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  • 1.
    Kundu, Esha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Modeling of Radio Emission from Supernovae: Application to Type Ia2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the circumstellar medium (CSM) drives a strong shock wave into the CSM. These shocks are ideal places where effective particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification can take place. The accelerated relativistic particles, in the presence of magnetic field, could emit a part of their energy via synchrotron radiation in radio wavelengths. The flux of this radiation, when compared with observations, gives an estimate of the CSM density. This could either be the particle density ($\rm n_{ISM}$) in case of the SN exploding in a constant density medium, characteristic of interstellar medium, or pre-SN mass loss rate ($\mdot$) of the progenitor system for a wind medium. In this work we have modeled the synchrotron luminosities and compared that with the radio upper limits measured for the Type Ia SNe 2011fe and 2014J. Assuming equipartition of energy between electric and magnetic fields, with 10$\%$ of the thermal shock energy in each field, we found a very low density medium, having $\rm n_{ISM} < \sim $ 0.35 $\ccc$,around both the SNe. In terms of $\mdot$ this implies an upper limit of $10^{-9}$ \msunyr for a wind velocity of 100 \kms. From the measurements of H I column density it could be expected that $\rm n_{ISM} \sim $ 1 $\ccc$ around both the SNe. If this is the true value close to the SNe, this would indicate that the energy density in magnetic field is less than that presumed for energy equipartition. The progenitors of both SNe 2011fe and 2014J are not clear. However previous studies have pointed toward a few potential  channels. Here, we have compared the CSM densities estimated by our models with that predicted by those different plausible formation channels and have tried to constrain the amplification of magnetic fields in SN shocks.  

  • 2.
    Kundu, Esha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Radio emission from supernovae2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the modeling of radio and X-ray emissions from supernova (SN) shock fronts and hydrodynamical simulations of SN-circumstellar medium (CSM) interaction. The interaction of SN ejecta with the CSM drives a strong shock wave into the CSM. These shocks are ideal places where effective particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification can take place. The accelerated relativistic particles, in the presence of magnetic field, could emit part of their energy via synchrotron radiation in radio wavelengths. The flux of this radiation, when compared with observations, gives an estimate of the CSM density. This could either be the particle density (nISM) in case of the SN exploding in a constant density medium, characteristic of interstellar medium, or pre-SN mass loss rate (dM/dt) of the progenitor system for a wind medium. In Paper I we have modeled the synchrotron emission and compared that with the radio upper limits measured for the Type Ia SNe 2011fe and 2014J. Assuming equipartition of energy between electric and magnetic fields, with 10% of the thermal shock energy in each field, we obtain a very low density medium, having nISM <~ 0.35 cm-3, around both the SNe. In terms of dM/dt this implies an upper limit of 10-9 Msun yr-1 for a wind velocity, vw, of 100 km s-1. This study suggests that in SN shocks it is more likely that the amplification efficiency of magnetic fields is less than that for the electric fields. In Paper II, we carry out the hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction between SN ejecta and CSM for SN 1993J and SN 2011dh. Subsequently, the radio and X-ray emission have been calculated from the shocked gas encapsulated between the forward and reverse shocks. Considering the ejecta profile of these SNe from multi-group radiation hydrodynamics simulation (STELLA), it is found from our investigation that for a wind velocity of 10 km/s around 6500 years prior to the explosion of SN 1993J a change in mass loss rate occurred in the system. For a binary system this may imply that the change in dM/dt could be due to a change in the mass accretion efficiency of the companion star. In case of SN 2011dh the late time emission is turned up to be consistent with a wind medium with (dM/dt)/vw = 4 × 10-6 Msun yr-1/10 km s-1. Paper III focuses on the radio emission from four young SNe Type Ia, SN 2013dy, SN 2016coj, SN 2018pv and SN 2018gv. Using the same model for radio emission as in Paper I, the upper limits on dM/dt and nISM are estimated. We found tenuous media around these SNe, which put tight constrain on their progenitor systems.

