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Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
iPTF Survey for Cool Transients2018In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 130, no 985, article id 034202Article in journal (Refereed)

We performed a wide-area (2000 deg2) g and I band experiment as part of a two month extension to the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. We discovered 36 extragalactic transients including iPTF17lf, a highly reddened local SN Ia, iPTF17bkj, a new member of the rare class of transitional Ibn/IIn supernovae, and iPTF17be, a candidate luminous blue variable outburst. We do not detect any luminous red novae and place an upper limit on their rate. We show that adding a slow-cadence I band component to upcoming surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility will improve the photometric selection of cool and dusty transients.

• 2.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stanford University, USA. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, no 2, article id L12Article in journal (Refereed)

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

• 3.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, no 3, p. 3300-3328Article in journal (Refereed)

We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

• 4. Arcavi, Iair
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, no 7679, p. 210-213Article in journal (Refereed)

Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.

• 5. Blagorodnova, N.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
COMMON ENVELOPE EJECTION FOR A LUMINOUS RED NOVA IN M1012017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 834, no 2, article id 107Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+ 5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes M-r <= -12.4 and M-r similar or equal to -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of approximate to 3700 K and low expansion velocities (approximate to -300 km s(-1)) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L similar to 8.7 x 10(4) L-circle dot, T-eff approximate to 7000. K, and an estimated mass of M1= 18 +/- 1 M-circle dot. This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Roche lobe. Comparison with binary evolution models suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. The initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M-circle dot) and NGC. 4490-OT. (30M(circle dot)).

• 6. Cao, Yi
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 521, no 7552, p. 328-+Article in journal (Refereed)

Type Ia supernovae(1) are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs(2,3). Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances(4-6), the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious(3). One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion(3,7,8). Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star(9), and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

• 7. Childress, M. J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 770, no 1, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si lambda 6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity photospheric component. This Si lambda 6355 HVF fades by phase - 5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of similar to 12,000 km s(-1) until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v approximate to 12,000 km s(-1) with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v approximate to 31,000 km s(-1) two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the shallow silicon and core-normal subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the low velocity gradient group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

• 8. Corsi, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE TYPE IC SUPERNOVAE DISCOVERED BY PTF/IPTF: A SEARCH FOR RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSIONS2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 830, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)

• 9. Corsi, Alessandra
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
iPTF17cw: An Engine-driven Supernova Candidate Discovered Independent of a Gamma-Ray Trigger2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 847, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the discovery, classification, and radio-to-X-ray follow-up observations of iPTF17cw, a broad-lined (BL) type Ic supernova (SN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). Although it is unrelated to the gravitational wave trigger, this SN was discovered as a happy by-product of the extensive observational campaign dedicated to the follow-up of Advanced LIGO event GW 170104. The spectroscopic properties and inferred peak bolometric luminosity of iPTF17cw are most similar to the gamma-ray-burst (GRB)associated SN, SN 1998bw, while the shape of the r-band light curve is most similar to that of the relativistic SN, SN 2009bb. Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the iPTF17cw field reveal a radio counterpart approximate to 10 times less luminous than SN 1998bw, and with a peak radio luminosity comparable to that of SN 2006aj/GRB 060218 and SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Our radio observations of iPTF17cw imply a relativistically expanding outflow. However, further late-time observations with the VLA in its most extended configuration are needed to confirm fading of the iPTF17cw radio counterpart at all frequencies. X-ray observations carried out with Chandra reveal the presence of an X-ray counterpart with a luminosity similar to that of SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Searching the Fermi catalog for possible gamma-rays reveals that GRB 161228B is spatially and temporally compatible with iPTF17cw. The similarity to SN 1998bw and SN 2009bb, the radio and X-ray detections, and the potential association with GRB 161228B all point to iPTF17cw being a new candidate member of the rare sample of optically discovered engine-driven BL-Ic SNe associated with relativistic ejecta.

• 10. Dall'Ora, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
THE TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA 2012aw IN M95: HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF THE PHOTOSPHERIC PHASE FROM ACCURATE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MONITORING2014In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 787, no 2, p. 139-Article in journal (Refereed)

We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the Ni-56 mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M-env similar to 20 M-circle dot, progenitor radius R similar to 3 x 10(13) cm (similar to 430 R-circle dot), explosion energy E similar to 1.5 foe, and initial Ni-56 mass similar to 0.06 M-circle dot. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 +/- 1.5 M-circle dot of the Type IIP events.

• 11. de Jaeger, T.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SN 2011A: A LOW-LUMINOSITY INTERACTING TRANSIENT WITH A DOUBLE PLATEAU AND STRONG SODIUM ABSORPTION2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 807, no 1, article id 63Article in journal (Refereed)

We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data span 140 days after discovery including BVRI u'g'r'i'z' photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow Ha emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. First, the light curve shows a double plateau, a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Second, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity (M-V = -15.72), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Third, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change in line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favor an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients.

• 12.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Hydrodynamical modelling of Type IIb SNeIn: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Article in journal (Refereed)
• 13.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING OF SN 1987A2015In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 806, no 1, article id L19Article in journal (Refereed)

We present imaging and spectroscopic observations with Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Telescope of the ring of SN 1987A from 1994 to 2014. After an almost exponential increase of the shocked emission from the hotspots up to day similar to 8000 (similar to 2009), both this and the unshocked emission are now fading. From the radial positions of the hotspots we see an acceleration of these up to 500-1000 km s(-1), consistent with the highest spectroscopic shock velocities from the radiative shocks. In the most recent observations (2013 and 2014), we find several new hotspots outside the inner ring, excited by either X-rays from the shocks or by direct shock interaction. All of these observations indicate that the interaction with the supernova ejecta is now gradually dissolving the hotspots. We predict, based on the observed decay, that the inner ring will be destroyed by similar to 2025.

• 14. Fraser, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
RED AND DEAD: THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw IN M952012In: The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 759, no 1, p. L13-Article in journal (Refereed)

Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the spectacular finale to massive stellar evolution. In this Letter, we identify a progenitor for the nearby core-collapse SN 2012aw in both ground-based near-infrared and space-based optical pre-explosion imaging. The SN itself appears to be a normal Type II Plateau event, reaching a bolometric luminosity of 10(42) erg s(-1) and photospheric velocities of similar to 11,000 km s(-1) from the position of the H beta P-Cygni minimum in the early SN spectra. We use an adaptive optics image to show that the SN is coincident to within 27 mas with a faint, red source in pre-explosion HST+WFPC2, VLT+ISAAC, and NTT+SOFI images. The source has magnitudes F555W = 26.70 +/- 0.06, F814W = 23.39 +/- 0.02, J = 21.1 +/- 0.2, K = 19.1 +/- 0.4, which, when compared to a grid of stellar models, best matches a red supergiant. Interestingly, the spectral energy distribution of the progenitor also implies an extinction of A(V) > 1.2 mag, whereas the SN itself does not appear to be significantly extinguished. We interpret this as evidence for the destruction of dust in the SN explosion. The progenitor candidate has a luminosity between 5.0 and 5.6 log L/L-circle dot, corresponding to a zero-age main-sequence mass between 14 and 26 M-circle dot (depending on A(V)), which would make this one of the most massive progenitors found for a core-collapse SN to date.

