in organizational research, along with methodological concerns, motivates a study on the concept of job insecurity climate.

    Aims:

    (1)   A qualitative exploration the job insecurity climate construct

    (2)   A validation study of a newly developed measure of job insecurity climate

    Methods: Interviews were conducted with job insecure informants and informants working in organizations undergoing organizational change and who could be expected to experience some degree of job insecurity. Their participation was secured through snowball sampling, and a thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Further, questionnaire items for measuring job insecurity climate were developed, and data is currently being collected. The data collection will be finalized late November 2011.

    Results/relevance: Preliminary results of the interview study gave an indication of how the job insecurity climate construct can be conceptualized. The thematic analysis revealed that the whole organization needs not be the social unit of a climate. The job insecure climate could rather be ascribed to specific groups, like for instance a group of professionals (e.g. computer technicians), a demographic group (e.g. female doctoral students), or a geographically defined unit (e.g. a branch office of a company). Depending on the focus of the study, job insecurity climate could be conceptualized either as a psychological climate or as an organizational climate. The validation of the questionnaire items will contribute further to our understanding of the job insecurity climate construct.

  • 39.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The job insecurity climate scale: Creating and testing a measure for job insecurity climates2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity, conceptualized as “the perception of a potential threat to the continuity of the current job” is a work stressor that is associated with negative consequences for well-being, health and work attitudes. So far, the individual has been the main unit of interest for research on job insecurity. However, job insecurity can also be seen as a social phenomenon, where the fous is on shared perceptions of job insecurity – a job insecurity climate. The social cognitive theory explains how behavioral, cognitive or other person-related and contextual factors interact in a reciprocal relationship. Related to job insecurity, then, this can help us understand how job insecurity climate can emerge.

    Previously, a few studies have been published on job insecurity climate. But the measuring of job insecurity climate is still a relatively new area of interest to researchers. The multiple operationalizations of organizational climate found in organizational research along with methodological concerns, motivates a study on the concept of job insecurity climate and ways of measuring it.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to develop and test an instrument for measuring job insecurity climate.

    Methods: As a first step, questionnaire items were developed to reflect job insecurity at a group level. Further, the study compared results from the newly developed job insecurity climate scale with aggregated individual-level data on job insecurity. The aim is to evaluate which type of scale of measurement is more appropriate for capturing job insecurity climate. The data will be collected in early 2011.

    Results/relevance: The purpose of this study is to contribute to our understanding of job insecurity in general, as well as job insecurity climates in particular, and its consequences for employees.

  • 40.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    The roles of shared perceptions of individual job insecurity and job insecurity climate for work- and health-related outcomes: A multilevel approach2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 422-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine job insecurity from a multilevel perspective and to investigate the roles of two types of job insecurity - job insecurity climate and individual job insecurity - for work-related attitudes and health outcomes. It further explores the role of the workgroup - as a social context - in shaping job insecurity perceptions. Data were collected from white-collar employees in a Swedish organization, with 126 participants nested in 18 groups. The results show that 19% of the variance in job insecurity climate perceptions, and none of the variance in individual job insecurity perceptions, could be attributed to group membership. Further, compared to other members of their group, those perceiving a stronger job insecurity climate reported lower levels of negative self-rated health and higher burnout scores. These results imply that the workgroup is an important social context for job insecurity climate perceptions.

  • 41.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand .
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Roles of Shared Perceptions of Job Insecurity and Job Insecurity Climate for Work- and Health-Related Outcomes: A Multilevel ApproachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine job insecurity from a multilevel perspective and to investigate the roles of two types of job insecurity – job insecurity climate and individual job insecurity – for work-related attitudes and health outcomes. We further explore the role of the workgroup – as a social context – in shaping job insecurity perceptions. Data was collected from white-collar employees in a Swedish organization, with 126 participants nested in 18 groups. The results show that 19% of the variance in job insecurity climate perceptions, and none of the variance in individual job insecurity perceptions, could be attributed to group membership. Further, compared to other members of their group, those perceiving a stronger job insecurity climate reported lower levels of negative self-rated health and higher burnout scores. These results imply that the workgroup is an important social context for job insecurity climate perceptions and, thus, that leaders should take job insecurity climate perceptions at the workgroup level into account.

  • 42.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating Job Insecurity Climate from a Multilevel Perspective: Its Impact on Psychological Distress, and Ill-Health Symptoms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity is a work stressor that has detrimental effects on work related attitudes, well-being and health. Job insecurity has mainly been investigated as an individual level phenomenon. Consequentially, the focus of past research is only on personal determinants and consequences of the employee’s perception, and social/organizational factors have not been taken into account to any large extent. However, drawing on sense making theory, it can be argued that job insecurity is a social phenomenon as well. Conceptualized as job insecurity climate, job insecurity could be considered a product of the reciprocal relationship between behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and the social environment.

