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  • 1.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Anticipatory Looking in Infants and Adults2011In: Proceedings of EyeTrackBehavior 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infant language acquisition research faces the challenge of dealing with subjects who are unable to provide spoken answers to research questions. To obtain comprehensible data from such subjects eye tracking is a suitable research tool, as the infants’ gaze can be interpreted as behavioural responses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the amount of training necessary for participants to learn an audio-visual contingency and present anticipatory looking behaviour in response to an auditory stimulus. Infants (n=22) and adults (n=16) were presented with training sequences, every fourth of which was followed by a test sequence. Training sequences contained implicit audio-visual contingencies consisting of a syllable (/da/ or /ga/) followed by an image appearing on the left/right side of the screen. Test sequences were identical to training sequences except that no image appeared. The latency in time to first fixation towards the non-target area during test sequences was used as a measurement of whether the participants had grasped the contingency. Infants were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 24 training trials. Adults were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 28-36 training trials. In future research a more interactive experiment design will be employed in order to individualise the amount of training, which will increase the time span available for testing.

  • 2.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Preceding non-linguistic stimuli affect categorisation of Swedish plosives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception is highly context-dependent. Sounds preceding speech stimuli affect how listeners categorise the stimuli, regardless of whether the context consists of speech or non-speech. This effect is acoustically contrastive; a preceding context with high-frequency acoustic energy tends to skew categorisation towards speech sounds possessing lower-frequency acoustic energy and vice versa (Mann, 1980; Holt, Lotto, Kluender, 2000; Holt, 2005). Partially replicating Holt's study from 2005, the present study investigates the effect of non-linguistic contexts in different frequency bands on speech categorisation. Adult participants (n=15) were exposed to Swedish syllables from a speech continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/ varying in the onset frequencies of the second and third formants in equal steps. Contexts preceding the speech stimuli consisted of sequences of sine tones distributed in different frequency bands: high, mid and low. Participants were asked to categorise the syllables as /da/ or /ga/. As hypothesised, high frequency contexts shift the category boundary towards /da/, while lower frequency contexts shift the boundary towards /ga/, compared to the mid frequency context.

  • 3.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Training in Anticipatory Looking Experiments with Adult Participants2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee, 2011, p. 316-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of training necessary to trigger anticipatory looking was investigated in adults (n=16) using a simple testing paradigm, in order to create a baseline for studies on infants’ language acquisition. Participants were presented with training containing implicit associations between two syllables (/da/ and /ga/) and visual events displayed on different areas on the screen. The training series were periodically interrupted by test trials where a syllable was presented but no visual event was displayed. Significantly altered looking behaviour, as measured by participants’ first gaze fixation latency towards the Non-target area (where the visual event should not be expected), was found after 28-36 training trials.

  • 4.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Koponen, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing the significance of Tallal's transform2002In: TMH-QPSR 44: Proceedings Fonetik 2002, 141-144, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002, p. 141-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceptual significance of enhancing amplitude contrasts at the onset of formant transitions in CV-syllables and of reducing the “speaking” tempo was studied with a group of normally developing school children. Natural and synthetic speech stimuli were used in the perception experiments. A total of 83 children, second and third graders, were tested on their ability to discriminate between CV syllables presented in pairs. The results indicate that the children’s discrimination performance resisted acoustic manipulations of both the natural and synthetic stimuli. Neither spectral nor timing manipulations rendered significant differencesin discrimination results.

  • 5.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Influence of pre-school phonological training on early reading and writing abilities2003In: 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) 2003, 2003, p. 2846-2848Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study of the possible impact of pre-school phonological training on first and second graders' reading and writing abilities. Two public schools in the Stockholm metropolitan area were selected. The children were divided in two groups, depending on whether or not they had participated in a phonological training program in their last pre-school year. The children's linguistic and literacy development was followed during their first two school years. Psycholinguistic profiles (ITPA) were obtained for all the first grade children, along with an assessment of their phonological awareness. In the second grade, the children were reassessed to map their reading and writing abilities. Although the results suggested an initial advantage in general linguistic awareness for the children enrolled in the phonological training program, that advantage seems to be quickly overshadowed by social and personal factors such as continuity in the pedagogical leadership and attended school.

  • 6.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    On Linguistic and Interactive Aspects of Infant-Adult Communication in a Pathological Perspective2005In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2005 / [ed] Eriksson, A & Lindh, J., Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 2005, p. 55-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a preliminary report of a study of some linguistic and interactive aspects available in an adult-child dyad where the child is partially hearing impaired, during the ages 8 - 20 months. The investigation involves a male child, born with Hemifacial Microsomia. Audio and video recordings are used to collect data on child vocalization and parent-child interaction. Eye-tracking is used to measure eye movements when presented with audio-visual stimuli. SECDI forms are applied to observe the development of the child's lexical production. Preliminary analyses indicate increased overall parental interactive behaviour. As babbling is somewhat delayed due to physical limitations, signed supported Swedish is used to facilitate communication and language development. Further collection and analysis of data is in progress in search of valuable information of the linguistic development from a pathological perspective of language acquisition.

