Change search
Refine search result
1 - 35 of 35
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Bayat, Jari Taghavi
    et al.
    Hallberg, Ulrika
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University.
    Huggare, Jan
    Mohlin, Bengt
    Daily life impact of malocclusion in Swedish adolescents: A grounded theory study2013In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 792-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To explore how malocclusions affect daily life in adolescents and how adolescents cope with malocclusion-related distress. Materials and methods. Twelve strategically selected teenagers, seven girls and five boys aged 13-14 years, participated in this study. Open, tape-recorded in-depth interviews based on Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were performed using a theme guide and analyzed according to the qualitative method of classic grounded theory (GT). Results. A core category was identified and named 'Repeatedly reminded of the malocclusion'. Associated to the core category, five categories were generated and labeled 'Being directed by the media's ideal image', 'Monitoring others' teeth', 'Struggling with low self-esteem', 'Hiding one's teeth' and 'Striving for cure'. Low self-esteem appeared to be frequently reinforced through the concerns for the malocclusion and handled via different coping strategies, such as hiding the teeth and striving to receive orthodontic treatment. Such processes were further enforced through the influence of media. Low self-esteem could be associated to a visible malposition of teeth, according to the informants. Having to wait for orthodontic treatment was frustrating the adolescents. Conclusions. Adolescents with malocclusion are often reminded of their condition, which can lead to avoiding strategies to minimize the negative feelings associated with the teeth and low self-esteem. Clinicians may therefore need to be aware of potential irrational behaviors when interacting with adolescents with malocclusions. The findings also suggest that there might be a discrepancy of attitudes between professionals focusing on oral health aspects of malocclusions and the adolescents focusing on esthetic aspects.

  • 2. Ekeus, C.
    et al.
    Lindström, K.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rasmussen, F.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Preterm birth, social disadvantage, and cognitive competence in Swedish 18- to 19-year-old men2010In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 125, no 1, p. e67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the impact of a range of gestationalages (GAs) on cognitive competence in late adolescence and howthis effect is modified by contextual social adversity in childhood.

    METHODS: This was a register study based on a national cohortof 119664 men born in Sweden from 1973 to 1976. Data on GA andother perinatal factors were obtained from the Medical BirthRegister, and information on cognitive test scores was extractedfrom military conscription at the ages of 18 to 19 years. Testscores were analyzed as z scores on a 9-point stanine scale,whereby each unit is equivalent to 0.5 SD. Socioeconomic indicatorsof the childhood household were obtained from the Populationand Housing Census of 1990. The data were analyzed by multivariatelinear regression.

    RESULTS: The mean cognitive test scores decreased in a stepwisemanner with GA. In unadjusted analysis, the test scores were0.63 stanine unit lower in men who were born after 24 to 32gestational weeks than in those who were born at term. The differencein global scores between the lowest and highest category ofsocioeconomic status was 1.57. Adjusting the analysis for thechildhood socioeconomic indicators decreased the effect of GAon cognitive test scores by 26% to 33%. There was also a multiplicativeinteraction effect of social adversity and moderately pretermbirth on cognitive test scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms previous claims of an incrementalassociation of cognitive competence with GA. Socioeconomic indicatorsin childhood modified this effect at all levels of preterm birth.

  • 3. Ekéus, Cecilia
    et al.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Teenage childbirth among female international adoptees: a national cohort study.2009In: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 1054-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Ekéus, Cecilia
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hjern, Anders
    Short stature, smoking habits and birth outcome in international adoptees in Sweden.2008In: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 1309-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short stature, smoking habits and birth outcome in international adoptees in Sweden.

    Ekéus C, Lindblad F, Hjern A.

    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. cecilia.ekeus@ki.se

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short stature and smoking habits as risk factors for birth outcome in international adoptees in comparison with non-adopted mothers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide study in Sweden. POPULATION: Two study groups were identified from mothers who were born 1968-1979 and gave birth during 1982-2001-3,610 mother-child dyads with a mother adopted from a non-European country and 336,992 mother-child dyads with a mother born in Sweden. METHOD: Register study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pre-eclampsia, instrumental delivery, preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), Apgar score, cephalhematoma and perinatal mortality and birth weight. RESULTS: Short stature and smoking were more common in international adoptees compared with non-adopted, odds ratios (ORs) 29.07 (95% C.I.: 25.29-33.42) and 1.39 (1.27-1.52), respectively. International adoptees had a slightly increased risk for instrumental delivery (OR: 1.42; 1.32-1.54) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks) (OR: 1.39; 1.24-1.56) and there was a slightly increased risk for SGA (OR: 1.24; 1.01-1.52) in their offspring. However, when we adjusted for maternal height, preterm delivery was the only outcome that remained statistically significant. Adjustment for smoking habits had marginal effects on all outcomes. CONCLUSION: The short stature of international adoptees increased their risk for delivery and birth complications in a predictable manner, but otherwise outcomes were very similar to the general population. No special obstetric monitoring is indicated by adoption status in itself.

