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  • 1.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sniff Your Way to Clarity: The Case of Olfactory Imagery2008In: CHEMOSENSORY PERCEPTION, ISSN 1936-5802, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of blocking spontaneous sniffing during olfactory imagery. A group of subjects (n=40) who scored high in olfactory focus and imagery ability rated the vividness in olfactory and visual imagery content under conditions of blocked sniffing, blocked vision, and a nonblocked control. The imagery stimuli consisted of 90 common words that could represent either an odor or a visual object. Blocked sniffing was expected to impair olfactory imagery vividness, but since visual imagery entails eye movements, which was not affected by the ""blocked vision"" manipulation, visual imagery ratings were effectively used as a placebo control. Confirming our hypotheses, the results showed that preventing sniffing resulted in a selectively poorer olfactory but not visual vividness, whereas blocked vision showed no effect on either the visual or olfactory vividness ratings. These observations confirm that sensorimotor activity is an important aspect for the quality of evoked olfactory images.

  • 2.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The reminiscence bump is blind to blindness: Evidence from sound- and odor-evoked autobiographical memoryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by sensory cues, such as words, pictures, and sounds, typically form reminiscence bumps in adolescence and young adulthood. However, odors constitute an exception by shifting the bump to early childhood. Olfaction may be a “sense of first impressions”, as indicated by a unique hippocampal representation in the brain for first odor-to-object associations. However, the influence of the individual’s sensory function on AMs has never been examined. We examined the reminiscence bumps of sound- and odor-evoked memories of early-blind and sighted individuals, since blindness implies considerable changes in sensory experience. Despite such changes, the groups displayed similar age distributions of both sound- and odor-evoked memories. The auditory bump seemed to span the first two decades of life, whereas the olfactory bump was once again found in early childhood. Hence, the reminiscence bumps were robust to differences in sensory function and experience.

  • 3.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Affected by Smells?: Environmental Chemical Responsivity Predicts Odor Perception2011In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong negative reactions, physical symptoms, and behavioral disruptions due to environmental odors are common in the adult population. We investigated relationships among such environmental chemosensory responsivity (CR), personality traits, affective states, and odor perception. Study 1 showed that CR and neuroticism were positively correlated in a sample of young adults (n = 101), suggesting that persons high in neuroticism respond more negatively to environmental odors. Study 2 explored the relationships among CR, noise responsivity (NR), neuroticism, and odor perception (i.e., pleasantness and intensity) in a subset of participants (n = 40). High CR was associated with high NR. Regression analyses indicated that high CR predicted higher odor intensity ratings and low olfactory threshold (high sensitivity) predicted lower pleasantness ratings. However, neuroticism was not directly associated with odor ratings or thresholds. Overall, the results suggest that CR and odor thresholds predict perceptual ratings of odors and that high CR is associated with nonchemosensory affective traits.

  • 4.
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University College of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days2015In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? Despite the importance of evaluating the accuracy of verbal eyewitness testimonies, the evidence for objective measures are scarce, and current accuracy measures unsatisfactory. We demonstrate that expressed effort during memory retrieval can predict accuracy in honest eyewitnesses. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort (e.g. more delays and disfluencies) than correct memories.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    'He was...uhm...bald': Retrieval effort predicts eyewitness accuracy2019In: Book of Abstracts: 21st Conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 2019, p. 327-327, article id PS4.69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. We investigated if incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories. Participants watched a simulated crime and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We then analysed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories, and also partially mediated the relationship between confidence and accuracy.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Effort in Memory Retrieval Predicts Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do sincere eyewitness testimonies contain objective markers of accuracy? We show that expressions of effort in memory retrieval predict eyewitness accuracy. Incorrect memories are recalled with greater effort than correct memories.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Philip U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses. Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