  • 7.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of general purpose mechanisms to the onset of language: Audio-visual integration of ambient language in pathological perspective2005In: ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants: From Action to Cognition, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Francis, Elisabeth
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Webster, Di
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Attapaiboon, Chayada
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Keller, Peter
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Perception of lexical tone across languages: Evidence for a linguisticmode of processing1996In: Proceedings of the 4th InternationalConference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] T. Bunnell & W. Isardi, 1996, p. 2514-2517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pairs of Thai tones were presented for perceptual discrimination inthree linguistic contexts (normal speech, low-pass filtered speech,and as musical (violin) sounds) to tonal language speakers, Thaiand Cantonese, and non-tonal (English) language speakers.English speakers discriminated the tonal contrasts significantlybetter in the musical context than in filtered speech, and in filteredspeech better than in full speech. On the other hand, both Thaiand Cantonese speakers perceived the tonal contrasts equally wellin all three contexts. Thus developmental absence of exposure tolexical tone results in a linguistic mode of processing whichinvolves the attenuation of a basic psychoacoustic ability, pitchdiscrimination.

  • 9.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Francis, Elisabeth
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Webster, Di
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Attapaiboon, Chayada
    School of Psychology, University of NSW, Sydney, 2052, Australia.
    Facilitation or attenuation in the development of speech mode processing? Tone perception over linguistic contexts1996In: Sixth Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, 1996, p. 587-592Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Kasisopa, Benjawan
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Reid, Amanda
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Attina, Virginia
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Rattanasone, Nan Xu
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Webster, Diane
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Universality and language-specific experience in the perception of lexical tone and pitch2015In: Applied Psycholinguistics, ISSN 0142-7164, E-ISSN 1469-1817, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1459-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments focus on Thai tone perception by native speakers of tone languages (Thai, Cantonese, and Mandarin), a pitch–accent (Swedish), and a nontonal (English) language. In Experiment 1, there was better auditory-only and auditory–visual discrimination by tone and pitch–accent language speakers than by nontone language speakers. Conversely and counterintuitively, there was better visual-only discrimination by nontone language speakers than tone and pitch–accent language speakers. Nevertheless, visual augmentation of auditory tone perception in noise was evident for all five language groups. In Experiment 2, involving discrimination in three fundamental frequency equivalent auditory contexts, tone and pitch–accent language participants showed equivalent discrimination for normal Thai speech, filtered speech, and violin sounds. In contrast, nontone language listeners had significantly better discrimination for violin sounds than filtered speech and in turn speech. Together the results show that tone perception is determined by both auditory and visual information, by acoustic and linguistic contexts, and by universal and experiential factors.

  • 11.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    From movements to sound Contributions to building the BB speech production system2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In terms of anatomical geometry the infant Vocal Tract undergoes significant change during development. This research note reports an attempt to reconstruct an infant VT from adult data. Comparable landmarks were identified on the fixed structures of adult articulatory lateral profiles (obtained from X-ray images) and matching infant profiles (obtained from published data in the literature, Sobotta [Putz & Pabst 2001, and personal communication from author Prof. Dr. med. R. Pabst]. The x-coordinates of the infant landmarks could be accurately derived by a linear scaling of the adult data whereas the y-values required information on both the x- and the y-coordinates of the adult. These scaling rules were applied to about 400 adult articulatory profiles to derive a set of corresponding infant articulations. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on these shapes to compare the shapes of the infant and adult articulatory spaces. As expected from the scaling results the infant space is significantly compressed in relation to the adult space suggesting that the main articulatory degree of freedom for the child is jaw opening. This finding is in perfect agreement with published descriptions of the phonetics of early vocalizations. 

  • 12. Coull, Mia
    et al.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Kan en robot lära sig att prata?2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kort notis om forskningsprojekt med robotmodeller av tidig språkutveckling (Vi föräldrar, 2007, Nr 13, s. 73)

  • 13.
    Engdahl, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Byström, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustic analysis of adults imitating infants: a cross-linguistic perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates adult imitations of infant vocalizations in a cross-linguistic perspective. Japanese-learning and Swedish-learning infants were recorded at ages 16-21 and 78-79 weeks. Vowel-like utterances (n=210) were selected from the recordings and presented to Japanese (n=3) and Swedish (n=3) adults. The adults were asked to imitate what they heard, simulating a spontaneous feedback situation between caregiver and infant. Formant data (F1 and F2) was extracted from all utterances and validated by comparing original and formant re-synthesized utterances. The data was normalized for fundamental frequency and time, and the accumulated spectral difference was calculated between each infant utterance and each imitation of that utterance. The mean spectral difference was calculated and compared, grouped by native language of infant and adult, as well as age of the infant. Preliminary results show smaller spectral difference in the imitations of older infants compared to imitations of the younger group, regardless of infant and adult native language. This may be explained by the increasing stability and more speech-like quality of infants' vocalizations as they grow older (and thus have been exposed to their native language for a longer period of time), making their utterances easier for adults to imitate.