  • 5. Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Long-term follow-up of prenatally treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Does dexamethasone cause behavioural problems?2008In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 159, no 3, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects of prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with emphasis on behavioural problems and temperament.

    Design: A population-based long-term follow-up study of Swedish children at risk for virilising CAH, who had received treatment prenatally with dexamethasone (DEX). The questionnaire-based follow-up was performed when the children had reached school age.

    Methods: Standardised parent-completed questionnaires were used to evaluate adaptive functioning, behavioural/emotional problems and psychopathology, social anxiety and temperament in DEX-exposed school-aged children (<i>n</i>=26) and matched controls (<i>n</i>=35). In addition, the association between parental questionnaires and children's self-ratings was investigated.

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences between DEX-exposed children and controls in measures of psychopathology, behavioural problems and adaptive functioning. In a questionnaire on temperamental traits, DEX-exposed children were described by their parents as being more sociable than controls (<i>P</i>=0.042). The correlation analysis showed only modest parent–child agreement on social anxiety, i.e. the increased social anxiety in children's self-ratings was not confirmed by their parents.

    Conclusions: DEX-treated children showed good overall adjustment. The parent–child agreement with respect to social anxiety was modest, highlighting the importance of multiple information sources and assessment methods. The clinical significance of the observed difference in sociability cannot be determined within the frameworks of this study. Additional studies of larger cohorts are essential to make more decisive conclusions on the safety of the treatment. Until then, it is important that parents are thoroughly informed about the benefits and potential risks and uncertainties of this controversial treatment.

  • 6. Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Ekeus, Cecilia
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Educational achievement and vocational career in twins - a Swedish national cohort study2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 6, p. 591-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate how being born and raised as a twin is associated with IQ, educational achievement and vocational career. Methods: Register study in a national birth cohort, complemented with a siblings study. The study population included 13 368 individuals born and raised as twins and 837 752 singletons, including 3019 siblings of twins, in the Swedish birth cohorts of 19731981. Our outcome measures were mean grade points on a five point scale from ninth grade of primary school at 1516 years, IQ tests on a nine grade point scale from male conscripts at 1819 years, highest completed education, disability benefits, work income and employment at 2735 years of age. Results: Twins had slightly better mean grade point averages in ninth grade; +0.08 (95% CI 0.040.11) and more often had completed a university education in young adulthood; OR 1.16 (1.021.21) compared with singleton siblings, despite male twins having a slightly lower IQ at military conscription compared with male singletons. Employment rates, mean income and disability benefits were similar in twins and singletons. Conclusions: Twins have slightly better educational careers and similar vocational careers compared with those born as singletons.

  • 7.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Weitoft, G.R.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Social adversity predicts ADHD-medication in school children – a national cohort study2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 920-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that psychosocial adversity in the family predicts medicated ADHD in school children.

    Method: ADHD-medication during 2006 was identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register in national birth cohorts of 1.1 million 6–19 year olds. Logistic regression models adjusted for parental psychiatric disorders were used to test our hypothesis.

    Results: There was a clear gradient for ADHD medication with level of maternal education, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.20 (2.04–2.38) for the lowest compared with the highest level. Lone parenthood and reception of social welfare also implied higher risks of ADHD-medication with adjusted ORs of 1.45 (1.38–1.52) and 2.06 (1.92–2.21) respectively. Low maternal education predicted 33% of cases with medicated ADHD and single parenthood 14%.

    Conclusions: Social adversity in the family predicts a considerable proportion of ADHD-medication in school children in Sweden.

  • 8. Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Nilsson, K. W.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The Pressure-Activation-Stress scale in relation to ADHD and cortisol2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pressure-Activation-Stress (PAS) scale is a self-report questionnaire for children concerning perceived stress. To explore behavioral and physiological correlates, we investigated if scores discriminate between a group prone to perceive high levels of stress [children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] and a healthy school sample, and if they are associated with diurnal cortisol levels. The PAS scale was filled in at home by children (11-17 years) with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 102) and non-affected comparisons (n = 146). Saliva samples were collected four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Subtypes and severity of ADHD symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD scored higher on the PAS scale than a school sample. The PAS scores were similar over ages in the ADHD group while they increased with age in the healthy group. Female sex was associated with higher stress in both groups but no gender interaction was found. No association was found between PAS scores and cortisol levels in neither group. Children in the ADHD group had a lower ratio of cortisol levels/perceived stress on all sampling occasions, built up both by the higher PAS scores and the lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD. The higher PAS scores in children with ADHD support the validity of the scale. The lack of association between PAS scores and diurnal cortisol levels is intriguing and illustrates the complexity of the stress concept. Stress-related fragility seems to accompany ADHD during childhood.