  • 9.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    What moderates the accuracy of ease of learning judgments?2017In: Metacognition and Learning, ISSN 1556-1623, E-ISSN 1556-1631, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 337-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people begin to study new material, they may first judge how difficult it will be to learn. Surprisingly, these ease of learning (EOL) judgments have received little attention by metacognitive researchers so far. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate how well EOL judgments can predict actual learning, and what factors may moderate their relative accuracy. In three experiments, undergraduate psychology students made EOL judgments on, then studied, and were tested on, lists of word-pairs (e.g., sun – warm). In Experiment 1, the Goodman-Kruskal gamma (G) correlations showed that EOL judgments were accurate (G = .74) when items varied enough in difficulty to allow for proper discrimination between them, but were less accurate (G = .21) when variation was smaller. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 and 3, we showed that the relative accuracy was reliably higher when the EOL judgments were correlated with a binary criterion (i.e., if an item was recalled or not on a test), compared with a trials-to-learn criterion (i.e., how many study and test trials were needed to recall an item). In addition, Experiments 2 and 3 indicate other factors to be non-influential for EOL accuracy, such as the task used to measure the EOL judgments, and whether items were judged sequentially (i.e., one item at a time in isolation from the other items) or simultaneously (i.e., each item was judged while having access to all other items). To conclude, EOL judgments can be highly accurate (G = .74) and may thus be of strategic importance for learning. Further avenues for research are discussed.

  • 10.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Ease-of-learning judgments are based on both processing fluency and beliefs2018In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 807-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing fluency influences many types of judgments. Some metacognitive research suggests that the influence of processing fluency may be mediated by participants’ beliefs. The current study explores the influence of processing fluency and beliefs on ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments. In two experiments (Exp 1: n = 94; Exp 2: n = 146), participants made EOL judgments on 24 six-letter concrete nouns, presented in either a constant condition (high fluency) with upper-case letters (e.g., BUCKET) or an alternating condition (low fluency) with mixed upper- and lower-case letters (e.g., bUcKeT). After judging words individually, participants studied the words and completed a free recall test. Finally, participants indicated what condition they believed made the words more likely to be learned. Results show constant-condition words were judged as more likely to be learned than alternating condition words, but the difference varied with beliefs. Specifically, the difference was biggest when participants believed the constant condition made words more likely to be learned, followed by believing there was no difference, and then believing the alternating condition made words more likely to be learned. Thus, we showed that processing fluency has a direct effect on EOL judgments, but the effect is moderated by beliefs.

  • 11.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Teaching and Learning in the Social Sciences (CeSam).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who benefits from visual illustrations in psychology teaching – A question of diversifying teaching according to learning style or not?2015In: NoFa5: Nordic Conference on Subject Education: Book of Abstracts, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2015, p. 154-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be diversified and adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary students were given a psychology lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self-rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

  • 12.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Teaching and Learning in the Social Sciences (CeSam).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who benefits from visual illustrations in psychology teaching: A question of learning style or not?2015In: EARLI 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question concerning the use of visual illustrations in teaching is whether teaching should be adapted according to students’ preferred learning style (visualiser-verbaliser), whether focus should be on strategies that work well in general (multimedia learning), independent of preference, or whether it is worthwhile to combine the two to further improve learning. Upper secondary school students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. Results from a learning test were analysed in relation to the students’ self rated learning style. Visouverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only, independently of learning style. Support was not found for the learning styles hypothesis, since there was no crossover interaction. However, students with mixed or visual learning styles performed generally better on the learning test than students with a verbal learning style. Since the use of visual illustrations seems to have a beneficial effect on learning for all students, this mode of instruction ought to be used in teaching. Rather than being a tool for teachers to adapt their teaching, learning styles diagnoses may be used in order to identify students who need to develop their study strategies towards a more visual preference.

  • 13.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning through Visual Illustration and Retrieval Practice2014In: Earli SIG 2 Comprehension of text and graphics, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning. Both are well-known learning strategies, but they have not previously been investigated in combination and rarely in the classroom. In this study, 133 upper secondary students were given a lecture presented only verbally or with the aid of a visual illustration. The students processed the information again either by retrieval practice or by restudying it. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes, after a week and after 10 weeks. Visuoverbal presentation resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. Although a modest testing effect was found, this effect was considerably weaker than the multimedia effect. Retrieval practice did not improve the participants’ memory performance beyond the beneficial effect of visuoverbal learning. Presentation format proved to be a more important factor for learning than study strategy.