• 15.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
PTF12os and iPTF13bvn. Two stripped-envelope supernovae from low-mass progenitors in NGC 58062016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 593, article id A68Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. We investigate two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806 by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF]. These SNe, designated PTF12os/SN 2012P and iPTF13bvn, exploded within ~520 days of one another at a similar distance from the host-galaxy center. We classify PTF12os as a Type IIb SN based on our spectral sequence; iPTF13bvn has previously been classified as Type Ib having a likely progenitor with zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass below ~17 M. Because of the shared and nearby host, we are presented with a unique opportunity to compare these two SNe.

Aims. Our main objective is to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF12os and iPTF13bvn, and to put constraints on the SN progenitors. We also aim to spatially map the metallicity in the host galaxy, and to investigate the presence of hydrogen in early-time spectra of both SNe.

Methods. We present comprehensive datasets collected on PTF12os and iPTF13bvn, and introduce a new automatic reference-subtraction photometry pipeline (FPipe) currently in use by the iPTF. We perform a detailed study of the light curves (LCs) and spectral evolution of the SNe. The bolometric LCs are modeled using the hydrodynamical code hyde. We analyze early spectra of both SNe to investigate the presence of hydrogen; for iPTF13bvn we also investigate the regions of the Paschen lines in infrared spectra. We perform spectral line analysis of helium and iron lines to map the ejecta structure of both SNe. We use nebular models and late-time spectroscopy to constrain the ZAMS mass of the progenitors. We also perform image registration of ground-based images of PTF12os to archival HST images of NGC 5806 to identify a potential progenitor candidate.

Results. We find that our nebular spectroscopy of iPTF13bvn remains consistent with a low-mass progenitor, likely having a ZAMS mass of ~12M. Our late-time spectroscopy of PTF12os is consistent with a ZAMS mass of ~15M. We successfully identify a source in pre-explosion HST images coincident with PTF12os. The colors and absolute magnitude of this object are consistent between pre-explosion and late-time HST images, implying it is a cluster of massive stars. Our hydrodynamical modeling suggests that the progenitor of PTF12os had a compact He core with a mass of 3.25+ 0.77-0.56M at the time of the explosion, which had a total kinetic energy of 0.54+ 0.41-0.25 × 1051 erg and synthesized 0.063+ 0.020-0.011M of strongly mixed  56Ni. Spectral comparisons to the Type IIb SN 2011dh indicate that the progenitor of PTF12os was surrounded by a thin hydrogen envelope with a mass lower than 0.02M. We also find tentative evidence that the progenitor of iPTF13bvn could have been surrounded by a small amount of hydrogen prior to the explosion. This result is supported by possible weak signals of hydrogen in both optical and infrared spectra.

• 16.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
The rise and fall of the Type Ib supernova iPTF13bvn Not a massive Wolf-Rayet star2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, article id A114Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. We investigate iPTF13bvn, a core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5806. This object was discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) very close to the estimated explosion date and was classified as a stripped-envelope CC SN, likely of Type Ib. Furthermore, a possible progenitor detection in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images was reported, making this the only SN Ib with such an identification. Based on the luminosity and color of the progenitor candidate, as well as on early-time spectra and photometry of the SN, it was argued that the progenitor candidate is consistent with a single, massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Aims. We aim to confirm the progenitor detection, to robustly classify the SN using additional spectroscopy, and to investigate if our follow-up photometric and spectroscopic data on iPTF13bvn are consistent with a single-star WR progenitor scenario. Methods. We present a large set of observational data, consisting of multi-band light curves (UBVRI, g' r' i' z') and optical spectra. We perform standard spectral line analysis to track the evolution of the SN ejecta. We also construct a bolometric light curve and perform hydrodynamical calculations to model this light curve to constrain the synthesized radioactive nickel mass and the total ejecta mass of the SN. Late-time photometry is analyzed to constrain the amount of oxygen. Furthermore, image registration of pre- and post-explosion HST images is performed. Results. Our HST astrometry confirms the location of the progenitor candidate of iPTF13bvn, and follow-up spectra securely classify this as a SN Ib. We use our hydrodynamical model to fit the observed bolometric light curve, estimating the total ejecta mass to be 1.9 M-circle dot and the radioactive nickel mass to be 0.05 M-circle dot. The model fit requires the nickel synthesized in the explosion to be highly mixed out in the ejecta. We also find that the late-time nebular r'-band luminosity is not consistent with predictions based on the expected oxygen nucleosynthesis in very massive stars. Conclusions. We find that our bolometric light curve of iPTF13bvn is not consistent with the previously proposed single massive WR-star progenitor scenario. The total ejecta mass and, in particular, the late-time oxygen emission are both significantly lower than what would be expected from a single WR progenitor with a main-sequence mass of at least 30 M-circle dot.

• 17. Gal-Yam, Avishay
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
A Wolf-Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 509, no 7501, p. 471-+Article in journal (Refereed)

The explosive fate of massive Wolf-Rayet stars(1) (WRSs) is a key open question in stellar physics. An appealing option is that hydrogen-deficient WRSs are the progenitors of some hydrogen-poor supernova explosions of types IIb, Ib and Ic (ref. 2). A blue object, having luminosity and colours consistent with those of some WRSs, has recently been identified in pre-explosion images at the location of a supernova of type Ib (ref. 3), but has not yet been conclusively determined to have been the progenitor. Similar work has so far only resulted in non-detections(4). Comparison of early photometric observations of type Ic supernovae with theoretical models suggests that the progenitor stars had radii of less than 1012 centimetres, as expected for some WRSs(5). The signature of WRSs, their emission line spectra, cannot be probed by such studies. Here we report the detection of strong emission lines in a spectrum of type IIb supernova 2013cu (iPTF13ast) obtained approximately 15.5 hours after explosion (by 'flash spectroscopy', which captures the effects of the supernova explosion shock breakout flash on material surrounding the progenitor star). We identify Wolf-Rayet-like wind signatures, suggesting a progenitor of the WN(h) subclass (those WRSs with winds dominated by helium and nitrogen, with traces of hydrogen). The extent of this dense wind may indicate increased mass loss from the progenitor shortly before its explosion, consistent with recent theoretical predictions(6).