  • 14. Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Williams, Karen
    Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Does babbling sound native? Listener responses to vocalizations produced by Swedish and American 12- and 18-month-olds.2003In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 17-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously2007In: International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law: (formerly Forensic Linguistics: ISSN 1350-1771), ISSN 1748-8885, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lie detector which can reveal lie and deception in some automatic and perfectly reliable way is an old idea we have often met with in science fiction books and comic strips. This is all very well. It is when machines claimed to be lie detectors appear in the context of criminal investigations or security applications that we need to be concerned. In the present paper we will describe two types of ‘deception’ or ‘stress detectors’ (euphemisms to refer to what quite clearly are known as ‘lie detectors’). Both types of detection are claimed to be based on voice analysis but we found no scientific evidence to support the manufacturers’ claims. Indeed, our review of scientific studies will show that these machines perform at chance level when tested for reliability. Given such results and the absence of scientific support for the underlying principles it is justified to view the use of these machines as charlatanry and we argue that there are serious ethical and security reasons to demand that responsible authorities and institutions should not get involved in such practices.

  • 16.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing F0 patterns in infant-directed speech: A tentative stochastic model2002In: TMH-QPSR Vol. 43 – Fonetik 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vocal imitation in early language acquisition2008In: Interspeech2008, 2008, p. 1976-1979Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of vocal imitation during the early stages of the language acquisition process. Utterances were extracted from recordings of adult-infant interactions in controlled but naturalistic experimental settings. For each recording session, utterances were used to create pairs of adult-infant samples that were presented to a panel of listeners, whose task was to judge whether the samples in a pair could be considered as imitations of each other or not. The results suggest an age-dependent hierarchy for the impact of different phonetic dimensions on imitation judgments and provide a basis for a quantitative model of vocal imitation.

  • 18.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Directional hearing in a humanoid robot: Evaluation of microphones regarding HRTF and azimuthal dependence2006In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2006 / [ed] Gilbert Ambrazaitis and Susanne Schötz, Lund: Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2006, p. 45-49Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lagerkvist, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Integration of audio-visual information in 8-months-old infants2004In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Epigenetic RoboticsLund University Cognitive Studies / [ed] Berthouze, L., Kozima, H., Prince, C. G., Sandini, G., Stojanov, G., Metta, G., and Balkenius, C., 2004, p. 143-144Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Honkanen, Paul
    et al.
    SVT, Utbildnignsradio.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Gärdenfors, Peter
    Platzac, Christer
    Santos Victor, José Alberto
    VISLAB.
    Barnet och Ordet: Språkets gåta2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur går det till när människan börjar tala? Det är en fråga forskningen ännu inte lyckats finna svaret på. Det finns motstridiga teorier om i vilken mån den språkliga förmågan är medfödd.

    Ännu är det ingen som riktigt vet vad det är som gör att vi människor, inte bara kan utbringa enstaviga eller flerstaviga läten, utan också kombinera ett och flera ord till hierarkiskt uppbyggda meningar?

    I det sista programmet i tv-serien Barnet och orden söker reportern Paul Honkanen lösningen på Språkets gåta. Honkanen har varit med när Charlie, bara några månader gammal, intresserat följer mamma Fannys försök att få Charlie att förstå sambandet mellan en färgglad leksaksanka och ordet ”anka”.

    Charlie tittar, frustar, ler och tröttnar på ankan. Men mamma ger inte upp för det är inte långt kvar tills Charlie själv säger ”anka”. Barn har mycket lätt att lära språk, sämre går det när man blir vuxen. Barn lär sig språk på egen hand och struntar i om det blir fel till en början. De härmar, rättar och går vidare, precis på samma sätt som de lär sig gå.

    Paul Honkanen har också intervjuat språkforskare och följt deras experiment med små barn. Som avslutning på sitt sökande efter sanningen om språket reste han till Lissabon. Där har lingvister, tekniker och psykologer konstruerat Chico, en robotbaby som kan lära sig lyssna, härma och tala som ett barn. Chico språktränar tillsammans med doktoranden i datorteknik Jonas Hörnstein. Chicos alla framsteg registreras noga och forskarna är minst sagt nyfikna på vilka ledtrådar Chico ska ge dem till lösningen på språkets gåta.

    (Babysimbilderna i programmet är inspelade i Sfären, Vattenhuset i Stockholm.)

    Vill du låna eller köpa programmet?

    Det här programmet från Barnet och orden kan du låna från din närmaste Mediecentral eller beställa från vår Kundtjänst.