     

     

     

  • 14.
    Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selander, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 222-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 15.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory metacognition: A metamemory perspective on odor naming.2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Olsson, Mats J
    Odor emotionality affects the confidence in odor naming.2005In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J
    Olfactory metacognition.2003In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 651-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tchekhova, Antoinette
    Lönner, Pär
    Olsson, Mats J
    A metamemory perspective on odor naming and identification.2005In: Chem Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 353-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedner, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Testing Effect as a Function of Explicit Testing Instructions and Judgments of Learning2012In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During study, people monitor their learning; the output of this monitoring is captured in so-called judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs predict later recall better if they are made after a slight delay, instead of immediately after study (the delayed JOL effect). According to the self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) hypothesis delayed JOLs are based on covert retrieval attempts from long-term memory, and successful retrieval attempts in themselves enhance learning (the testing effect). We compared memory for 40 Swahili-Swedish paired associates after a week as a function of three different learning conditions, namely study plus (i) explicitly instructed self-testing, (ii) delayed JOLs, or (iii) less self-testing. We showed that repeated delayed JOLs lead to a memory improvement insignificantly different from a comparable condition where the participants are explicitly testing memory, and both the latter groups performed reliably better than a group that self-tested less. The results suggest that delayed JOLs improve long-term retention as efficiently as explicit memory testing and lend support to the SFP hypothesis.

  • 20.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schwartz, Bennett L.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Germany.
    Cue Competition Explains when Ease-of-Learning Judgments and Judgments of Learning Differ in AccuracyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An investigation of students' knowledge of the delayed judgements of learning effect2011In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 358-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judgements of learning (JOL) of paired associates can be made immediately after learning or after a delay, while viewing the first word (cue) only or both words (cue–target) in a pair. Delayed cue-only judgements are more related to subsequent memory performance than delayed cue–target, immediate cue-only, or immediate cue–target judgements. In two experiments we tested students' knowledge of this delayed JOL effect and whether their knowledge increases as a function of task experience (Experiment 2). The majority of the participants did not choose the more effective judgement strategy and they did not systematically alter their behaviour as a function of task experience. Instead, a subset of the participants selected judgement strategies on the basis of a learning goal, that is, a strategy that let them restudy both words in a pair. In sum, most students appear to be unaware of the powerful influence of delayed cue-only JOLs on monitoring accuracy.

  • 22.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    How crucial is the response format for the testing effect?2014In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 623-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining study and test trials during learning is more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated study without testing (i.e., the testing effect). Less is known about the relative efficacy of different response formats during testing. We tested the hypothesis that overt testing (typing responses on a keyboard) during a practice phase benefits later memory more than covert testing (only pressing a button to indicate successful retrieval). In Experiment 1, three groups learned 40 word pairs either by repeatedly studying them, by studying and overtly testing them, or by studying and covertly testing them. In Experiment 2, only the two testing conditions were manipulated in a within-subjects design. In both experiments, participants received cued recall tests after a short (similar to 19 min) and a long (1 week) retention interval. In Experiment 1, all groups performed equally well at the short retention interval. The overt testing group reliably outperformed the repeated study group after 1 week, whereas the covert testing group performed insignificantly different from both these groups. Hence, the testing effect was demonstrated for overt, but failed to show for covert testing. In Experiment 2, overtly tested items were better and more quickly retrieved than those covertly tested. Further, this does not seem to be due to any differences in retrieval effort during learning. To conclude, overt testing was more beneficial for later retention than covert testing, but the effect size was small. Possible explanations are discussed.

  • 23.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindström, Björn R.
    Using a multidimensional scaling approach to investigate the underlying basis of ease of learning judgments2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before studying a material it is of strategic importance to first assess its difficulty, so called Ease of Learning (EOL) judgments. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to investigate the underlying basis of EOL judgments for 24 nouns, which to the authors' knowledge has not been done before. In addition, Judgments of Learning (JOL) followed by a free recall test was performed. The MDS analysis indicated that EOL judgments for the nouns are based on multiple cues (dimensions), namely word length, frequency, and concreteness. Moreover, the concreteness values of the nouns, as judged by an independent group, were correlated with both the JOLs and the concreteness dimension from the MDS analysis. This indicates that EOLs and JOLs for single words are based, to some extent, on the same cues.

  • 24.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Møller, Per
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Olfactory working memory: effects of verbalization on the 2-back task2011In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1023-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory for odors, which has received almost no attention in the literature, was investigated in two experiments. We show that performance in a 2-back task with odor stimuli is well above chance. This is true not only for highly familiar odors, as has been shown by Dade, Zatorre, Evans, and Jones-Gotman, NeuroImage, 14, 650–660, (2001), but also for unfamiliar ones that are notoriously difficult to name. We can conclude that information about an olfactory stimulus can be retained in the short term and can continuously be updated for comparison with new olfactory probes along the lines of a functional odor working memory. However, the performance in the working memory task is highly dependent on participants’ verbalization of the odor. In addition, results indicated that odor working memory performance is dependent on the ability to discriminate among the odor stimuli (Experiment 2). The results are discussed in relation to recent ideas of a separate olfactory working memory slave system.