  • 3.
    Kundu, Esha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Perez-Torres, M. A.
    Herrero-Illana, R.
    Alberdi, A.
    Constraining Magnetic Field Amplification in SN Shocks Using Radio Observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 842, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We modeled the radio non-detection of two Type Ia supernovae (SNe), SN 2011fe and SN 2014J, considering synchrotron emission from the interaction between SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium. For ejecta whose outer parts have a power-law density structure, we compare synchrotron emission with radio observations. Assuming that 20% of the bulk shock energy is being shared equally between electrons and magnetic fields, we found a very low-density medium around both the SNe. A less tenuous medium with particle density similar to 1 cm(-3), which could be expected around both SNe, can be estimated when the magnetic field amplification is less than that presumed for energy equipartition. This conclusion also holds if the progenitor of SN. 2014J was a rigidly rotating white dwarf (WD) with a main-sequence (MS) or red giant companion. For a He star companion, or a MS for SN. 2014J, with 10% and 1% of bulk kinetic energy in magnetic fields, we obtain mass-loss rates of < 10(-9) and <similar to 4 x10(-9)M yr(-1). for a wind velocity of 100 km s(-1). The former requires a mass accretion efficiency of > 99% onto the WD, but is less restricted for the latter case. However, if the tenuous medium is due to a recurrent nova, it is difficult from our model to predict synchrotron luminosities. Although the formation channels of SNe. 2011fe and 2014J are not clear, the null detection in radio wavelengths could point toward a low amplification efficiency for magnetic fields in SN shocks.

  • 4.
    Kundu, Esha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Sorokina, E.
    Perez-Torres, M.
    Blinnikov, S.
    O'Connor, E.
    Ergon, M.
    Chandra, P.
    Das, B.
    Evolution of progenitors of SNe 1993J and 2011dh revealed through late time radio and X-ray studiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kundu, Esha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sorokina, E.
    Pérez-Torres, M. A.
    Blinnikov, S.
    O'Connor, Evan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Chandra, Poonam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Pune University, Sweden.
    Das, B.
    uEvolution of the Progenitors of SNe 1993J and 2011dh Revealed through Late-time Radio and X-Ray Studies2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 875, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction between supernova (SN) ejecta and circumstellar medium (CSM) for SN 1993J and SN 2011dh, and calculate the radio and X-ray emissions expected from the shocked gas at late epochs (t). Considering the ejecta structure from multi-group radiation hydrodynamics simulation, we find that the observed rapid drop in radio and X-ray light curves of SN 1993J at t > 3000 days may be due to a change in the mass-loss rate ((M)over dot) similar to 6500 yr prior to the explosion of the SN. The exact epoch scales inversely with the assumed wind velocity of nu(w) = 10 km s(-1). The progenitor of this SN very likely belonged to a binary system, where, during its evolution, the primary had transferred material to the secondary. It is argued in this paper that the change in (M)over dot can happen because of a change in the mass accretion efficiency (eta) of the companion star. It is possible that before similar to 6500. (nu(w)/10 km s(-1))(-1) yr prior to the explosion, eta was high, and thus the CSM was tenuous, which causes the late-time downturn in fluxes. In the case of SN. 2011dh, the late-time evolution is found to be consistent with a wind medium with (M)over dot/nu(w) = 4 x 10(-6) M-circle dot yr(-1)/10 km s(-1). It is difficult from our analysis to predict whether the progenitor of this SN had a binary companion; however, if future observations show a similar decrease in radio and X-ray fluxes, then this would give strong support to a scenario where both SNe had undergone a similar kind of binary evolution before explosion.

  • 6.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Kundu, Esha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Perez-Torres, M.
    Ryder, S.
    Bjornsson, C-I.
    Moldon, J.
    Argo, M.
    Beswick, R.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Alberdi, A.
    Fender, R.
    Kool, E.
    Varenius, E.
    Radio observations of nearby Type Ia SupernovaeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 6 of 6
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