    Barnet och orden: Språkets gåta

  • 21. Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modelling speech imitation2008In: IROS 2008: From motor to interaction learning in robots, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of imitation is often pointed out as one of the cornerstones in infants' early language acquisition. Still there are few studies concerning vocal adult-child imitations reported in the literature and results from those are often inconsistent. One reason for the inconsistencies is the lack of a stringent model for what should be classified as imitations. This is not only a problem when trying to learn something about adult-child interactions, but also when trying to make robots that can learn to interact naturally with humans. In order to interact vocally a robot is typically equipped with artificial models of the ear and the vocal tract connected by an artificial neural network. This model is inspired by the motor theory of speech perception [1] and the more recent discovery of mirror neurons [2]. While the robot can use babbling to create an initial map between the acoustic signal and the corresponding vocal tract positions, it needs to overcome interspeaker differences and to acquire key positions of the vocal tract to be able to communicate with humans or other robots. Imitation games are therefore used to train the networks [3, 4, 5]. As we have shown in our previous work [6] these imitation games should preferably go both ways. Having the robot imitating the caregiver is useful for directing the robot towards keypoints, while having the caregiver imitating the robot is more important for learning the map and overcome interspeaker differences. As we will show in this work, both types of imitations can also be found in adult-child interactions. However, while robots usually follow very strict imitation games with predefined turn-taking behaviors, adult-child interactions tend to be much more complex. For the robot to be able to learn its maps under such natural conditions it has to be able to separate imitations from non-imitations. The question we want to answer in this work is therefore the following. How can the robot decide when a pair of utterances should be considered as vocal imitations of each other?

  • 22.
    Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multimodal language acquisition based on motor learning and interaction2010In: From Motor Learning to Interaction Learning in Robots / [ed] Olivier Sigaud & jan Peters, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 467-489Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose a methodology for language acquisition in humanoid robots that mimics that in children. Language acquisition is a complex process that involves mastering several different tasks, such as producing speech sounds, learning how to group different sounds into a consistent and manageable number of classes or speech units, grounding speech, and recognizing the speech sounds when uttered by other persons. While it is not known to which extent those abilities are learned or written in our genetic code, this work aims at two intertwined goals: (i) to investigate how much of linguistic structure that can be derived directly from the speech signal directed to infants by (ii) designing, building and testing biological plausible models for language acquisition in a humanoid robot. We have therefore chosen to avoid implementing any pre-programmed linguistic knowledge, such as phonemes, into these models. Instead we rely on general methods such as pattern matching and hierarchical clustering techniques, and show that it is possible to acquire important linguistic structures directly from the speech signal through the interaction with a caregiver. We also show that this process can be facilitated through the use of motor learning.

  • 23. Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multimodal language acquisition based onmotor learning and interaction2010In: From Motor Learning to Interaction Learning in Robots / [ed] Sigaud, O. & Peters, J., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2010, p. 466-489Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we propose a methodology for language acquisition in humanoid robots that mimics that in children. Language acquisition is a complex process that involves mastering several different tasks, such as producing speech sounds, learning how to group different sounds into a consistent and manageable number of classes or speech units, grounding speech, and recognizing the speech sounds when uttered by other persons. While it is not known to which extent those abilities are learned or written in our genetic code, this work aims at two intertwined goals: (i) to investigate how much of linguistic structure that can be derived directly from the speech signal directed to infants by (ii) designing, building and testing biological plausible models for language acquisition in a humanoid robot. We have therefore chosen to avoid implementing any pre-programmed linguistic knowledge, such as phonemes, into these models. Instead we rely on general methods such as pattern matching and hierarchical clustering techniques, and show that it is possible to acquire important linguistic structures directly from the speech signal through the interaction with a caregiver. We also show that this process can be facilitated through the use of motor learning.

  • 24.
    Hörnstein, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos-Victor, José
    Institute for System and Robotics (ISR), Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Multimodal Word Learning from Infant Directed Speech2009In: The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent RObots and Systems: IROS 2009 / [ed] Nikos Papanikolopoulos, Shigeki Sugano, Stefano Chiaverini, Max Meng, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When adults talk to infants they do that in a different way compared to how they communicate with other adults. This kind of Infant Directed Speech (IDS) typically highlights target words using focal stress and utterance final position. Also, speech directed to infants often refers to objects, people and events in the world surrounding the infant. Because of this, the sound sequences the infant hears are very likely to co-occur with actual objects or events in the infant's visual field. In this work we present a model that is able to learn word-like structures from multimodal information sources without any pre-programmed linguistic knowlege, by taking advantage of the characteristics of IDS. The model is implemented on a humanoid robot platform and is able to extract word-like patterns and associating these to objects in the visual surrounding.

  • 25.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of audio-visual integration in mammals for computational modelling2006In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Interspeech 2006 (ICSLP), Pittsburgh, September, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    infants’ integration of audio-visual sensory information as a fundamental process involved in early word learning. One hundred sixty pre-linguistic children were randomly assigned to watch one of four counterbalanced versions of audio-visual video sequences. The infants’ eye-movements were recorded and their looking behavior was analyzed throughout three repetitions of exposure-test-phases. The results indicate that the infants were able to learn covariance between shapes and colors of arbitrary geometrical objects and to them corresponding nonsense words. Implications of audio-visual integration in infants and in non-human animals for modeling within speech recognition systems, neural networks and robotics are discussed.

