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  • 1.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sɛlɛɛ2015In: Edinburgh handbook of evaluative morphology / [ed] Nicola Grandi, Livia Kortvelyessy, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015, p. 487-495Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Unravelling temperature terms in Sɛlɛɛ2015In: The linguistics of temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 107-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the encoding of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ, a Niger-Congo language of the Kwa group, spoken in Ghana. The lexicon of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ consists of six central and two non-central temperature terms, distributed among the word classes of nouns, adjectives and verbs. The grammatical constructions associated with temperature evaluation vary according to the word-class status of each temperature term and its contexts of use. The distribution of the different grammatical constructions according to different types of temperature evaluation is discussed in the paper. Metaphorical uses of temperature-related terms are also discussed in the context of neighbouring and highly related languages. Finally, special patterns of temperature evaluation in connection with water are surveyed.

  • 3.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative morphology and noun classification: a cross-linguistic study of Africa2013In: SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1336-782X, E-ISSN 1336-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 114-136Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at illustrating how, in languages with grammatical gender, this feature of noun morphology interacts with evaluative morphology. This is done on the basis of a sample of sixty-two African languages. The paper shows that interactions among gender and evaluative morphology are quite regular in the African languages. Two major types of interactions are found depending on whether a language hasa rich or a limited number of noun classes. The geographic diffusion and diachronic stability of these interactions are discussed. The correlation between gender and evaluation in the African languages has promising implications for our understanding of the two grammatical domains and fostersfurther research questions as to how common the relationships between these domains are cross-linguistically, and why they emerge in the first place.

  • 4.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Exploring grammatical complexity crosslinguistically: The case of gender2016In: Linguistic Discovery, ISSN 1537-0852, E-ISSN 1537-0852, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 46-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a set of principles and methodologies for the crosslinguistic investigation of grammatical complexity and applies them to the in-depth study of one grammatical domain, gender. The complexity of gender is modeled on the basis of crosslinguistically documented properties of gender systems and by taking into consideration interactions between gender and two other grammatical domains: nominal number and evaluative morphology. The study proposes a complexity metric for gender that consists of six features: “Gender values”, “Assignment rules”, “Number of indexation (agreement) domains”, “Cumulative exponence of gender and number”, “Manipulation of gender assignment triggered by number/countability”, and “Manipulation of gender assignment triggered by size”. The metric is tested on a sample of 84 African languages, organized in subsamples of genealogically related languages. The results of the investigation show that: (1) the gender systems of the sampled languages lean towards high complexity scores; (2) languages with purely semantic gender assignment tend to lack pervasive gender indexation; (3) languages with a high number of gender distinctions tend to exhibit pervasive gender indexation; (4) some of the uses of manipulable gender assignment are only attested in languages with a high number of gender distinctions and/or pervasive indexation. With respect to the distribution of the gender complexity scores, the results show that genealogically related languages tend to have the same or similar gender complexity scores. Languages that display exceedingly low or high gender complexity scores when compared with closely related languages exhibit distinctive sociolinguistic profiles (contact, bi- or multilingualism). The implications of these findings for the typology of gender systems and the crosslinguistic study of grammatical complexity and its distribution are discussed.

  • 5.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gender and its interaction with number and evaluative morphology: An intra- and intergenealogical typological survey of Africa2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates interactions between gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology in a sample of 100 African languages, and provides a method for assessing the role that these interactions play in the grammatical complexity of gender systems. The dissertation is organised around three research foci.

    First, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and number along the following dimensions: exponence, syncretism, indexation, correlations in type of marking, and gender assignment. The study provides evidence for the possibility that nominal features are organised in a relevance hierarchy. In addition, the study shows that animacy and lexical plurality play a crucial role in the distribution of special patterns of plural indexation. The study also shows that pervasive indexation systems in the language sample always involve both gender and number. Finally, the study shows how gender assignment can be used as a means for encoding variation in the countability properties of nouns and noun phrases.

    Second, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and evaluative morphology in the languages of the sample. Two types of interactions are found. The study shows that the distribution of the two types depends on three factors: the type of gender system, the number of gender distinctions and the possibility of assigning a noun to more than one gender.

    Third, the dissertation investigates the role that interactions of gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology play in the absolute complexity of gender. The study proposes a metric for gender complexity and uses this metric to compute complexity scores for the languages of the sample. The results suggest that the gender systems of the language sample lean toward high complexity, that genealogically related languages have the same or similar complexity scores, and that the distribution of the outliers can often be understood as the result of language contact.

  • 6.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Matthew Baerman, Dunstan Brown & Greville G. Corbett. Morphological Complexity (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 153). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 20172019In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 129-134Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Torres Cacoullos, Rena and Catherine E. Travis. 2018. Bilingualism in the community. Code-switching and grammars in contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2019In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 381-393Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Non-canonical gender in African languages: A typological survey of interactions between gender and number, and between gender and evaluative morphology2018In: Non-canonical gender systems / [ed] Sebastian Fedden, Jenny Audring, Greville G. Corbett, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 176-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    The evolving complexity of gender agreement systems2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume II: World-wide comparative studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 15-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes to integrate the diachronic dimension to the typological study of gender complexity, and focuses on the morphosyntactic encoding of gender distinctions via agreement patterns. After investigating the processes of language change that foster the reduction, loss, expansion and emergence of gender agreement in a sample of fifteen sets of closely related languages (N= 36 languages), we discuss how gender agreement systems in decline and on the rise pattern in terms of complexity. We show that declining and emerging gender agreement systems may exhibit increase or decrease in complexity and discuss how this relates to the fact that they represent transitional stages between absence of gender and full-fledged gender systems. In our analysis, we make use of typological implicational hierarchies in the domain of agreement as a tool to account for diachronic variation and for the patterns of simplification/complexification in the agreement systems of the sampled languages.