• 18.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, no 6335, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)

We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

• 19.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST LIGHT FROM SN 2014J2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 799, no 1, p. 106-Article in journal (Refereed)

We study the very early light curve of supernova 2014J (SN 2014J) using the high-cadence broad-band imaging data obtained by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope, which fortuitously observed M 82 around the time of the explosion, starting more than 2 months prior to detection, with up to 20 observations per night. These observations are complemented by observations in two narrow-band filters used in an Ha survey of nearby galaxies by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory that also captured the first days of the brightening of the supernova. The evolution of the light curves is consistent with the expected signal from the cooling of shock heated material of large scale dimensions, greater than or similar to 1R(circle dot). This could be due to heated material of the progenitor, a companion star or pre-existing circumstellar environment, e.g., in the form of an accretion disk. Structure seen in the light curves during the first days after explosion could also originate from radioactive material in the outer parts of an exploding white dwarf, as suggested from the early detection of gamma-rays. The model degeneracy translates into a systematic uncertainty of +/- 0.3 days on the estimate of the first light from SN 2014J.

Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, no 2, article id 158Article in journal (Refereed)

Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material (CSM). We report optical observations of six new SNe Ibn: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects in the literature to 22. We also report new data, including a near-infrared spectrum, on the Type Ibn SN 2015U. In order to characterize the class as a whole, we analyze the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full Type Ibn sample. We find that, despite the expectation that CSM interaction would generate a heterogeneous set of light curves, as seen in SNe IIn, most Type Ibn light curves are quite similar in shape, declining at rates around 0.1 mag day(-1) during the first month after maximum light, with a few significant exceptions. Early spectra of SNe Ibn come in at least two varieties, one that shows narrow P Cygni lines and another dominated by broader emission lines, both around maximum light, which may be an indication of differences in the state of the progenitor system at the time of explosion. Alternatively, the spectral diversity could arise from viewing-angle effects or merely from a lack of early spectroscopic coverage. Together, the relative light curve homogeneity and narrow spectral features suggest that the CSM consists of a spatially confined shell of helium surrounded by a less dense extended wind.

• 21. Inserra, C.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL2013In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 770, no 2, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)

We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I lambda 10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of Co-56, and would require 1-4 M-circle dot of Ni-56 to produce the luminosity. These Ni-56 masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 less than or similar to E(10(51) erg) less than or similar to 6.9 and ejecta masses of 2.3 less than or similar to M-ej(M-circle dot) less than or similar to 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx-the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far-points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

• 22. Jerkstrand, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
The nebular spectra of SN 2012aw and constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis from oxygen emission lines2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, no 4, p. 3694-3703Article in journal (Refereed)

We present nebular-phase optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw combined with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer calculations applied to ejecta from stellar evolution/explosion models. Our spectral synthesis models generally show good agreement with the ejecta from a M-ZAMS = 15 M-circle dot progenitor star. The emission lines of oxygen, sodium, and magnesium are all consistent with the nucleosynthesis in a progenitor in the 14-18 M-circle dot range. We also demonstrate how the evolution of the oxygen cooling lines of [O i] lambda 5577, [O i] lambda 6300, and [O i] lambda 6364 can be used to constrain the mass of oxygen in the non-molecularly cooled ashes to < 1 M-circle dot, independent of the mixing in the ejecta. This constraint implies that any progenitor model of initial mass greater than 20 M-circle dot would be difficult to reconcile with the observed line strengths. A stellar progenitor of around M-ZAMS = 15 M-circle dot can consistently explain the directly measured luminosity of the progenitor star, the observed nebular spectra, and the inferred pre-supernova mass-loss rate. We conclude that there is still no convincing example of a Type IIP supernova showing the nucleosynthesis products expected from an M-ZAMS > 20 M-circle dot progenitor.

• 23.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
OGLE-2014-SN-131: A long-rising Type Ibn supernova from a massive progenitor2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 602, article id A93Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are thought to be the core-collapse explosions of massive stars whose ejecta interact with He-rich circumstellar material (CSM). Aims. We report the discovery of a SN Ibn, with the longest rise-time ever observed, OGLE-2014-SN-131. We discuss the potential powering mechanisms and the progenitor nature of this peculiar stripped-envelope (SE), circumstellar-interacting SN. Methods. Optical photometry and spectroscopy were obtained with multiple telescopes including VLT, NTT, and GROND. We compare light curves and spectra with those of other known SNe Ibn and Ibc. CSM velocities are derived from the spectral analysis. The SN light curve is modeled under di ff erent assumptions about its powering mechanism (56Ni decay, CSM-interaction, magnetar) in order to estimate the SN progenitor parameters. Results. OGLE-2014-SN-131 spectroscopically resembles SNe Ibn such as SN 2010al. Its peak luminosity and post-peak colors are also similar to those of other SNe Ibn. However, it shows an unprecedentedly long rise-time and a much broader light curve compared to other SNe Ibn. Its bolometric light curve can be reproduced by magnetar and CSM-interaction models, but not by a 56Ni-decay powering model. Conclusions. To explain the unusually long rise-time, the broad light curve, the light curve decline, and the spectra characterized by narrow emission lines, we favor a powering mechanism where the SN ejecta are interacting with a dense CSM. The progenitor of OGLE-2014-SN-131 was likely a Wolf-Rayet star with a mass greater than that of a typical SN Ibn progenitor, which expelled the CSM that the SN is interacting with.

• 24. Kelly, P. L.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SN REFSDAL: CLASSIFICATION AS A LUMINOUS AND BLUE SN 1987A-LIKE TYPE II SUPERNOVA2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 831, no 2, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed)

We have acquired Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Very Large Telescope near-infrared spectra and images of supernova (SN) Refsdal after its discovery as an Einstein cross in fall 2014. The HST light curve of SN Refsdal has a shape consistent with the distinctive, slowly rising light curves of SN. 1987A-like SNe, and we find strong evidence for a broad H alpha P-Cygni profile and Na I D absorption in the HST grism spectrum at the redshift (z = 1.49) of the spiral host galaxy. SNe. IIn, largely powered by circumstellar interaction, could provide a good match to the light curve of SN Refsdal, but the spectrum of a SN IIn would not show broad and strong H alpha and Na I D absorption. From the grism spectrum, we measure an H alpha expansion velocity consistent with those of SN. 1987A-like SNe at a similar phase. The luminosity, evolution, and Gaussian profile of the H alpha emission of the WFC3 and X-shooter spectra, separated by similar to 2.5 months in the rest frame, provide additional evidence that supports the SN. 1987A-like classification. In comparison with other examples of SN. 1987A-like SNe, photometry of SN Refsdal favors bluer B - V and V - R colors and one of the largest luminosities for the assumed range of potential magnifications. The evolution of the light curve at late times will provide additional evidence about the potential existence of any substantial circumstellar material. Using MOSFIRE and X-shooter spectra, we estimate a subsolar host-galaxy metallicity (8.3 +/- 0.1 dex and <8.4 dex, respectively) near the explosion site.