  • 26.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Investigating the Emergence of Speech Communication: A Study of Infants' Ability to Predict Phonetic Information2007In: Proceedings of EuroCogSci07: The European Cognitive Science Conference 2007, European Cultural Center of Delphi, Delphi/Greece, May 23-27, 2007, East Sussex: Hove , 2007, p. 694-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of this paper provides an overview of infants' prediction skills of action goals, as well as their ability to predict perceptual acoustic information. Prediction skills' neurological correlates in general are discussed. A central hypothesis under investigation is that there are commonalities between the development of speech and manipulation. The current research is focused on the communication mode investigating infants' ability to associate images of familiar objects with auditory-stimuli presented both as whole words in intact form and as disrupted (partly noise-replaced) spoken words. The looking behaviour of the infants was measured with the Tobii eye-tracking device. The results suggest that 11 to 16 month-old infants recognize the target object when the word referring to it was intact, i.e. when the name of the object was presented in its entirety. However, the infants did not seem to recognize the target object when the word referring to it was partially masked so that only its initial phonetic information was presented. These results indicate that young infants are sensitive to phonetic information of the words and may need more extensive linguistic experience in order to derive full lexical forms from partially masked words. The paper concludes with suggestions for future demonstrations of anticipation of speech.

  • 27.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of general purpose mechanisms to the onset of language: Audio-visual integration of object attributes2005In: ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants, Acquafredda di Maratea, October 1-6, 2005, .: From Action to Cognition, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the issue of extraction of implicit information conveyed by systematic audio-visual contingencies. A group of infants was tested, with help of the Eye-Tracking analysis system, on a simple inference task provided by short film sequences. The video sequences displayed geometrical objects while the audio played two-word utterances, spoken in an artificial language mimicking the Swedish phonotactics, implicitly referring to the different shapes and colours of the objects. The films were initiated with a static baseline image where the display was divided in four quadrants showing four objects, one in each quadrant. This initial procedure was intended to measure the subject’s spontaneous looking preference towards each of the objects.  Finally after the exposure phase, a test phase was initiated where questions equivalent to “Can you see a cube?” or “Can you see the red (one)?” spoken in the artificial language were asked. At this point the results suggest that the subjects are efficient at picking up the underlying information structure. Further analyses are expected to show more differentiated picture regarding the performance of infants of different age as well as generalization of nouns and adjectives. This is currently being analyzed and will be reported at the conference.

  • 28.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Estimates of Infants’ Vocabulary Composition and the Role of Adult-instructions for Early Word-learning2007In: Speech, Music and Hearing, Quarterly Progress and Status Report, TMH-QPSR, Proceedings from Fonetik 2007, May 30 - June 1, 2007. / [ed] Björn Granström, Anna Hjalmarsson, David House, Prebe Wik, Stockholm: Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KHT, Printed by Universitetsservice AB , 2007, p. 53-56Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of the growth of language in Swedish 7-15 months-old infants. More scpecifically, to estimate vocabulary composition (the 1st part of the study), information on 24 infants’ comprehension and production of speech was collected, and to investigate the role of adult-instructions for early word-learning ( the 2nd part of the study) video recordings of infant-adult interaction-dyads were produced. The vocabulary-data were collected based on parental reports using the Swedish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. The subjects’ size of receptive and productive vocabulary across five semantic categories were estimated in a longitudinal perspective based on 45 completed forms. The infant-adult interaction data was likewise collected in a longitudinal perspective. The variables chosen for analyses of infant-adult interaction were: objective of the parent’s gestural instruction, objective of the parent’s vocal instruction, and focus of attention of the infant. The 1st part of the study showed an immense progress for comprehension within the receptive semantic categories of ‘phrases’ and ‘sounds’. The results for the 2nd part of the study showed a shift along a time axis from gestural instructions being mostly correlated with the attentional focus of the infant (at 7 months) to gestural and vocal instructions being equally common (at 15 months). A discussion on significance of these results will round off the paper.

  • 29.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Major parts-of-speech in child language – division in open and close class words2009In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2009: The 22nd Swedish Phonetic Conference / [ed] Peter Branderud, Francisco Lacerda, Hartmut Traunmuller, Stockholm, Sweden: Universitetsservice US-AB , 2009, p. 126-129Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between major parts-of-speech in 14-to 43-months-old infants. Therefore a division in open class and close class words was made. Open class words consist of nouns, verbs and adjectives, while the group of close class words is mainly constituted of grammatical words such as conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs. The data was collected using the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory, a version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. The number of open and close class words was estimated by summarizing items from diverse semantic categories. The study was performed as a mixture of longitudinal and cross-sectional data based on 28 completed forms. The results showed that while the total number of items in the children’s vocabularies grew as the child got older; the proportional division in open vs. close class words – proximally 90-10% – was unchanged.