  • 9. Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Högmark, Åsa
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on cortisol levels in children with ADHD2013In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 740-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower diurnal cortisol levels than non-ADHD comparison subjects. Aiming at elucidating the effects of medications used to treat ADHD, we investigated saliva cortisol in children with ADHD: 20 without medication, 147 on methylphenidate, and 21 on atomoxetine. The only significant finding was that children on atomoxetine had higher cortisol levels at bedtime than unmedicated children.

  • 10. Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala universitet.
    Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings.

  • 11. Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Högmark, Åsa
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Cortisol levels in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2012In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1398-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and its end product cortisol differs among persons with certain psychiatric disorders when compared with controls. Some reports concern Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but findings are inconclusive. In this study we collected four saliva samples during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with ADHD (n = 201) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221). Saliva cortisol was measured with radioimmunoassay technique. Clinical data were collected for diagnostic information. Subtypes and severity of symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD had lower saliva cortisol levels than comparisons at waking up Median = 9.1 versus 12.7 nmol/L (p < .001), 30 min later Median = 15.8 versus 20.1 nmol/L (p < .001) and before going to bed Median = 0.8 versus 1.0 nmol/L (p = .015). No difference was found for the afternoon sample. When the study group was split into three different age groups similar results were found only for children above 10 years of age. Subtype of ADHD or co-occurring symptoms did not affect the cortisol levels. Degree of severity of ADHD symptoms was not associated with cortisol levels in the study group, other than a weak negative correlation between the afternoon sample and hyperactivity symptoms. The low cortisol levels in children with ADHD may indicate a dysregulation of the HPA-axis, for instance a down-regulation or a phase delay of the diurnal curve. The low levels may be related to the under-arousal possibly underlying several of the core symptoms of ADHD.

  • 12.
    Ivarsson, Malena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Anderson, Martin
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The effect of violent and nonviolent video games on heart rate variability, sleep, and emotions in adolescents with different violent gaming habits2013In: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 390-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To study cardiac, sleep-related, and emotional reactions to playing violent (VG) versus nonviolent video games (NVG) in adolescents with different gaming habits.

    Methods Thirty boys (aged 13-16 years, standard deviation = 0.9), half of them low-exposed (≤1 h/d) and half high-exposed (≥3 h/d) to violent games, played a VG/NVG for 2 hours during two different evenings in their homes. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability were registered from before start until next morning. A questionnaire about emotional reactions was administered after gaming sessions and a sleep diary on the following mornings.

    Results During sleep, there were significant interaction effects between group and gaming condition for HR (means [standard errors] for low-exposed: NVG 63.8 [2.2] and VG 67.7 [2.4]; for high-exposed: NVG 65.5 [1.9] and VG 62.7 [1.9]; F(1,28) = 9.22, p = .005). There was also a significant interaction for sleep quality (low-exposed: NVG 4.3 [0.2] and VG 3.7 [0.3]); high-exposed: NVG 4.4 [0.2] and VG 4.4 [0.2]; F(1,28) = 3.51, p = .036, one sided), and sadness after playing (low-exposed: NVG 1.0 [0.0] and VG 1.4 [0.2]; high-exposed: NVG 1.2 [0.1] and VG 1.1 [0.1]; (F(1,27) = 6.29, p = .009, one sided).

    Conclusions Different combinations of the extent of (low versus high) previous VG and experimental exposure to a VG or an NVG are associated with different reaction patterns-physiologically, emotionally, and sleep related. Desensitizing effects or selection bias stand out as possible explanations.

  • 13. Jablonska, Beata
    et al.
    Lindberg, Lene
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Östberg, Viveca
    Hjern, Anders
    School performance and hospital admissions due to self-inflicted injury: a Swedish national cohort study.2009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1334-1341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Self-inflicted injury in youth has increased in many Western countries during recent decades. Education is the most influential societal determinant of living conditions in young people after early childhood. This study tested the hypothesis that school performance predicts self-inflicted injury. METHODS: A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-77 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and last year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox analyses of proportional hazards were used to test hypotheses regarding grades in ninth grade as predictors of hospital admission due to self-inflicted injury. RESULTS: The risk of hospital admission because of self-inflicted injury increased steeply in a step-wise manner with decreasing grade point average. Hazard ratios were 6.2 (95% confidence interval 5.5-7.0) in those with the lowest level of grade point average compared with the highest. The risks were similar for women and men. Adjustment for potential socio-economic confounders in a multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis attenuated this strong gradient only marginally. CONCLUSION: School performance is a strong factor for predicting future mental ill-health as expressed by self-inflicted injury.

  • 14. Jablonska, Beata
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lindberg, Lene
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour.

    Methods: A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance.

    Results: The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status--non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported.

    Conclusions: School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  • 15.
    Lindblad, F
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Backman, L
    Akerstedt, T
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Immigrant girls perceive less stress.2008In: Acta Paediatr, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 97, no 7, p. 889-93Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrant girls perceive less stress.

    Lindblad F, Backman L, Akerstedt T.