• 25. Khazov, D.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND < 10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 818, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)

Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (<= 10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (flash spectroscopy), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe. II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as blue/featureless (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M-R = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M-R = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

• 26.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
The peculiar Type Ia supernova iPTF14atg: Chandrasekhar-mass explosion or violent merger?2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 459, no 4, p. 4428-4439Article in journal (Refereed)

iPTF14atg, a subluminous peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) similar to SN 2002es, is the first SN Ia for which a strong UV flash was observed in the early-time light curves. This has been interpreted as evidence for a single-degenerate (SD) progenitor system, where such a signal is expected from interactions between the SN ejecta and the non-degenerate companion star. Here, we compare synthetic observables of multidimensional state-of-the-art explosion models for different progenitor scenarios to the light curves and spectra of iPTF14atg. From our models, we have difficulties explaining the spectral evolution of iPTF14atg within the SD progenitor channel. In contrast, we find that a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with 0.9 and 0.76 M-aS (TM), respectively, provides an excellent match to the spectral evolution of iPTF14atg from 10 d before to several weeks after maximum light. Our merger model does not naturally explain the initial UV flash of iPTF14atg. We discuss several possibilities like interactions of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium and surface radioactivity from an He-ignited merger that may be able to account for the early UV emission in violent merger models.

Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A AT 10,000 DAYS2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 833, no 2, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed)

Due to its proximity, SN. 1987A offers a unique opportunity to directly observe the geometry of a stellar explosion as it unfolds. Here we present spectral and imaging observations of SN. 1987A obtained similar to 10,000 days after the explosion with HST/STIS and VLT/SINFONI at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. These observations allow us to produce the most detailed 3D map of Ha to date, the first 3D maps for [Ca II] lambda lambda 7292, 7324, [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364, and Mg. II lambda lambda 9218, 9244, as well as new maps for [Si I]+[Fe II] 1.644 mu m and He I 2.058 mu m. A comparison with previous observations shows that the [Si I]+[Fe II] flux and morphology have not changed significantly during the past ten years, providing evidence that this line is powered by Ti-44. The time evolution of Ha shows that it is predominantly powered by X-rays from the ring, in agreement with previous findings. All lines that have sufficient signal show a similar large-scale 3D structure, with a north-south asymmetry that resembles a broken dipole. This structure correlates with early observations of asymmetries, showing that there is a global asymmetry that extends from the inner core to the outer envelope. On smaller scales, the two brightest lines, Ha and [Si I]+[Fe II] 1.644 mu m, show substructures at the level of similar to 200-1000 km s(-1) and clear differences in their 3D geometries. We discuss these results in the context of explosion models and the properties of dust in the ejecta.

• 28.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Supernova spectra below strong circumstellar interaction2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, article id A61Article in journal (Refereed)

We construct spectra of supernovae (SNe) interacting strongly with a circumstellar medium (CSM) by adding SN templates, a black-body continuum, and an emission-line spectrum. In a Monte Carlo simulation we vary a large number of parameters, such as the SN type, brightness and phase, the strength of the CSM interaction, the extinction, and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectrum. We generate more than 800 spectra, distribute them to ten different human classifiers, and study how the different simulation parameters affect the appearance of the spectra and their classification. The SNe IIn showing some structure over the continuum were characterized as SNe IInS to allow for a better quantification. We demonstrate that the flux ratio of the underlying SN to the continuum f(v) is the single most important parameter determining whether a spectrum can be classified correctly. Other parameters, such as extinction, S/N, and the width and strength of the emission lines, do not play a significant role. Thermonuclear SNe get progressively classified as Ia-CSM, IInS, and IIn as f(v) decreases. The transition between Ia-CSM and IInS occurs at f(v) similar to 0.2-0.3. It is therefore possible to determine that SNe Ia-CSM are found at the (un-extincted) magnitude range -19.5 > M > -21.6, in very good agreement with observations, and that the faintest SN IIn that can hide a SN Ia has M = -20.1. The literature sample of SNe Ia-CSM shows an association with 91T-like SNe Ia. Our experiment does not support that this association can be attributed to a luminosity bias (91T-like being brighter than normal events). We therefore conclude that this association has real physical origins and we propose that 91T-like explosions result from single degenerate progenitors that are responsible for the CSM. Despite the spectroscopic similarities between SNe Ibc and SNe Ia, the number of misclassifications between these types was very small in our simulation and mostly at low S/N. Combined with the SN luminosity function needed to reproduce the observed SN Ia-CSM luminosities, it is unlikely that SNe Ibc constitute an important contaminant within this sample. We show how Type II spectra transition to IIn and how the H alpha profiles vary with f(v). SNe IIn fainter than M = -17.2 are unable to mask SNe IIP brighter than M = -15. A more advanced simulation, including radiative transfer, shows that our simplified model is a good first order approximation. The spectra obtained are in good agreement with real data.