  • 30.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cortical N400-potentials generated by adults in response to semantic incongruities2011In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2011: Speech, Music and Hearing TMH-QPSR Vol. 51 / [ed] Björn Granström, David House, Daniel Neiberg, Sofia Strömbergsson, Stockholm, Sweden: Universitetsserveice AB , 2011, p. 121-124Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight adult participants were investigated in a pre-experiment for the future assessment of semantic N400 effects in children. The materials were words resented in semantically incongruent vs. congruent picture contexts. For example, he word duck was played while a picture of a tree was shown in the incongruent est condition vs. the word duck was played while a picture of a duck was shown in the congruent test condition. A larger N400 effect was expected in response to the incongruent audio-visual pairings. The results showed in time extended peak-to peak differences between congruent and incongruent audio-visual pairings at the centroparietal, parietal and parieto-occipital recording sites. This study was performed to validate the current materials to be used to answer questions on appearance of the N400 component in children.

  • 31.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neurolinguistic responses to perception of speech in incongruent picture context2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), August 17-21 2011, Hong Kong, China / [ed] Eric Zee, Hong Kong, China, 2011, p. 1110-1113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates N400, the event related potential (ERP) that reflects semantic processing in cortex. The stimuli were semantically congruent vs. incongruent audio-visual pairings of objects (i.e. words presented in familiar picture context). As predicted, the results showed in time extended significant peak-to-peak differences between congruent and incongruent picture-word pairings at the centroparietal and the parietal recording sites. The rationale for this study is our pioneer intent to verify use of ERPs in response to the current materials. After extension of this research, the data will be used in comparison to answer questions on appearance of the semantic component in young children. Based on earlier research, we expect that the N400 component in children will be greater in amplitude, delayed in latency and more widely distributed in scalp distribution.

  • 32.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Parallels in infants' attention to speech articulation and to physical changes in speech-unrelated objects2011In: Proceedings of the 12 th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech 2011). / [ed] Piero Cosi, Renato De Mori, Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio, Roberto Pieraccini, Firenze, Italy: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), Causal Productions Pty Ltd , 2011, p. 2197-2200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of how children develop the capacity to make use of speech articulation cues to support interpretation of the speech signal are not exhaustively explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there are parallels in infants’ way of attending to speech articulation and their perception of physical changes in speech-unrelated objects. The current research questions grew out from an earlier study in which it was found that perception of speech in infants was based on a match between auditory and visual prominence – as opposed to a match between sound and to it corresponding face. Data suggested that speech perception in infancy may function as described by Stevens power law, and two methodological supplements to test the validness of this hypothesis were made in the current study. First, a non-articulatory test condition was added to investigate infants’ perception of speech-unrelated objects. Second, amplitude manipulated stimuli were added to introduce systematic changes in loudness. Results confirmed our hypothesis; the visually prominent articulations were favored, and the same pattern was found in response to nonspeech related objects.

  • 33.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Söderlund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Development of communicative skills in 8- to 16-month-old children: A longitudinal study2008In: Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Interspeech2008, Brisbane, September, 2008., 2008, p. 1972-1975Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess development of communicative skills in 8- to 16-month-old children. Information on 24 Swedish children’s speech comprehension and production, as well as their utilization of communicative gestures was collected. A version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI), was used. The number of comprehended phrases, size of receptive and productive vocabularies, as well as the subjects’ gesture score was estimated according to standardized scoring instructions. The study was performed longitudinally based on 71 completed forms. The children’s performance was validated with existing norm-data collected from a large set of randomly selected children. The results showed an overall agreement with the norm-data. The performance of the subjects was though less stable and delayed about one month was compared to the norm-data. Adequacy of SECDI for screening language delay is discussed.

  • 34.
    Koponen, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustafsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effects of linguistic variance on sound-meaning connections in early stages of language acquisition2003In: Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences: Barcelona, 3-9 August 2003. Vol. 2/3 / [ed] M.J. Solé, D. Recasens & J. Romero, Adelaide, S. Aust.: Casual Productions , 2003, p. 1975-1978Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the processes underlying early sound-meaning connections an artificial language was created and used in a series of infant speech perception studies. The subjects were tested using the Visual Preference Procedure. The subjects’ responses were quantified in terms of looking times towards objects shown during the audio-visual exposure. Exposure to speech materials with large variance seemed to curtail the subjects’ ability to establish stable sound-meaning connections. However, reducing the linguistic variance led to successful sound-meaning connections. These results indicate that linguistic variance is one of the primary determinants of sound-meaning connections for 1-year old subjects. The paper will discuss how structural differences in natural language settings may account for the infant’s performance on word learning.

  • 35.
    Koponen, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Final lengthening in infant directed speech may function as a cue to phrase constituents2003In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2003, Lövånger, June 2-4, 2003. / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Umeå: Print & Media , 2003, p. 9-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether lengthening of word and phrase final vowels in infant directed speech (IDS) occurs to the same degree as lengthening of word and phrase final vowels in adult directed speech (ADS). The stimuli consisted of vowels embedded in a two-syllable nonsense word that were varied systematically with respect to phrase position and focal accent. At phrase level, the results showed that FL in accented words in IDS was significantly greater as compared to ADS. Earlier studies have shown that young children are sensitive to pauses as markers to phrase constituents. In line with these experiments, the perceptual importance of FL in IDS is discussed.