  • 10.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, BrunoWälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. In addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, volume one contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia.

    This volume is complemented by volume two, which consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity.

  • 11.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, BrunoWälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume II: World-wide comparative studies2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The many facets of grammatical gender remain one of the most fruitful areas of linguistic research, and pose fascinating questions about the origins and development of complexity in language. The present work is a two-volume collection of 13 chapters on the topic of grammatical gender seen through the prism of linguistic complexity. The contributions discuss what counts as complex and/or simple in grammatical gender systems, whether the distribution of gender systems across the world’s languages relates to the language ecology and social history of speech communities. Contributors demonstrate how the complexity of gender systems can be studied synchronically, both in individual languages and over large cross-linguistic samples, and diachronically, by exploring how gender systems change over time. Volume two consists of three chapters providing diachronic and typological case studies, followed by a final chapter discussing old and new theoretical and empirical challenges in the study of the dynamics of gender complexity.

    This volume is preceded by volume one, which, in addition to three chapters on the theoretical foundations of gender complexity, contains six chapters on grammatical gender and complexity in individual languages and language families of Africa, New Guinea, and South Asia.

  • 12.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the two volumes Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity I: General issues and specific studies and Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity II: World-wide comparative studies.

  • 13. Sinnemäki, Kaius
    et al.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language Structures May Adapt to the Sociolinguistic Environment, but It Matters What and How You Count: A Typological Study of Verbal and Nominal Complexity2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we evaluate claims that language structure adapts to sociolinguistic environment. We present the results of two typological case studies examining the effects of the number of native (=L1) speakers and the proportion of adult second language (=L2) learners on language structure. Data from more than 300 languages suggest that testing the effect of population size and proportion of adult L2 learners on features of verbal and nominal complexity produces conflicting results on different grammatical features. The results show that verbal inflectional synthesis adapts to the sociolinguistic environment but the number of genders does not. The results also suggest that modeling population size together with proportion of L2 improves model fit compared to modeling them independently of one another. We thus argue that surveying population size alone may be insufficient to detect possible adaptation of linguistic structure to the sociolinguistic environment. Rather, other features, such as proportion of L2 speakers, prestige and social network density, should be studied, and if demographic numeric data are used, they should not be used in isolation but rather in competition with other sociolinguistic features. We also suggest that not all types of language structures within a given grammatical domain are equally sensitive to the effect of sociolinguistic variables, and that more exploratory studies are needed before we can arrive at a reliable set of grammatical features that may be potentially most (and least) adaptive to social structures.

  • 14.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamics of gender complexity2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume II: World-wide comparative studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 201-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we view grammatical gender as a category type that emerges, evolvesand disappears in languages as a result of diachronic processes and whose complex-ity grows and diminishes through time (§1–§2). Traditional approaches to gram-matical gender focus on two properties that already presuppose a high degree ofmaturity of gender systems: noun classes and agreement. Here we conceive of gen-der rather as a category type with a semantic core of animacy and/or sex reflectingclasses of referents, which have a propensity to turn into classes of noun lexemes.When growing and retracting, gender characteristically follows the animacy or in-dividuation hierarchy. However, this hierarchical patterning breaks down whenanimacy leaks into the inanimate domain led astray by many different associativepathways, which is why lexical organization according to noun classes has to beinvoked to maintain some sort of order (§3). Gender manifests itself in the form ofmarking on noun-associated words, often within the local domain of noun phrases.Here we put gender marking into the wider context of nominal morphology (non-lexical markers within the noun phrase), which often originate in independent usein headless noun phrases and are extended to headed noun phrases only in a sub-sequent development (§4). As more mature manifestations of gender get organizedin the form of noun classes, they typically follow certain pathways of develop-ment that can be subsumed under the formula “From X to Y” (§5–§6). Agreementis fuzzy as its prototypical non-noun targets gradually develop by way of decate-gorialization from nouns, and controllers and targets are not always simple words,but can be complex (consist of syntactic formal groups) and controllers can be en-tirely contextual (§7). Gender should not be considered in isolation as it is – moreoften than not – parasitic on other grammatical category types, notably number,case, and person, with which it cumulates and which contribute to its high degreeof complexity (§8). Number is particularly tightly intertwined with gender in plu-ralia tantum and other phenomena related to lexical plurality (§9). As gender isorganized in form of systems, its diachronic evolution cannot be captured in termsof individual diachronic processes. When gender systems evolve, there is virtuallyalways co-evolution of connected events. Hence the study of system evolution isindispensable for understanding the complexity of gender (§10). However, the evo-lution of gender also displays characteristic areal and genealogical patterns and issensitive to external factors of language ecology (§11).

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