• 29.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577Article in journal (Refereed)

Aims. This study aims at constraining the origin of the nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe), 2011fe and 2014J. The two most favoured scenarios for triggering the explosion of the white dwarf supernova progenitor is either mass loss from a non-degenerate companion or merger with another white dwarf. In the former, there could be a significant amount of leftover material from the companion at the centre of the supernova. Detecting such material would therefore favour the single-degenerate scenario. Methods. The left-over material from a possible non-degenerate companion can reveal itself after about one year, and in this study such material was searched for in the spectra of SN 2011fe (at 294 days after the explosion) using the Large Binocular Telescope and for SN 2014J using the Nordic Optical Telescope (315 days past explosion). The observations were interpreted using numerical models simulating the expected line emission from ablated material from the companion star. The spectral lines sought for are H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, and [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291,7324, and the expected width of these lines is similar to 1000 km s(-1), which in the case of the [Ca II] lines blend to a broader feature. Results. No signs of H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, or [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291, 7324 could be traced for in any of the two supernovae. When systematic uncertainties are included, the limits on hydrogen-rich ablated gas are 0 : 003 M-circle dot in SN 2011fe and 0 : 0085 M-circle dot in SN 2014J, where the limit for SN 2014J is the second lowest ever, and the limit for SN 2011fe is a revision of a previous limit. Limits are also put on helium-rich ablated gas, and here limits from [O I] lambda 6300 provide the upper mass limits 0 : 002 M-circle dot and 0 : 005 M-circle dot for SNe 2011fe and 2014J, respectively. These numbers are used in conjunction with other data to argue that these supernovae can stem from double-degenerate systems or from single-degenerate systems with a spun-up/spun-down super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf. For SN 2011fe, other types of hydrogen-rich donors can very likely be ruled out, whereas a main-sequence donor system with large intrinsic separation is still possible for SN 2014J. Helium-rich donor systems cannot be ruled out for any of the two supernovae, but the expected short delay time for such progenitors makes this possibility less likely, especially for SN 2011fe. Published data for SNe 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am, and 2005cf are used to constrain their origin. We emphasise that the results of this study depend on the sought-after lines emerging unattenuated from the central regions of the nebula. Detailed radiative transfer calculations with longer line lists than are presently used are needed to confirm that this is, in fact, true. Finally, the broad lines of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are discussed, and it is found that the [Ni II] lambda 7378 emission is redshifted by similar to+ 1300 km s(-1), as opposed to the known blueshift of similar to-1100 km s(-1) for SN 2011fe. [Fe II] lambda 7155 is also redshifted in SN 2014J. SN 2014J belongs to a minority of SNe Ia that both have a nebular redshift of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [Ni II] lambda 7378, and a slow decline of the Si II lambda 6355 absorption trough just after B-band maximum.

• 30. Lyman, J. D.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Investigating the diversity of supernovae type Iax: a MUSE and NOT spectroscopic study of their environments2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 473, no 1, p. 1359-1387Article in journal (Refereed)

SN 2002cx-like Type Ia supernovae (also known as SNe Iax) represent one of the most numerous peculiar SN classes. They differ from normal SNe Ia by having fainter peak magnitudes, faster decline rates and lower photospheric velocities, displaying a wide diversity in these properties. We present both integral-field and long-slit visual-wavelength spectroscopy of the host galaxies and explosion sites of SNe Iax to provide constraints on their progenitor formation scenarios. The SN Iax explosion-site metallicity distribution is similar to that of core-collapse SNe and metal poor compared to either normal SNe Ia or SN 1991T-like events. Fainter members, speculated to form distinctly from brighter SN Iax, are found at a range of metallicities, extending to very metal poor environments. Although the SN Iax explosion-sites' ages and star formation rates are comparatively older and less intense than the distribution of star-forming regions across their host galaxies, we confirm the presence of young stellar populations (SPs) at explosion environments for most SNe Iax, expanded here to a larger sample. Ages of the young SPs (several x 10(7) to 10(8) yr) are consistent with predictions for young thermonuclear and electron-capture SN progenitors. The lack of extremely young SPs at the explosion sites disfavours very massive progenitors such as Wolf-Rayet explosions with significant fallback. We find weak ionized gas in the only SN Iax host without obvious signs of star formation. The source of the ionization remains ambiguous but appears unlikely to be mainly due to young, massive stars.

• 31. Maguire, K.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
A statistical analysis of circumstellar material in Type Ia supernovae2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 436, no 1, p. 222-240Article in journal (Refereed)

A key tracer of the elusive progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is the detection of narrow blueshifted time-varying Na I D absorption lines, interpreted as evidence of circumstellar material surrounding the progenitor system. The origin of this material is controversial, but the simplest explanation is that it results from previous mass-loss in a system containing a white dwarf and a non-degenerate companion star. We present new single-epoch intermediate-resolution spectra of 17 low-redshift SNe Ia taken with XShooter on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Combining this sample with events from the literature, we confirm an excess (similar to 20 per cent) of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features compared to redshifted Na I D features. The host galaxies of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted absorption profiles are skewed towards later-type galaxies, compared to SNe Ia that show no Na I D absorption and SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features have broader light curves. The strength of the Na I D absorption is stronger in SNe Ia displaying blueshifted Na I D absorption features than those without blueshifted features, and the strength of the blueshifted Na I D is correlated with the B - V colour of the SN at maximum light. This strongly suggests the absorbing material is local to the SN. In the context of the progenitor systems of SNe Ia, we discuss the significance of these findings and other recent observational evidence on the nature of SN Ia progenitors. We present a summary that suggests that there are at least two distinct populations of normal, cosmologically useful SNe Ia.

• 32. Maund, J. R.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Supernova 2012ec: identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, no 1, p. l102-L106Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the identification of the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2012ec in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel F814W images. The properties of the progenitor are further constrained by non-detections in pre-explosion WFPC2 F450W and F606W images. We report a series of early photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012ec. The r' -band light curve shows a plateau with M-r' = -17.0. The early spectrum is similar to the Type IIP SN 1999em, with the expansion velocity measured at Ha absorption minimum of -11 700 km s(-1) (at 1 d post-discovery). The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2012ec shows it to be a Type IIP SN, discovered only a few days post-explosion (<6 d). We derive a luminosity for the progenitor, in comparison with MARCS model spectral energy distributions, of log L/L-circle dot = 5.15 +/- 0.19, from which we infer an initial mass range of 14-22M(circle dot). This is the first SN with an identified progenitor to be followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO).