  • 36. Kuhl, Patricia K
    et al.
    Andruski, J E
    Chistovich, I A
    Chistovich, L A
    Kozhevnikova, E V
    Ryskina, V L
    Stolyarova, E I
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cross-language analysis of phonetic units in language addressed to infants.1997In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, Vol. 277, no 5326, p. 684-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early months of life, infants acquire information about the phonetic properties of their native language simply by listening to adults speak. The acoustic properties of phonetic units in language input to young infants in the United States, Russia, and Sweden were examined. In all three countries, mothers addressing their infants produced acoustically more extreme vowels than they did when addressing adults, resulting in a "stretching" of vowel space. The findings show that language input to infants provides exceptionally well-specified information about the linguistic units that form the building blocks for words.

  • 37. Kuhl, Patricia K
    et al.
    Williams, Karen A
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Stevens, Kenneth N
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age.1992In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, Vol. 255, no 5044, p. 606-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic experience affects phonetic perception. However, the critical period during which experience affects perception and the mechanism responsible for these effects are unknown. This study of 6-month-old infants from two countries, the United States and Sweden, shows that exposure to a specific language in the first half year of life alters infants' phonetic perception.

  • 38.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    An ecological model of early phonological development2011In: International Child Phonology Conference / [ed] Marilyn Vihman and Tamar Keren-Portnoy, York, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model ofphonological development will be presented. The model is outlined within thetentative framework of ETLA, an Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition beingproposed by Stockholm University’s research group for early languageacquisition. It expands Lindblom’s pioneering work on emergent phonology byintroducing explicit ecological and interactional components in the process ofphonological development. In this context the infant’s early discovery of thelinguistic referential function is directly triggered by recurrent co-occurrencesof utterances and affordances of the ecological setting within which the infantinteracts with speakers of the ambient language. The model assumes no initiallinguistic knowledge. Its only underlying assumption is that recurrentco-occurrences of sensory information from different modalities are extremelysignificant, given that the probability of randomly drawing similar co-occurrencesof sensory representations from the huge multisensory space is vanishingly low.Departing from these general and non-linguistic assumptions, the model suggeststhat phonological structure of the ambient language can be inferred fromsituated IDS in the infant’s ecological setting. The model uses a hierarchicalprocess that initially singles out large chunks of utterances with potentialreferential function. By further recursive splitting of the initial referentialchunks into recurrent sub-chunks, the model incrementally converges towards theambient language’s phonological structure.

    Thepresentation will try to demonstrate how the model can generate plausibleemergent phonological representations when applied to actual IDS and relevantecological settings for the adult-infant interaction. It will also be shown howthe inclusion of general aerodynamic and articulatory constraints further refinesthe realism of the phonological development predicted by the model.

    Researchsupported by grants from The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (MILLE,K2003:0867), EU-NEST (CONTACT, project n. 5010), Knut and Alice WallenbergFoundation, (KAW 2005.0115) and Stockholm University.

  • 39.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Avoustic analysis of central standard Swedish /r/ and /l/: Technical report2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides reference data on the first three formant frequencies characterizing /r/ and /l/ produced in

    word initial position by an adult male speaker of central standard Swedish. The speaker read a list of words and

    pseudo‐words. The recordings were made at Stockholm University’s echo‐free room (Phonetics Laboratory), using

    high‐fidelity equipment and recording procedures. The formant data confirms the typically observed pattern of a

    contrast conveyed mainly by F3 differences between the two sounds.

  • 40.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Barns talspråkutveckling - en komplex och mångfacetterad process2012In: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, no 3, p. 11-12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under småbarnsåren utvecklas den språkliga kommunikationsförmågan snabbt, och miljön har stor betydelse för språkutvecklingen. Det är dock först vid 2-årsåldern som barnet visar tecken på att ha uppfattat språkets grundläggande kombinatoriska principer.

  • 41.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Både arv och miljö spelar roll när barn lär sig tala2011In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 2, p. 14-17Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots skillnader i ljudrepertoar och grammatiska regler delar världens alla naturliga språk samma kombinatoriska principer. Det gäller även teckenspråk, fast där är principerna anpassade till visuella element. Hur har då människan uppfunnit dessa principer och varför verkar människobarnet ha så lätt att lära sig modersmålet? Svaren på dessa frågor bygger traditionellt på uppfattningar om att språket antingen är medfött eller inlärt. Men arv och miljö framhävs ofta som skarpare motpoler än de kanske är. Studier visar att barns språk utvecklas i ett samspel mellan genetiska förutsättningar och språklig miljö.

  • 42.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Cientista português ameaçado com processo judicial(Portuguese scientist threatned by juridical process)2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Scientist from Stockholm University questioned the efficiency of a lie detector that had been bought by the British Governement, among others. The company threatned with a libel process and the article was removed from the publisher's on-line publication.