  • 25.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Knowing what we smell2012In: Olfactory Cognition: From perception and memory to environmental odours and neuroscience / [ed] Gesualdo M. Zucco, Rachel S. Herz, Benoist Schaal, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 115-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we review the nature of, and performance levels for, odor source naming, and the different proposed explanations to the generally low odor naming performance observed in experimental studies. We differentiate between odor naming and odor identification and show that although humans can rarely name more than 50% of common household items, this is not an odor naming problem, but rather reflects the difficulty we have in identifying odors. We investigate two broad accounts of odor identification failures in terms of perceptual and associative processes necessary for correct identification. Additionally, we discuss the feeling of knowing and tip of the nose experience commonly associated with identification failures. This type of metacognition provides us with odor knowledge in the absence of odor identification. In light of these phenomena, we discuss the importance of odor identification for olfactory functioning.

  • 26.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stevenson, Richard J.
    Odor Knowledge, Odor Naming, and the Tip-of-the-Nose Experience2014In: Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Related Phenomena, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 305-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Gustafsson Sénden, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: Females latently express communality more than malesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e., personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than males’ do. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e., what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e., the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed (with LIWC) as well as the latently expressed (with LSA) in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male’s.

  • 28.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Knopf, Monika
    Mack, Wolfgang
    The Direct Testing Effect Is Pervasive in Action Memory: Analyses of Recall Accuracy and Recall Speed2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful retrieval from memory is a desirably difficult learning event that reduces the recall decrement of studied materials over longer delays more than restudying does. The present study was the first to test this direct testing effect for performed and read action events (e.g., light a candle) in terms of both recall accuracy and recall speed. To this end, subjects initially encoded action phrases by either enacting them or reading them aloud (i.e., encoding type). After this initial study phase, they received two practice phases, in which the same number of action phrases were restudied or retrieval-practiced (Exp. 1-3), or not further processed (Exp. 3; i.e., practice type). This learning session was ensued by a final cued-recall test both after a short delay (2 min) and after a long delay (1 week: Exp. 1 and 2; 2 weeks: Exp. 3). To test the generality of the results, subjects retrieval practiced with either noun-cued recall of verbs (Exp. 1 and 3) or verb-cued recall of nouns (Exp. 2) during the intermediate and final tests (i.e., test type). We demonstrated direct benefits of testing on both recall accuracy and recall speed. Repeated retrieval practice, relative to repeated restudy and study-only practice, reduced the recall decrement over the long delay, and enhanced phrases' recall speed already after 2 min, and this independently of type of encoding and recall test. However, a benefit of testing on long-term retention only emerged (Exp. 3), when prolonging the recall delay from 1 to 2 weeks, and using different sets of phrases for the immediate and delayed final tests. Thus, the direct testing benefit appears to be highly generalizable even with more complex, action-oriented stimulus materials, and encoding manipulations. We discuss these results in terms of the distribution-based bifurcation model.

  • 29.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Knopf, Monika
    Two effects, one explanation: a study on the effects of intended and actual enactment2012In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 47, no Supplement 1, p. 562-562Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor-function encoding action phrases, facilitates recollection more than verbal encoding (enactment effect, c.f. Nilsson, 2000). Further, if the phrases are intended to be recalled via motor-function encoding it also leads to higher memory accessibility, referred to as the intention-superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993) or the intended enactment effect (Freeman & Ellis, 2003), depending on whether the same process or different processes are assumed to underlie both effects. In three experiments, both effects were studied as a function of list length (18, 30, 60, or 90 items), retrieval measures (free recall, cued recall and recognition). Additionally, different moderator variables for these effects were investigated (familiarity, degree of motor involvement of the action phrases, individual differences in action orientation). Similar effects of intended and actual enactment were found for memory accuracy and accessibility (i.e., response latencies), but the effects were moderated by the nature of the action phrase and action orientation. State-oriented individuals and highly motoric action phrases showed a pronounced (intended) enactment effect. The results, at least partially, support a common explanation for both effects.

  • 30.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Putting Action Memory to the Test: Testing Affects Restudy but not Forgetting of Action EventsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Testing Effects on Subsequent Re-Encoding and Forgetting of Action PhrasesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 475-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., wash the car) - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., wash) and a noun (e.g., car), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall.