• 33. Miller, A. A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 852, no 2, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed)

Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15 +/-(0.15)(0.07) days before our first detection. In the similar to 24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by similar to 2mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for. greater than or similar to 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after similar to 7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B - V)(0) colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive Ni-56 in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

• 34. Miller, A. A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Color Me Intrigued: The Discovery of iPTF 16fnm, an SN 2002cx-like Object2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 848, no 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)

0 Modern wide-field, optical time-domain surveys must solve a basic optimization problem: maximize the number of transient discoveries or minimize the follow-up needed for the new discoveries. Here, we describe the Color Me Intrigued experiment, the first from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to search for transients simultaneously in the g(PTF') and R-PTF bands. During the course of this experiment, we discovered iPTF 16fnm, a new member of the 02cx-like subclass of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). iPTF 16fnm peaked at Mg-PTF = -15.09 +/- 0.17 mag, making it the second-least-luminous known SN Ia. iPTF 16fnm exhibits all the hallmarks of the 02cx-like class: (i) low luminosity at peak, (ii) low ejecta velocities, and (iii) a non-nebular spectrum several months after peak. Spectroscopically, iPTF 16fnm exhibits a striking resemblance to two other low-luminosity 02cx-like SNe: SN. 2007qd and SN 2010ae. iPTF 16fnm and SN 2005hk decline at nearly the same rate, despite a 3 mag difference in brightness at peak. When considering the full subclass of 02cx-like SNe, we do not find evidence for a tight correlation between peak luminosity and decline rate in either the g ' or r ' band. We measure the relative rate of 02cx-like SNe to normal SNe Ia and find r(N02cx/NIa) = 33(-25)(+158)%. We further examine the g ' - r ' evolution of 02cx-like SNe and find that their unique color evolution can be used to separate them from 91bg-like and normal SNe Ia. This selection function will be especially important in the spectroscopically incomplete Zwicky Transient Facility/Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era. Finally, we close by recommending that LSST periodically evaluate, and possibly update, its observing cadence to maximize transient science.

• 35. Moriya, Takashi J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
An analytic bolometric light curve model of interaction-powered supernovae and its application to Type IIn supernovae2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 435, no 2, p. 1520-1535Article in journal (Refereed)

We present an analytic model for bolometric light curves which are powered by the interaction between supernova ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium. This model is aimed at modelling Type IIn supernovae to determine the properties of their supernova ejecta and circumstellar medium. Our model is not restricted to the case of steady mass loss and can be applied broadly. We only consider the case in which the optical depth of the unshocked circumstellar medium is not high enough to affect the light curves. We derive the luminosity evolution based on an analytic solution for the evolution of a dense shell created by the interaction. We compare our model bolometric light curves to observed bolometric light curves of three Type IIn supernovae (2005ip, 2006jd, 2010jl) and show that our model can constrain their supernova ejecta and circumstellar medium properties. Our analytic model is supported by numerical light curves from the same initial conditions.

• 36. Moriya, Takashi J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Mass-loss histories of Type IIn supernova progenitors within decades before their explosion2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, no 3, p. 2917-2926Article in journal (Refereed)

We present results of a systematic study of the mass-loss properties of Type IIn supernova progenitors within decades before their explosion. We apply an analytic light-curve model to 11 Type IIn supernova bolometric light curves to derive the circumstellar medium properties. We reconstruct the mass-loss histories based on the estimated circumstellar medium properties. The estimated mass-loss rates are mostly higher than 10(-3) M-circle dot yr(-1) and they are consistent with those obtained by other methods. The mass-loss rates are often found to be constantly high within decades before their explosion. This indicates that there exists some mechanism to sustain the high mass-loss rates of Type IIn supernova progenitors for at least decades before their explosion. Thus, the shorter eruptive mass-loss events observed in some Type IIn supernova progenitors are not always responsible for creating their dense circumstellar media. In addition, we find that Type IIn supernova progenitors may tend to increase their mass-loss rates as they approach to the time of their explosion. We also show a detailed comparison between our analytic prediction and numerical results.

• 37. Morokuma, Tomoki
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
OISTER optical and near-infrared monitoring observations of peculiar radio-loud active galactic nucleus SDSSJ110006.07+442144.32017In: Nippon Tenmon Gakkai obun kenkyu hokoku, ISSN 0004-6264, Vol. 69, no 5, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)

We present monitoring campaign observations at optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths for a radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z = 0.840, SDSSJ110006.07+442144.3 (hereafter, J1100+4421), which was identified during a flare phase in late 2014 February. The campaigns consist of three intensive observing runs from the discovery to 2015 March, mostly within the scheme of the OISTER collaboration. Optical-NIR light curves and simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are obtained. Our measurements show the strongest brightening in 2015 March. We found that the optical-NIR SEDs of J1100+4421 show an almost steady shape despite the large and rapid intranight variability. This constant SED shape is confirmed to extend to similar to 5 mu m in the observed frame using the archival WISE data. Given the lack of absorption lines and the steep power-law spectrum of alpha(upsilon) similar to -1.4, where f(v) proportional to v(alpha upsilon), synchrotron radiation by a relativistic jet with no or small contributions from the host galaxy and the accretion disk seemsmost plausible as an optical-NIR emission mechanism. The steep optical-NIR spectral shape and the large amplitude of variability are consistent with this object being a low.peak jet-dominated AGN. In addition, sub-arcsecond resolution optical imaging data taken with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam does not show a clear extended component and the spatial scales are significantly smaller than the large extensions detected at radio wavelengths. The optical spectrum of a possible faint companion galaxy does not show any emission lines at the same redshift, and hence a merging hypothesis for this AGN-related activity is not supported by our observations.

• 38. Morokuma, Tomoki
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy2014In: Nippon Tenmon Gakkai obun kenkyu hokoku, ISSN 0004-6264, Vol. 66, no 6, article id 114Article in journal (Refereed)

lThe Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2 degrees.2 x 2 degrees.2 field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g similar to 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

• 39. Nicholl, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Superluminous supernovae from PESSTO2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 444, no 3, p. 2096-2113Article in journal (Refereed)

We present optical spectra and light curves for three hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). Time series spectroscopy from a fewdays aftermaximum light to 100 d later shows them to be fairly typical of this class, with spectra dominated by Ca II, MgII, FeII, and Si II, which evolve slowly over most of the post-peak photospheric phase. We determine bolometric light curves and apply simple fitting tools, based on the diffusion of energy input by magnetar spin-down, Ni-56 decay, and collision of the ejecta with an opaque circumstellar shell. We investigate how the heterogeneous light curves of our sample (combined with others from the literature) can help to constrain the possible mechanisms behind these events. We have followed these events to beyond 100-200 d after peak, to disentangle host galaxy light from fading supernova flux and to differentiate between the models, which predict diverse behaviour at this phase. Models powered by radioactivity require unrealistic parameters to reproduce the observed light curves, as found by previous studies. Both magnetar heating and circumstellar interaction still appear to be viable candidates. A large diversity is emerging in observed tail-phase luminosities, with magnetar models failing in some cases to predict the rapid drop in flux. This would suggest either that magnetars are not responsible, or that the X-ray flux from the magnetar wind is not fully trapped. The light curve of one object shows a distinct rebrightening at around 100 d after maximum light. We argue that this could result either from multiple shells of circumstellar material, or from a magnetar ionization front breaking out of the ejecta.