    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. frank.lindblad@stressforskning.su.se

    AIM: To develop a new stress scale and use it for investigating impact of ethnicity on perception of stress. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One thousand one hundred and twenty-four students (grades 6-9) from 14 schools filled in a questionnaire at school with questions about age, sex, use of language at home (proxy for cultural background), stress and stressors. Factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Two-stress dimensions were identified, 'pressure'(7 items, Cronbach's alpha 0.862) and 'activation'(4 items, Cronbach's alpha 0.767). Scores on the two scales and a separate 'stress' item were higher in girls and increased with grade. Use of another language than Swedish at home showed a significant effect only for activation, with lower scores in girls. The interaction effect between sex and language was significant for all variables and was due mainly to lower stress in girls using another language than Swedish at home. CONCLUSION: This new stress scale has some promising qualities like a condensed format, basis in a specific stress concept and formulated to be as age and culture independent as possible. Immigrant girls seem to perceive less stress than Swedish born girls, which opens up for questions about protective mechanisms.

  • 16.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Samspelet mellan sociala förhållanden och livsförutsättningar: ett barnperspektiv2012In: Psykosocial miljö och stress / [ed] Töres Theorell, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, 2, p. 225-245Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Backman, Lena
    Lundin, A
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep, stress and eating attitudes predict concentration at school2011In: Salud (i) Ciencia, ISSN 1667-8982, E-ISSN 1667-8990, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 142-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep, stress and eating habits may affect concentration in school. These factors are probably interrelated, but have never been studied together as predictors of concentration. The purpose of this study, based on secondary analysis of previously collected data, was to evaluate if/how low sleep quality, perceived stress and negative attitudes to eating at school predict self-reported concentration difficulties in school in 11-15-year-olds. Methods: 1 124 students (grades 6-9) from 14 schools (a representative sample from a metropolitan area) filled in a questionnaire at school with questions about socio-demographic data, sleep, perceived stress, school eating attitudes and concentration in school. Results: Logistic regression analysis with mutual adjustment for all predictors, as well as for grade and gender yielded an odds ratio (OR) for the stress component "pressure" of 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.73-4.38), OR = 1.70 (1.20-2.42) for school eating attitude, and OR = 2.57 (1.78-3.71) for difficulties sleeping. Conclusion: Sleep, stress, and eating attitudes independently seem to predict perceived problems of concentration in school, suggesting that a multi-focus approach of life-style patterns may be suitable when trying to improve students' ability to concentrate in school.

  • 18.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Dalen, Monica
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Hjern, Anders
    School performance of international adoptees better than expected from cognitive test results2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate school performance of international adoptees in relation to their cognitive competence. METHOD: From the population of all male Swedish residents born 1973-1976, registered in the census 1985 and with complete test scores from military conscription, the following study groups were identified: Korean adoptees (n = 320), non-Korean adoptees (n = 1,125), siblings (children born by adoptive parents, n = 190) and Swedish majority comparisons (n = 142,024). Global scores from intelligence tests at conscription were compared with grade points from the last compulsory school year (year 9). Linear and logistic regression was applied in statistical analyses. RESULTS: The mean grade points in theoretical subjects were lower in non-Korean adoptees than in the majority population, but when global test scores from military conscription were adjusted for, outcomes were significantly better, equal for physics, than in the majority population. The grade points of Korean adoptees were higher than in the majority population and the same held true after adjusting for global test scores. When SES was taken into account, the risk of poor school performance (only completed lower subject levels) increased in non-Korean adoptees compared to models only adjusted for age and sex. CONCLUSION: Male international adoptees generally perform better in school than expected by their cognitive competence. A cognitive evaluation is important in the assessment of adoptees with learning difficulties.

  • 19.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hjern, Anders
    ADHD after fetal exposure to maternal smoking2010In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 408-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. Genetic and socioeconomic confounders may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD, taking such potential confounders into consideration. METHODS: A register study in a population of 982,856 children, 6-19 years of age, born at term, and residents in Sweden in 2006 was conducted. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of maternal smoking habits during pregnancy on ADHD medication in the 927,007 study subjects where maternal smoking habits were available from the Medical Birth Register in the presence of socioeconomic and parental psychiatric morbidity confounders. To adjust the analysis also for genetic confounding, we used a within-mother between-pregnancy approach in offspring of 26,292 mothers with inconsistent smoking habits (smoking/non-smoking) between pregnancies. RESULTS: The OR for ADHD medication in offspring of mothers who smoked >or=10 cigarettes/day was 2.86 (2.66-3.07) in the entire study population after adjustment for sex and age, while this same exposure yielded an OR of only 1.26 (0.95-1.58) when two pregnancies of the same mother were analyzed in a within-subjects design. DISCUSSION: Smoking during pregnancy has a strong association with ADHD in the offspring in the general Swedish population, but this risk is primarily explained by genetic and socioeconomic confounding.

  • 20.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ringbäck Weitoft, G
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Maternal and paternal psychopathology increases risk of offspring ADHD equally2011In: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, ISSN 2045-7960, E-ISSN 1827-4331, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 367-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychopathology may increase the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze if/how gender influences the association between parental psychiatric/addictive disorders and ADHD medication in the offspring.