    The aim of this study is to examine job insecurity from a multilevel perspective and explore to what extent the variance in job insecurity perceptions is dependent on the individual, and how important the work group as a social context in shaping job insecurity perceptions. We also aim to investigate the effects of job insecurity, both climate and individual job insecurity, on job satisfaction, productivity, burnout, and subjective health. By including both individual level job insecurity and job insecurity climate perceptions in the analysis, a deeper understanding is gained of the relation between job insecurity and negative outcomes, and thus contributes to extending our knowledge about job insecurity as a work life stressor.

    Results from a pilot study of a Swedish sample using multilevel modeling showed that the work group accounts for about 5% of the variance in job insecurity climate perceptions and 2.6% of individual job insecurity perceptions. This indicates that the social context has some impact on perceptions of job insecurity. However, since the respondents in this sample perceived a very low sense of job insecurity, these results had to be replicated with another sample. Data from a second sample (N=126) were recently collected, and preliminary results show that belonging to a group accounted for 20% of the variance in job insecurity climate perceptions and 0% of the variance in perceptions of  job insecurity. These results could have implications for future studies on climate, indicating that perceptions of one’s own job insecurity do not necessarily match one’s perceptions of the job insecurity climate.

  • 43.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating job insecurity climate from a multilevel perspective: Outcomes and methodological challenges2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Job insecurity is a work stressor that has detrimental effects on work related attitudes, well being and health. In psychological research, studies on job insecurity focus on the subjective perception of insecurity and not on the objective circumstances. Job insecurity has mainly been investigated as an individual level phenomenon. Consequentially, the focus of this research is only on personal determinants and consequences of the employee’s perception, and social/organizational factors are not taken into account. Drawing on social cognitive theory, it can be argued that job insecurity is a social phenomenon as well. Conceptualized as job insecurity climate, job insecurity could be seen as a product of the reciprocal relationship between behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and the social environment. Previous studies on job insecurity climate used aggregated individual level data from individual level job insecurity scales. However, a possible limitation of this research is that aggregating individual level data does not necessarily reflect a social climate. In this study, we measure job insecurity climate with a scale that contains organizational level referents. Thus, the study contributes to answering pressing methodological questions in research on job insecurity climate. Aim: The aim of this study is to examine job insecurity conceptualized both as a psychological climate and as an organizational climate. We also aim to investigate possible effects on work related attitudes and subjective health. Methods: The data were collected in a Swedish organization (N=1280) through online questionnaires with a response rate of 73%. The questionnaire consisted of validated scales measuring individual level perceptions of job insecurity, job insecurity climate, work related attitudes and subjective health outcomes. Analyses and results: We will perform multi-level analyses on the data set. Conclusion: Including both individual perceptions and climate in the analysis will provide a deeper understanding of the relation between job insecurity and negative outcomes, thereby contributing to deepening our knowledge about job insecurity as a work life stressor. Furthermore, comparing job insecurity conceptualized as a psychological climate with job insecurity as an organizational climate will contribute to the methodological discussion about how to best conceptualize job insecurity climate.

  • 44.
    Låstad, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seddigh, Aram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating job insecurity climate from a multilevel perspective: Outcomes and methodological challenges2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Marklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bolin, Malin
    Härenstam, Annika
    Ylander, John
    Changing organisations and work-related health: Technical report of methods, sample and design of three studies.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is presenting the methodological designs of different studies aiming at the investigation of the relationship between organisational characteristics and individual working conditions and health. The theoretical background to this line of research is summarized in Härenstam and collaborators (2006). The report displays methods, samples and designs of three studies. Three different methods were used in the studies and different focal units were chosen. In the first presented study “The Healthy Workplace Study”, the Organisation was used as the focal unit. In the second study, “The National Working Life Cohort”, individuals were set as focal units, and in the final study, “Power over Working Conditions” -Case studies of organisational responsibility, interpersonal relations were set as focal units.

    In the Healthy Workplace Study the aim was to explore the importance of organisational conditions and individual characteristics for the variation in working conditions and health for employees. The study was designed as a longitudinal, multilevel analysis, of a two-step data collection of organisations, and of the individuals working within the studied organisations. About 5,000 employees, in 90 establishments in 32 parent organisations were included.

    The National Working Life Cohort examined how work career and changes in employment and working conditions affect health and well-being. The study also covered aspects of how individuals' ambitions and plans change over time and how this affects working life behaviour. The study was representative and longitudinal and comprise d a representative sample of 4,929 individuals living in Sweden between the ages of 25 and 50.

    In the third study called “Power over Working Conditions” - Case studies of organisational responsibility, two multiple case studies were used to explore mechanisms of power and responsibility within public and private organisations. The first of the two studies explored mechanisms of power and responsibility within private multinational industry and service organisations. The second study explored a similar complex of relations in the public sector. Critical-Incident interviews, semi structured interviews and workshops with about 140 employees, managers, labour union representatives and politicians, were conducted in one company group and two municipalities between 2004 and 2006.