  • 33.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (“indirect” testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (“direct” testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. “water the plant”). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

  • 34.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Individual and Combined Effects of Enactment and Testing on Memory for Action Phrases2014In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether bothstudy techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They eitherexclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., ‘‘lift the glass’’) or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participantsencoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, andnot when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phraseswere exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting,as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only bemarginally increased further by combining them.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Bad odors stick better than good ones: Olfactory qualities and odor recognition2009In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of perceived odor qualities on the retention of olfactory information across the adult lifespan were examined. Young (19–36 years), young-old (60–74 years), and old (75–91 years) adults (n = 202) rated a set of unfamiliar odors across a series of perceptual dimensions (i.e., pleasantness, intensity, and irritability) at encoding. The overall results indicated that memory for unpleasant olfactory information was better than that for pleasant odors across the lifespan. Also, participants showed better retention for odors perceived with high intensity and irritability than for odors rated with low or medium scores. Interestingly, the old adults showed selective beneficial memory effects for odors rated as highly irritable. To the extent that perceptions of high irritability reflect an activation of the trigeminal sensory system, this finding suggests that older adults may use trigeminal components in odor information to compensate for age-related impairments in olfactory memory.

  • 36.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated) or overt (retrieved and articulated) response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min) and delayed (1 week) cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing). A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked versus random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  • 37.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long term retention2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 450-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larsson Sundqvist, M., Todorov, I., Kubik, V. & Jonsson, F.U. (2012) Study for now, but judge for later: Delayed judgments of learning promote long-term retention. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 450-454. Delayed judgments of learning (JOL) are assumed to be based on covert retrieval attempts. A common finding is that testing memory during learning improves later retention (i.e., the testing effect), and even more so than an equivalent amount of study, but only after a longer retention interval. To test the assertion that also delayed JOLs improve memory, the participants either studied Swahili-Swedish word pairs four times, or they both studied (two times) and performed delayed JOLs (two times) alternately. Final cued recall test were given after either five minutes or one week. Results showed a reliable learning-group by retention-interval interaction, with less forgetting in the group that alternated between studying and making JOLs. The results are discussed in relation to the self-fulfilling prophecy account of Spellman and Bjork (1992), and in terms of study advice, the results further underscore the importance of delaying JOLs when studying and evaluating ones ongoing learning.

  • 38.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effort Cues Predict Eyewitness Accuracy2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether retrieval effort cues are related to eyewitness accuracy, and the relative role of effort cues and witnesses’ confidence in predicting memory. The results demonstrate that verbal and paraverbal retrieval effort cues are strongly related to witnesses’ accuracy. Moreover, subjective confidence in memory rests on these cues.

  • 39.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Retrieval effort cues predict eyewitness accuracy2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 534-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that correct eyewitness memories are more rapidly recalled and recognized than are incorrect ones, suggesting that retrieval ease is diagnostic of memory accuracy. Building on these findings, the current research explores whether verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort could be used to determine the accuracy of honestly reported eyewitness statements about a crime event. Moreover, we examine the relative role of such effort cues and witnesses’ subjective confidence in predicting memory accuracy. The results of 2 studies demonstrate that objectively verifiable verbal and paraverbal cues to retrieval effort are strongly related to honest witnesses’ memory accuracy and that several of these cues contribute uniquely to predict accuracy. Moreover, we show that subjective confidence in a memory rests on these effort cues and that the cues mediate the confidence−accuracy relation. Given research showing that most people have vast difficulties in judging the quality of others’ memories, combined with the scarcity of research on predictors of genuinely reported memories, these initial findings suggest unexplored alternatives that may prove highly useful for improving accuracy judgments, with potentially far-reaching significance not the least in the legal context.

  • 40. Olsson, Mats J
    et al.
    Faxbrink, Maria
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Repetition priming in odor memory2002In: Olfaction, Taste, and Cognition, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press , 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41. Olsson, Mats J.
    et al.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, sweden.
    Is it easier to match a name to an odor or vice versa?2008In: Chemosensory Perception, ISSN 1936-5802, E-ISSN 1936-5810, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature and common belief suggest a cognitive asymmetry in the odor–name relationship such that it would be easier to match a name to an odor than the other way around. We tested whether it is more difficult to smell an odor and then choose a proper name among three alternatives than to read an odor name and then choose a matching odor among three alternatives. Although instances of an asymmetry are suggested, in both directions, depending on which odors or odor names are involved, the overall conclusion is that no general unidirectional asymmetry is evident. This was true for odorants of both high and low familiarity and identifiability. Different cognitive factors in a complete model of odor–name matching are identified and discussed.