    METHODS: Register study in national birth cohorts of 1.1 million 6-19-year-olds. In this population, 7960 individuals with ADHD medication were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Data on parental psychiatric/addictive disorders and suicide death were obtained through linkages to national registers. Logistic regression was used for analyses with multiple adjustments for socio-economic, regional and demographic confounders.

    RESULTS: Parental diagnosis related to illicit drugs was associated with the highest odds ratios (ORs) of ADHD medication (OR: -3.5-4), followed by suicide attempt/death (OR: -3-3.5), alcohol (OR: -2.5-3), affective disorder (OR: -2.5) and psychosis (OR: -2-2.5). The ORs were of similar magnitudes for maternal and paternal psychopathology and did not vary by the gender of the offspring. Adjusting for social characteristics decreased the ORs substantially and in the same way regarding fathers' and mothers' possible influence on the risk of ADHD in children.

    CONCLUSIONS: Neither parental nor offspring gender seems to influence the link between parental addictive/psychiatric disorder and offspring ADHD.

  • 21.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study2010In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice.

  • 22.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Signell, Sonja
    Degrading attitudes related to foreign appearance: Interviews with Swedish female adoptees from Asia2008In: Adoption & Fostering, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Degrading attitudes related to foreign appearance. Interviews with Swedish female adoptees from Asia

    Seventeen adopted young women from South Korea and Thailand (age 25-35) were interviewed about their experiences of degrading attitudes to their geographic origin and physical appearance. Prejudices related to sexuality displayed four themes – exotic associations, availability, strong libido and exploitation – corresponding to prevailing Western sexualised cultural stereotypes about Asian women. Prejudices specific to adoption included expected gratitude and indiscriminate friendliness. The experiences usually involved recurring rather than single incidents and several women reported that they had adversely influenced their well-being and quality of life. Many had developed strategies for coping with such attitudes, usually from men.

    Frank Lindblad and Sonja Signell argue that the psychological threats resulting from racism are perceived differently among adoptees than among non-adopted immigrants. The experiences may force the female adoptee to reject part of her self-image as she finds herself treated more as a representative of a group than as an individual in her own right. Furthermore, in the interaction with the perpetrators, she is afforded attributes that are unfamiliar to her and her family environment. All these factors pose major challenges to self-image and identity

  • 23. Lindgren, C
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The enigma of the welfare state: excellent child health prerequisites--poor subjective health2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 803-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of subjective health complaints among Swedish children is increasing by age and over time, and more so than among children in other Scandinavian countries. In contrast, the somatic health and prerequisites for wellbeing are excellent. This paradoxical situation, The Enigma of the Welfare State, is the focus of this viewpoint. We argue that one important background factor may be late adverse effects of the welfare society itself and some of its inherent values. We have identified several possible pathways. We have given them names of diseases--on the society level--like health obsession, stress panic, welfare apathy and hyper-individualism. Together with other factors such as a dysfunctional school and an unsatisfactory labour market for youth, these diseases are involved in an interplay that is constantly inducing anxiety and low self-esteem. CONCLUSION: The gradually deteriorating self-reported health among Swedish youth may, to some degree, be explained as a late adverse effect of the welfare society itself and its inherent values.

  • 24.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Pedroletti, Christophe
    Boman, Anders
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Sund, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Infants and toddlers remembering and forgetting of a stressful medical procedure2009In: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, ISSN 0146-8693, E-ISSN 1465-735X, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 205-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine whether a distressing medical procedure leaves lasting impressions in young children’s memories. Methods: Children 12- to 78-weeks old (Nfl172) received inhalation treatment through a face mask or underwent other interventions at a pediatric emergency department. They were randomized to be presented with neutral cues and cues from the inhalation 1 week or 6 months after the target event. Children’s reactions at cue presentation were scored from videotapes. Results: Across the age span tested, children treated with inhalation showed higher distress than controls when presented with cues from inhalation 1 week, but not 6 months after target treatment. Conclusions: Stress during medical procedures in preverbal children may develop as a result of prior experience of such procedures. These memories typically seem to fade within 6 months.

  • 25. Lindström, Karolina
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Preterm Birth and Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder in Schoolchildren2011In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 858-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated an increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in follow-up studies of preterm survivors from NICUs. In this study we analyzed the effect of moderate as well as extreme preterm birth on the risk for ADHD in school age, taking into account genetic, perinatal, and socioeconomic confounders.

    METHODS: Register study in a Swedish national cohort of 1 180 616 children born between 1987 and 2000, followed up for ADHD medication in 2006 at the age of 6 to 19 years. Logistic regression was used to test hypotheses. A within-mother-between-pregnancy design was used to estimate the importance of genetic confounding in a subpopulation of offspring (N = 34 334) of mothers who had given birth to preterm (≤34 weeks) as well as term infants.