• 40. Nicholl, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions2013In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 502, no 7471, p. 346-+Article in journal (Refereed)

Super-luminous supernovae(1-4) that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae(5,6). Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of Ni-56 are synthesized; this isotope decays to Fe-56 via Co-56, powering bright light curves(7,8). Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe(9). Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova(1,10). Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae(2,11,12), which are not powered by radio-activity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized(13,14) ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 x 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.

• 41. Nicholl, M.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 452, no 4, p. 3869-3893Article in journal (Refereed)

We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise-decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe II are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2-3. Assuming. = 0.1 cm(2) g(-1), we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M-circle dot (6 M-circle dot), with a range of 3-30 M-circle dot. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.

• 42.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, article id A6Article in journal (Refereed)

A core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) of Type IIn is dominated by the interaction of SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium (CSM). Some SNe IIn (e.g. SN 2006jd) have episodes of re-brightening (''bumps'') in their light curves. We present iPTF13z, a Type IIn SN discovered on 2013 February 1 by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). This SN showed at least five bumps in its declining light curve between 130 and 750 days after discovery. We analyse this peculiar behaviour and try to infer the properties of the CSM, of the SN explosion, and the nature of the progenitor star. We obtained multi-band optical photometry for over 1000 days after discovery with the P48 and P60 telescopes at Palomar Observatory. We obtained low-resolution optical spectra during the same period. We did an archival search for progenitor outbursts. We analyse the photometry and the spectra, and compare iPTF13z to other SNe IIn. In particular we derive absolute magnitudes, colours, a pseudo-bolometric light curve, and the velocities of the different components of the spectral lines. A simple analytical model is used to estimate the properties of the CSM. iPTF13z had a light curve peaking at Mr <~ -18.3 mag. The five bumps during its decline phase had amplitudes ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mag and durations between 20 and 120 days. The most prominent bumps appeared in all the different optical bands, when covered. The spectra of this SN showed typical SN IIn characteristics, with emission lines of Hα (with broad component FWHM ~ 103 - 104 km s-1 and narrow component FWHM ~ 102 km s-1) and He I, but also with Fe II, Ca II, Na I D and Hβ P Cygni profiles (with velocities of ~ 103 km  s-1). A pre-explosion outburst was identified lasting >~ 50 days, with Mr $\approx$ -15 mag around 210 days before discovery. Large, variable progenitor mass-loss rates (>~ 0.01 MSun yr-1) and CSM densities (>~ 10-16 g cm-3) are derived. The SN was hosted by a metal-poor dwarf galaxy at redshift z = 0.0328. We suggest that the light curve bumps of iPTF13z arose from SN ejecta interacting with denser regions in the CSM, possibly produced by the eruptions of a luminous blue variable progenitor star.

• 43. Oates, S. R.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Multiwavelength observations of the Type IIb supernova 2009mg2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 424, no 2, p. 1297-1306Article in journal (Refereed)

We present Swift Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations, and visual wavelength spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2009mg, discovered in the Sb galaxy ESO 121-G26. The observational properties of SN 2009mg are compared to the prototype Type IIb SNe 1993J and 2008ax, with which we find many similarities. However, minor differences are discernible including SN 2009mg not exhibiting an initial fast decline or u-band upturn as observed in the comparison objects, and its rise to maximum is somewhat slower leading to slightly broader light curves. The late-time temporal index of SN 2009mg, determined from 40 d post-explosion, is consistent with the decay rate of SN 1993J, but inconsistent with the decay of 56Co. This suggests leakage of ?-rays out of the ejecta and a stellar mass on the small side of the mass distribution. Our XRT non-detection provides an upper limit on the mass-loss rate of the progenitor of . Modelling of the SN light curve indicates a kinetic energy of , an ejecta mass of and a 56Ni mass of 0.10 +/- 0.01 M?.

• 44. Pastorello, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 474, no 1, p. 197-218Article in journal (Refereed)

Supernova (SN) 2016bdu is an unusual transient resembling SN 2009ip. SN 2009ip-like events are characterized by a long-lasting phase of erratic variability that ends with two luminous outbursts a few weeks apart. The second outburst is significantly more luminous (about 3 mag) than the first. In the case of SN 2016bdu, the first outburst (Event A) reached an absolute magnitude M-r approximate to -15.3 mag, while the second one (Event B) occurred over one month later and reached M-r approximate to -18 mag. By inspecting archival data, a faint source at the position of SN 2016bdu is several times in the past few years. We interpret these detections as signatures of a phase of erratic variability, similar to that experienced by SN 2009ip between 2008 and mid-2012, and resembling the currently observed variability of the luminous blue variable SN 2000ch in NGC 3432. Spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2016bdu during the second peak initially shows features typical of an SN IIn. One month after the Event B maximum, the spectra develop broad Balmer lines with P Cygni profiles and broad metal features. At these late phases, the spectra resemble those of a typical Type II SN. All members of this SN 2009ip-like group are remarkably similar to the Type IIn SN 2005gl. For this object, the claim of a terminal SN explosion is supported by the disappearance of the progenitor star. While the similarity with SN 2005gl supports a genuine SN explosion scenario for SN 2009ip-like events, the unequivocal detection of nucleosynthesized elements in their nebular spectra is still missing.

• 45. Pastorello, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
SN 2009E: a faint clone of SN 1987A2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 537, article id A141Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. 1987A-like events form a rare sub-group of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae that are thought to originate from the explosion of blue supergiant stars. Although SN 1987A is the best known supernova, very few objects of this group have been discovered and, hence, studied. Aims. In this paper we investigate the properties of SN 2009E, which exploded in a relatively nearby spiral galaxy (NGC 4141) and that is probably the faintest 1987A-like supernova discovered so far. We also attempt to characterize this subgroup of core-collapse supernovae with the help of the literature and present new data for a few additional objects. Methods. The lack of early-time observations from professional telescopes is compensated by frequent follow-up observations performed by a number of amateur astronomers. This allows us to reconstruct a well-sampled light curve for SN 2009E. Spectroscopic observations which started about 2 months after the supernova explosion, highlight significant differences between SN 2009E and the prototypical SN 1987A. Modelling the data of SN 2009E allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor star, and compare the inferred estimates with those available for the similar SNe 1987A and 1998A. Results. The light curve of SN 2009E is less luminous than that of SN 1987A and the other members of this class, and the maximum light curve peak is reached at a slightly later epoch than in SN 1987A. Late-time photometric observations suggest that SN 2009E ejected about 0.04 M-circle dot of Ni-56, which is the smallest Ni-56 mass in our sample of 1987A-like events. Modelling the observations with a radiation hydrodynamics code, we infer for SN 2009E a kinetic plus thermal energy of about 0.6 foe, an initial radius of similar to 7x10(12) cm and an ejected mass of similar to 19 M-circle dot. The photospheric spectra show a number of narrow (v approximate to 1800 km s(-1)) metal lines, with unusually strong Ba II lines. The nebular spectrum displays narrow emission lines of H, Na I, [Ca II] and [O I], with the [O I] feature being relatively strong compared to the [Ca II] doublet. The overall spectroscopic evolution is reminiscent of that of the faint Ni-56-poor type II-plateau supernovae. This suggests that SN 2009E belongs to the low-luminosity, low Ni-56 mass, low-energy tail in the distribution of the 1987A-like objects in the same manner as SN 1997D and similar events represent the faint tail in the distribution of physical properties for normal type II-plateau supernovae.