  • 42.
    P. Karlsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willander, Johan
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: females latently express communality more than do males2019In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 651-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e. personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than do males. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e. what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e. the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed words, as well as the latently expressed words in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male's.

  • 43.
    Schenkman, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aesthetics and preferences of web pages2000In: Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 367-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Investigated aesthetic impressions of and preferences for different types and designs of Internet Web pages. 13 different color web pages were presented to 18 21-43 yr old Ss. Ss viewed pairs of Web pages and completed similarity and preference scales, then viewed 1 web page and completed bipolar category scales for complexity, legibility, order, beauty, meaningfulness, comprehension, and overall impression. Multidimensional analysis of similarity and preference judgements found 4 important dimensions: beauty, mostly illustrations vs mostly text, overview and structure. Category scales indicated the existence of 2 factors related to formal aspects and to appeal of the objects. The best predictor for the overall impression in the category scales was beauty. Further analysis supported the importance of beauty in preferences. Aspects of usability, product design, and aesthetics are discussed.

  • 44.
    Seddigh, Aram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Effect of variation in noise absorption in open-plan office: A field study with a cross-over design2015In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 44, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise has repeatedly been shown to be one of the most recurrent reasons for complaints in open-plan office environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate if enhanced or worsened sound absorption in open-plan offices is reflected in the employees' ratings of disturbances, cognitive stress, and professional efficacy. Employees working on two different floors of an office building were followed as three manipulations were made in room acoustics on each of the two floors by means of less or more absorbing tiles & wall absorbents. For one of the floors, the manipulations were from better to worse to better acoustical conditions, while for the other the manipulations were worse to better to worse. The acoustical effects of these manipulations were assessed according to the new ISO-standard (ISO-3382-3, 2012) for open-plan rooms acoustics. In addition, the employees responded to questionnaires after each change. Our analyses showed that within each floor enhanced acoustical conditions were associated with lower perceived disturbances and cognitive stress. There were no effects on professional efficiency. The results furthermore suggest that even a small deterioration in acoustical room properties measured according to the new ISO-standard for open-plan office acoustics has a negative impact on self-rated health and disturbances. This study supports previous studies demonstrating the importance of acoustics in work environments and shows that the measures suggested in the new ISO-standard can be used to adequately differentiate between better and worse room acoustics in open plan offices.

  • 45. Sikström, Sverker
    et al.
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A model for stochastic drift in memory strength to account for judgments of learning.2005In: Psychological Review, ISSN 0033-295X, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 932-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that judgments of learning (JOLs) made immediately after encoding have a low correlation with actual cued-recall performance, whereas the correlation is high for delayed judgments. In this article, the authors propose a formal theory describing the stochastic drift of memory strength over the retention interval to account for the delayed-JOL effect. This is done by first decomposing the aggregated memory strength into exponential functions with slow and fast memory traces. The mean aggregated memory strength shows power-function forgetting curves. The drift of the memory strength is large for immediate JOLs (causing a low predictability) and weak for delayed JOLs (causing a high predictability). Consistent with empirical data, the model makes a novel prediction of JOL asymmetry, or that immediate weak JOLs are more predictive of future performance than are immediate strong JOLs. The JOL distributions for immediate and delayed JOLs are also accounted for.

  • 46. Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics2017In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants’ need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  • 47.
    Todorov, Ivo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kornell, Nate
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Phrasing Questions in Terms of Current (Not Future) Knowledge Increases Preferences for Cue-Only Judgments of Learning2013In: Archives of Scientific Psychology, ISSN 2169-3269, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) predict later recall more accurately when they are made, after a delay, based on a cue alone compared with a cue and target. We investigated whether people recognize the benefit of cue-only responses when making JOLs and whether their preferences depend on how JOL prompts are phrased. Forty participants studied glossaries and then made delayed cue-only and cue-target JOLs. In one condition, where the JOL prompts were phrased as predictions of future memory performance, only 15% of the participants preferred the cue-only strategy, replicating Jönsson and Kerimi (2011). In another condition, where JOLs were phrased as assessments of the current state of learning, 55% preferred the cue-only strategy. To conclude, students do not seem to recognize the value of cue-only JOLs, but they picked the superior JOL strategy more often when the JOL phrasing focused their attention on their knowledge state at the time of the JOL, rather than on a future state.

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