    RESULTS: There was a stepwise increase in odds ratios for ADHD medication with increasing degree of immaturity at birth; from 2.1 (1.4–2.7) for 23 to 28 weeks' gestation, to 1.6 (1.4–1.7) for 29 to 32 weeks', 1.4 (1.2–1.7) for 33 to 34 weeks', 1.3 (1.1–1.4) for 35 to 36 weeks', and 1.1 (1.1–1.2) for 37 to 38 weeks' gestation compared with infants born at 39 to 41 weeks' gestation in the fully adjusted model. The odds ratios for the within-mother-between-pregnancy analysis were very similar. Low maternal education increased the effect of moderate, but not extreme, preterm birth on the risk for ADHD.

    CONCLUSION: Preterm and early term birth increases the risk of ADHD by degree of immaturity. This main effect is not explained by genetic, perinatal, or socioeconomic confounding, but socioeconomic context modifies the risk of ADHD in moderately preterm births.

  • 26. Lindström, Karolina
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hjern, Anders
    Psychiatric morbidity in adolescents and young adults born preterm: a Swedish national cohort study.2009In: Pediatrics, ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 123, no 1, p. e47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric morbidity in adolescents and young adults born preterm: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Lindström K, Lindblad F, Hjern A.

    Department of Clinical Sciences and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Södersjukhuset, Sachs Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. karolina.lindstrom@sodersjukhuset.se

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of infants born preterm survive into adulthood. Previous studies have reported increased levels of neurologic and cognitive disabilities in these children. In this study, we analyzed the effect of having been born preterm on psychiatric morbidity. METHODS: A Swedish national cohort of 545628 individuals born in 1973-1979 was followed up in the national registers during 1987-2002. Multivariate Cox analysis of proportional hazards was used to estimate the hazard ratios of hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders and alcohol/illicit drug abuse. RESULTS: There was a stepwise increase in psychiatric hospital admissions with an increasing degree of preterm birth. A total of 5.2% of children born at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation and 3.5% born at 29 to 32 weeks' gestation had been hospitalized because of a psychiatric disorder. The hazard ratios for psychiatric disorders were 1.68 in the group of very preterm children (gestational weeks 24-32), 1.21 in the moderately preterm group (gestational weeks 33-36), and 1.08 in the early term group (gestational weeks 37-38) after adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Moderately preterm and early term birth accounted for 85% of the risk attributed to preterm/early term birth. The effect of preterm birth was greater in households with low socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Preterm birth carries some risk for psychiatric disorders requiring hospitalization in adolescence and young adulthood (ages 8-29 years). Even if this risk increases with degree of preterm birth, most subjects are moderately preterm, a group in need of more attention in research and secondary prevention.

  • 27. Monica, Dalen
    et al.
    Hjern, Anders
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Odenstad, Anna
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Educational attainment and cognitive competence in adopted men: A study of international and national adoptees, siblings and a general Swedish population2008In: Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 30, p. 1211-1219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Odenstad, A
    et al.
    Hjern, A
    Lindblad, F
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rasmussen, F
    Vinnerljung, B
    Department of Social Work.
    Dalen, M
    Does age at adoption and geographic origin matter? A national cohort study of cognitive test performance in adult inter-country adoptees.2008In: Psychol Med, ISSN 0033-2917, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 1803-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does age at adoption and geographic origin matter? A national cohort study of cognitive test performance in adult inter-country adoptees.

    Odenstad A, Hjern A, Lindblad F, Rasmussen F, Vinnerljung B, Dalen M.

    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.

    BACKGROUND: Inter-country adoptees run risks of developmental and health-related problems. Cognitive ability is one important indicator of adoptees' development, both as an outcome measure itself and as a potential mediator between early adversities and ill-health. The aim of this study was to analyse relations between proxies for adoption-related circumstances and cognitive development.MethodResults from global and verbal scores of cognitive tests at military conscription (mandatory for all Swedish men during these years) were compared between three groups (born 1968-1976): 746 adoptees born in South Korea, 1548 adoptees born in other non-Western countries and 330 986 non-adopted comparisons in the same birth cohort. Information about age at adoption and parental education was collected from Swedish national registers. RESULTS: South Korean adoptees had higher global and verbal test scores compared to adoptees from other non-European donor countries. Adoptees adopted after age 4 years had lower test scores if they were not of Korean ethnicity, while age did not influence test scores in South Koreans or those adopted from other non-European countries before the age of 4 years. Parental education had minor effects on the test performance of the adoptees - statistically significant only for non-Korean adoptees' verbal test scores - but was prominently influential for non-adoptees. CONCLUSIONS: Negative pre-adoption circumstances may have persistent influences on cognitive development. The prognosis from a cognitive perspective may still be good regardless of age at adoption if the quality of care before adoption has been 'good enough' and the adoption selection mechanisms do not reflect an overrepresentation of risk factors - both requirements probably fulfilled in South Korea.