  • 43.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Därför fungerar inte röstbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: NewsmillArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Voice-based lie detectors rely on pseudo science. Nevertheless they are used in Great Britan and a number of other locations. One of the major producers of these detectors attempts to use threats to silence swedish researchers who pointed out that their technique lacks scientific basis, writes Francisco Lacerda, professor of Phonetics at Stockholm University.

  • 44.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Effects of peripheral auditory adaptation on the discrimination of speech sounds1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates perceptual effects of discharge rate adaptation in the auditory-nerve fibers.

    Discrimination tests showed that brief synthetic stimuli with stationary formants and periodic source were better discriminated when they had an abrupt as opposed to a gradual onset (non-adapted vs adapted condition). This effect was not observed for corresponding stimuli with noise source.

    Discrimination among synthetic /da/ stimuli (abrupt onsets) was worse than among /ad/ stimuli when the respective onset and offset frequencies of the second formant (F2) were varied. Similar results were obtained for /ba/ and /ab/. The low discrimination rate in consonant-vowel stimuli (CV) was explained in terms of sensory smearing of spectral information due to rapid formant transitions. Discrimination improved when the smearing effect was reduced by holding the onset formant pattern over a certain period of time of about 1 6ms. The relatively high discrimination score for the VC stimuli was explained by residual masking; extending the VC offset did not improve discrimination.

    Discrimination of place of articulation in CV syllables was examined in the light of sensory smearing. Two continua of /bu-du/ and /ba-da/ utterances were used in discrimination and identification experiments. It was observed that the discrimination peak for /Cu/ was displaced from the /b/-/d/ boundary, towards a flat F2 transition, suggesting that optimal place discrimination is related to the stability of the auditory representations generated at onset. This result is discussed in relation to current views of categorical perception.

  • 45.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Emerginglexical representations in early infancy2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America / [ed] Allan D. Pierce, 2011, p. 2596-2596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation proposes the view thattypical early infant-directed speech (IDS) in the infant’s ecological settingprovides enough multisensory information to trigger the emergence of lexicalrepresentations, a theoretical view inspired by analyses of the care-givers’speech towards infants at different developmental stages. It is argued that theadult’s speaking style in early IDS within the context of the infants immediateecological setting provides enough correlated sensory information to derivepotentially relevant lexical items from the stream of speech sounds and objectsto which the infant is exposed. The proposed theoretical model of earlylanguage development (ETLA, Ecological Theory of Language Acquisition) is supportedboth by experimental results indicating that 40 Swedish infants, in the ageranges 8-10 months and 14-16 months, could infer object names from looking atone-minute video materials where objects were shown and described by naturalutterances produced in languages unknown to the infants, and by mathematicalsimulations of how early lexical items can be derived from typicalinfant-directed speech handled by the infant’s general-purpose multisensory(audio-visual) representation capabilities.

    The studies on which this work is based were supportedby grants from The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, grant K2003:0867 (MILLE),EU-NEST project n. 5010, CONTACT, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Grantno. KAW 2005.0115, and Stockholm University.

  • 46.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    LVA techonolgy: The illusion of "lie detection"2009In: Fonetik 2009 / [ed] Peter Branderud & Hartmut Traunmüller, Stockholm: Universitetsservice US-AB , 2009, p. 220-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new speech-based lie-detection LVA-technology is being used in some countries to screen applicants, passengers or customers in areas like security, medicine, technology and risk management (anti-fraud). However, a scientific evaluation of this technology and of the principles on which it relies indicates, not surprisingly, that it is neither valid nor reliable. This article presents a scientific analysis of this LVA-technology and demonstrates that it simply cannot work.

  • 47.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Lögnbaserade lögndetektorer2009In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3, p. 7-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the underlying principles of voice-based lie-detectors, in particular Nemesysco's LVA-technology. The conclusion is that the system cannot (even in principle) work, a notion that is supported by the results from the UK's Department of Work and Pensions' systematic evaluation.

  • 48.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Magiska apparater i finansforskning2012In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3, p. 47-49Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Francisco Lacerda comments a pseudo-scientific method that has infiltrated a respected Finance journal.

  • 49.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Money Talks: The Power of Voice: A critical review of Mayew and Ventachalam’s The Power of Voice: Managerial Affective States and Future Firm Performance2012In: PERILUS, ISSN 0282-6690, p. 1-10Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the results presented by Mayew and Venkatachalam in “The Power of Voice: Managerial Affective States and Future Firm Performance” (Mayew & Venkatachalam, 2011) are void because the authors used an irrelevant technology (LVA technology, Nemesysco) that cannot measure emotions conveyed by voice and therefore does not produce valid results. The paper explains why LVA technology cannot work for this problem and suggests that subscribing to this methodology damages the reputation of finance and banking research. The authors are encouraged to reanalyze their speech materials using appropriate scientific methods to measure meaningful acoustic correlates of emotions conveyed by speakers’ voices.

  • 50.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    On the clinical relevance of early deficits in critical linguistic functions.2005In: Acta Paediatr, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 94, no 12, p. 1701-3Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 93
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