  • 46.
    Marklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stjernström, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekter på hälsa och anställningsbarhet av geografiskt och karriärmässigt perifer ställning2012In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns tydliga regionala skillnader i befolkningens hälsa och sjukfrånvaro i Sverige (Folkhälsorapport 2005, Lundberg 2006). Föreställningarna om vad dessa skillnader beror på varierar, men generellt dominerar två typer av huvudförklaringar. Den ena betonar att regionala skillnader i arbetsmarknadsvillkor, demografiska förhållanden eller olika traditioner bland myndigheter och i sjukvården kan vara skälet (RFV 2003a, RFV 2003b, Palmer 2006). Den andra förklaringen lägger tyngdpunkten på selektiv rörlighet, som framför allt innebär att de som byter yrken oftare har god hälsa och låg sjukfrånvaro jämfört med yrkesstabila (Östlin 1988). Det skulle kunna innebära att relativt sett friskare personer och personer med lägre sjukfrånvarorisk lämnar avfolkningsregioner och flyttar till nya yrken i större städer.

  • 47. Pousette, Anders
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Lindgren, Hans
    Szücs, Stefan
    Organisational prerequisites for public sector managers in Sweden: a survey-feedback intervention2013In: Imagine the future world: How do we want to work tomorrow?: abstract proceedings of the 16th Congress of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), 22-25 maj, Münster, Tyskland. / [ed] G. Hertel, C. Binnewies, S. Krumm, H. Holling, & M. Kleinmann, 2013, p. 528-529Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The project is a survey-feedback intervention directed at managers in public sector authorities. We suggest that organisational prerequisites, such as manager/employee ratio and arenas for dialogues, affects the relations between organisational levels and managerial practices, that in turn affects both the managers’ working conditions and performance. The aim is to present the intervention model and results of three complementary evaluations.

    Design/Methodology: Twenty eight public sector organizations providing educational, social and technical services within seven local government authorities were selected. The managers (n=720) answered questionnaires before and after the intervention (2009 and 2011) and register and interview data were collected. 22 organisations constituted the reference group whereas six organisations took part in the survey feedback intervention. Support to facilitate change processes was provided. Three types of evaluations were applied: Quantitative effect evaluation, self-evaluation and process evaluation.

    Results: Some organisations were very successful in changing the formal decision structure, the job assignments and the communication patterns. However change was not consistent among the intervention organisations. Process evaluation showed a link between intervention results and how the organisations handled the change processes.

    Limitations: Interventions did not follow a strict protocol, all interventions were implemented differently.

    Research/Practical Implications: Multisource and multi-method perspective is needed when evaluating intervention effects in organisations. The results show both facilitating and obstructing circumstances for organisational interventions that can be used in the design of intervention programs aiming at improving managers working conditions and performance.

    Originality/Value: Intervention studies comprising many organisations are rarely performed which means that the results of the present study contributes to both research and practice.

  • 48.
    Seddigh, Aram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Concentration requirements modify the effect of office type on indicators of health and performance2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 38, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the interaction between need for concentration on the job and six office types in relation to distraction, cognitive stress, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal efficiency and general health. 1241 employees from five organizations participated in the study. Cell offices were associated with lower reported levels of distraction and cognitive stress, and flex offices with lower distraction, among the employees compared with all other open-plan office types. There were no significant differences in the outcome variables between different types of open-plan offices. However, there was an interaction between office type and the need for concentration for the job; employees in the high need for concentration group reported more distraction in all office types except in cell offices and also more cognitive stress in all office types except cell offices and flex offices. In conclusion, cell offices may be preferable for tasks that require higher need for concentrations.

  • 49.
    Seddigh, Aram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of variation in noise absorption in open-plan office: A field study with a cross-over design2015In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 44, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise has repeatedly been shown to be one of the most recurrent reasons for complaints in open-plan office environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate if enhanced or worsened sound absorption in open-plan offices is reflected in the employees' ratings of disturbances, cognitive stress, and professional efficacy. Employees working on two different floors of an office building were followed as three manipulations were made in room acoustics on each of the two floors by means of less or more absorbing tiles & wall absorbents. For one of the floors, the manipulations were from better to worse to better acoustical conditions, while for the other the manipulations were worse to better to worse. The acoustical effects of these manipulations were assessed according to the new ISO-standard (ISO-3382-3, 2012) for open-plan rooms acoustics. In addition, the employees responded to questionnaires after each change. Our analyses showed that within each floor enhanced acoustical conditions were associated with lower perceived disturbances and cognitive stress. There were no effects on professional efficiency. The results furthermore suggest that even a small deterioration in acoustical room properties measured according to the new ISO-standard for open-plan office acoustics has a negative impact on self-rated health and disturbances. This study supports previous studies demonstrating the importance of acoustics in work environments and shows that the measures suggested in the new ISO-standard can be used to adequately differentiate between better and worse room acoustics in open plan offices.

  • 50.
    Seddigh, Aram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

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