• 46. Pastorello, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VIII. PSN J07285387+3349106, a highly reddened supernova Ibn2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 4, p. 4293-4303Article in journal (Refereed)

We present spectroscopic and photometric observations for the Type Ibn supernova (SN) dubbed PSN J07285387+3349106. Using data provided by amateur astronomers, we monitored the photometric rise of the SN to maximum light, occurred on 2015 February 18.8 UT (JD(max)(V) = 245 7072.0 +/- 0.8). PSN J07285387+3349106 exploded in the inner region of an infrared luminous galaxy, and is the most reddened SN Ibn discovered so far. We apply multiple methods to derive the total reddening to the SN, and determine a total colour excess E(B - V)(tot) = 0.99 +/- 0.48 mag. Accounting for the reddening correction, which is affected by a large uncertainty, we estimate a peak absolute magnitude of MV = -20.30 +/- 1.50. The spectra are dominated by continuum emission at early phases, and He I lines with narrow P-Cygni profiles are detected. We also identify weak Fe III and N II features. All these lines show an absorption component which is blueshifted by about 900-1000 km s(-1). The spectra also show relatively broad He I line wings with low contrast, which extend to above 3000 km s(-1). From about two weeks past maximum, broad lines of OI, Mg II and the Ca II near-infrared triplet are identified. The composition and the expansion velocity of the circumstellar material, and the presence of He I and alpha-elements in the SN ejecta indicate that PSN J07285387+3349106 was produced by the core collapse of a stripped-envelope star. We suggest that the precursor was WNE-type Wolf-Rayet star in its dense, He-rich circumstellar cocoon.

Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
Supernova 2012aw in M95 = Psn J10435372+11401772012Report (Other academic)

CBET 3054 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

• 48.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
SN 2012aa: A transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 596, article id A67Article in journal (Refereed)

Context. Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by similar to 2 mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes less than or similar to-21 are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). The mechanism that powers the light curves of SLSNe is still not well understood. The proposed scenarios are circumstellar interaction, the emergence of a magnetar after core collapse, or disruption of a massive star through pair production. Aims. There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. They are important for constraining the nature of the progenitors of these two different populations and their environments and powering mechanisms. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods. We observed and analysed the evolution of the luminous Type Ic SN 2012aa. The event was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search in an anonymous galaxy (z approximate to 0.08). The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results. With an absolute V-band peak of similar to-20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. SN 2012aa also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. For SN 2012aa, we interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). If we assume a Ni-56-powered ejecta, the quasi-bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M-circle dot of Ni-56 and an ejected mass of similar to 14 M-circle dot. This also implies a high kinetic energy of the explosion, similar to 5.4 x 10(51) erg. On the other hand, the unusually broad light curve along with the secondary peak indicate the possibility of interaction with CSM. The third alternative is the presence of a central engine releasing spin energy that eventually powers the light curve over a long time. The host of SN 2012aa is a star-forming Sa/Sb/Sbc galaxy. Conclusions. Although the spectral properties of SN 2012aa and its velocity evolution are comparable to those of normal SNe Ibc, its broad light curve along with a large peak luminosity distinguish it from canonical CCSNe, suggesting that the event is an intermediate-luminosity transient between CCSNe and SLSNe at least in terms of peak luminosity. In comparison to other SNe, we argue that SN 2012aa belongs to a subclass where CSM interaction plays a significant role in powering the SN, at least during the initial stages of evolution.

• 49. Scalzo, R. A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Early ultraviolet emission in the Type Ia supernova LSQ12gdj: No evidence for ongoing shock interaction2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 445, no 1, p. 30-48Article in journal (Refereed)

We present photospheric-phase observations of LSQ12gdj, a slowly declining, UV-bright Type Ia supernova. Classified well before maximum light, LSQ12gdj has extinction-corrected absolute magnitude M-B = -19.8, and pre-maximum spectroscopic evolution similar to SN 1991T and the super-Chandrasekhar-mass SN 2007if. We use ultraviolet photometry from Swift, ground-based optical photometry, and corrections from a near-infrared photometric template to construct the bolometric (1600-23 800 angstrom) light curve out to 45 d past B-band maximum light. We estimate that LSQ12gdj produced 0.96 +/- 0.07 M-circle dot of Ni-56, with an ejected mass near or slightly above the Chandrasekhar mass. As much as 27 per cent of the flux at the earliest observed phases, and 17 per cent at maximum light, is emitted bluewards of 3300 angstrom. The absence of excess luminosity at late times, the cutoff of the spectral energy distribution bluewards of 3000 angstrom and the absence of narrow line emission and strong Na I D absorption all argue against a significant contribution from ongoing shock interaction. However, similar to 10 per cent of LSQ12gdj's luminosity near maximum light could be produced by the release of trapped radiation, including kinetic energy thermalized during a brief interaction with a compact, hydrogen-poor envelope (radius < 10(13) cm) shortly after explosion; such an envelope arises generically in double-degenerate merger scenarios.

• 50. Shappee, B. J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
THE YOUNG AND BRIGHT TYPE IA SUPERNOVA ASASSN-141p: DISCOVERY, EARLY-TIME OBSERVATIONS, FIRST-LIGHT TIME, DISTANCE TO NGC 4666, AND PROGENITOR CONSTRAINTS2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 826, no 2, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)

On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or Assassin) discovered ASASSN-141p just similar to 2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-141p went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-141p for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-141p had a broad light curve (Delta m(15) (B) = 0.80 +/- 0.05), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 +/- 0.03, a rise time of 16.941(-0.10)(+0.11) days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction (E (B - V)host = 0.33 +/- 0.06). Using ASASSN-141p, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of mu = 30.8 +/- 0.2, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 +/- 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-141p to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Finally, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 RG(circle dot).

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