  • 29. Otterman, Gabriel
    et al.
    Lainpelto, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Factors influencing the prosecution of child physical abuse cases in a Swedish metropolitan area2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 12, p. 1199-1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To examine whether case characteristics of alleged child physical abuse, such as severity, influence criminal investigation procedures and judicial outcomes.

    METHOD: We identified all police-reported cases of nonfatal child physical abuse during 2006 in a Swedish metropolitan area (n = 158). Case characteristics were abstracted from police records.

    RESULTS: Over half (56%) of the victims were boys, and the median age group was 9-12 years. The severity of the alleged violence was low in 8% of cases, moderate in 51% and high in 41%. Suspects were interviewed in 53% of cases, with fathers more likely to be interviewed than mothers. Children were forensically interviewed in 52% of cases, with 9% physically examined by a clinician and 2.5% by a forensic specialist. Seven per cent of the cases were prosecuted and 1.3% resulted in summary punishment. We found no association between severity of alleged abuse and whether the suspect was interviewed, the child was forensically interviewed or physically examined or whether the perpetrator was prosecuted.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high severity of alleged violence, physical examination rates were low, suggesting a need for criminal investigative procedures on child physical abuse to be reviewed in Sweden.

  • 30. Stenius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Borres, Magnus
    Bottai, Matteo
    Lilja, Gunnar
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Scheynius, Annika
    Swartz, Jackie
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alm, Johan
    Salivary cortisol levels and allergy in children: The ALADDIN birth cohort2011In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 128, no 6, p. 1335-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and postnatal stress have been related to allergy in children, but evidence from prospective studies is limited. Several environmental factors can influence the salivary cortisol level, which is used as a measure of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between salivary cortisol levels at 6 months of age and allergic manifestations during the first 2 years of life.

    METHODS: Salivary samples for the analysis of cortisol level were collected at 6 months of age on 3 occasions during 1 day from 203 children. Blood samples were collected at 6, 12, and 24 months of age for analyses of specific IgE. Information on allergy-related symptoms was obtained by repeated examinations of the children. Generalized estimating equation statistics were used to calculate the overall risk for outcome measures.

    RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for the relationship between morning cortisol level and IgE sensitization was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.22-2.10, P = .001) and for eczema it was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.03-1.59, P = .026). The odds ratio for afternoon cortisol level in relation to sensitization and eczema was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.26-1.94, P < .001) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.12-1.58, P = .001), respectively, and for evening cortisol level it was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.22-1.83, P < .001) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.18-1.59, P < .001). Salivary cortisol level in the evening was associated with food allergy.

    CONCLUSION: The association between salivary cortisol levels in infancy and allergic sensitization and allergic symptoms suggests a role of an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the etiological process of allergies.

  • 31. Stenius, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swartz, Jackie
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Scheynius, Annika
    Alm, Johan
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Low salivary cortisol levels in infants of families with an anthroposophic lifestyle2010In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 1431-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anthroposophic lifestyle implies environmental conditions for the infant aimed at reducing negative stress stimulation and is also related to a lower prevalence of allergic diseases in children. One aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to assess stress levels in infants with an anthroposophic lifestyle. A total of 330 infants from families with anthroposophic or more conventional lifestyles were followed from pregnancy of their mothers until the age of 6 months. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires. Salivary samples from 210 6-month olds and their parents were collected on three occasions during 1 day for analysis of cortisol. Infants from families with an anthroposophic lifestyle had significantly lower cortisol levels on all three sampling occasions compared to other infants. In the morning, the geometric means of salivary cortisol concentration (with 95% confidence limits) were 8.8 nmol/l (6.7-11.5), 11.3 nmol/l (9.3-13.7) and 14.9 nmol/l (11.3-19.6) in infants classified as anthroposophic, partly anthroposophic and non-anthroposophic, respectively (p=0.018). On the other hand, there was no difference in cortisol levels between the parents in the different groups. Several lifestyle factors differed significantly between the groups, but none of them independently explained the difference in cortisol levels. However, living on a farm during pregnancy was significantly associated with low saliva cortisol level in the infant. It can be concluded that low salivary cortisol levels in infants from anthroposophic families may be related to an environment with a lower degree of exposure to stress, which could influence the development of allergic diseases.

  • 32. Swartz, Jackie
    et al.
    Alm, Johan
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University.
    Parental Sense of Coherence in the first 2 years of life is not related to parental and child diurnal cortisol rhythm or proxies of anthroposophic lifestyle2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 9, p. 920-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is hypothesized to have direct physiological consequences on endocrine and immunological processes. In this study, we compare parental SOC scores from pregnancy in groups of infants and parents representing different lifestyles (anthroposophic, partly anthroposophic and nonanthroposophic). We also analyse whether these could predict cortisol levels of the parents and their infants at 6-24 months postpartum. Methods: Parental SOC-13 was collected during the third trimester of pregnancy from a birth cohort of families with different lifestyles. Salivary samples were collected from the whole family when the child was 6 months (n = 210), 12 (n = 178) and 24 months of age (n = 149), and cortisol levels were analysed with radioimmunoassay technique. Results: Sense of Coherence scores did not differ between the three lifestyle groups, and there were no correlations between SOC scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in separate analyses of mothers, fathers and children at any sampling age or at any sampling time during the day (morning, afternoon, bedtime). Conclusion: Sense of Coherence scores did not vary in parents with different lifestyles and were not associated with salivary cortisol levels in parents or in children.

  • 33. Swartz, Jackie
    et al.
    Stenius, Fredrik
    Alm, Johan
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lifestyle and salivary cortisol at the age of 12 and 24 months2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 9, p. 979-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse salivary cortisol levels in 12- and 24-month-olds from families with an anthroposophic lifestyle and comparisons (partly anthroposophic and non-anthroposophic). Methods: Salivary samples were collected at child ages of 12 (n = 178) and 24 (n = 149) months. Cortisol was analysed with radioimmunoassay technique. Results: Evening cortisol levels in children from anthroposophic families were lower than in comparisons at 12 months of age (geometric means: anthroposophic 1.7, partly anthroposophic 1.9, non-anthroposophic 3.6 nmol/L; p = 0.024) and at 24 months of age (1.1, 1.8 and 2.9 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.002). At 24 months of age, similar differences were noted also for the afternoon levels (2.3, 3.3 and 3.9 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.043). At age 12 months, the differences in the evening cortisol were statistically explained by a meat-free diet and at age 24 months by the anthroposophic lifestyle as such. The circadian variations were parallel in the three groups at age 12 and 24 months. No cortisol differences were observed between parents representing different lifestyles. Conclusions: An anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with low cortisol levels in the evening at age 12 and 24 months, at age 24 months also in the afternoon.

  • 34. von Borczyskowski, A.
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Reintjes, R.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Familial factors and suicide: an adoption study in a Swedish National Cohort2011In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 749-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Parental characteristics influence the risk of offspring suicide. In this study we wanted to separate the hereditary from the environmental influence of such factors by comparing their effects in the adopted versus non-adopted.MethodA register study was conducted in a national cohort of 2 471 496 individuals born between 1946 and 1968, including 27 600 national adoptees, followed-up for suicide during 1987-2001. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for suicide of socio-economic indicators of the childhood household and biological parents' suicide, alcohol abuse and psychiatric morbidity separately in the adopted and non-adopted. Differences in effects were tested in interaction analyses. RESULTS: Suicide and indicators of severe psychiatric disorder in the biological parents had similar effects on offspring suicide in the non-adopted and adopted (HR 1.5-2.3). Biological parents' alcohol abuse was a risk factor for suicide in the non-adopted group only (HR 1.8 v. 0.8, interaction effect: p=0.03). The effects of childhood household socio-economic factors on suicide were similar in adopted and non-adopted individuals, with growing up in a single parent household [HR 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.5)] as the most important socio-economic risk factor for the non-adopted. CONCLUSIONS: The main familial effects of parental suicide and psychiatric morbidity on offspring suicide are not mediated by the post-natal environment or imitation, in contrast to effects of parental alcohol abuse that are primarily mediated by the post-natal environment. Social drift over generations because of psychiatric disorders does not seem likely to explain the association of socio-economic living conditions in childhood to suicide.

  • 35. Winzer, Regina
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Lindberg, Lene
    Positive versus negative mental health in emerging adulthood: a national cross-sectional survey2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 1238-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dual continuum model suggests that positive mental health not only implies the absence of mental illness, but also constitutes an entity of its own. Measures that encompass both positive and negative mental health in young adults are rare. Thus, we assessed whether dimensions corresponding to positive and negative mental health could be identified in a sample of young individuals. Additionally, we explored how such dimensions were associated with potential health-related factors. Methods: We obtained data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2004-2009 (23,394 women, 18,274 men, aged 16-29 years). We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify relevant factors revealed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the factor structure. We tested the significance of the difference between effects of potential health-related factors on positive mental health (PMH) and negative mental health (NMH). Results: The EFA for the GHQ-12 revealed a two factor model with negative items that had high positive loadings on one factor and lower negative loadings on the other factor. The positive items had loading trends that were opposite those of the negative items. The fit of this model was supported by the CFA, which yielded a significantly better match than a unidimensional model. When we investigated the associations between GHQ-scores and potential predictors of health, we found that most potential predictors had significant and opposing effects on both PMH and NMH; with the strongest effects from suicidal ideation and perceived humiliation. Conclusions: Our results could be seen to indicate that positive and negative mental health are distinct and complementary constructs. Still, the results of our factor analysis may specifically reflect the wording of the items. We conclude that the GHQ-12 is an appropriate tool for its original purpose, to detect psychiatric morbidity. More refined measures, including predictors of health, are needed to assess PMH and validate the bidimensionality hypothesis.

1 - 35 of 35
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf