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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    11 år av partnerskap i Sverige2006In: Välfärd, no 2, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    A review of policies and practices related to the ‘highest-low’ fertility of Sweden2008In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, p. 89-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews research on the role social and family policies play for fertility in Sweden. Swedish family policies are not directly aimed at encouraging childbirth. Their main goal has rather been to support women’s participation in the labour force and to promote gender equality. They focus on enabling individuals to pursue their family and occupational pathways without being too dependent on other persons. The following measures have helped women to reconcile family and working life: individual taxation and individual-based social-security systems, which make gendered segregation of work and care less attractive for couples; an income replacement based parental-leave system, which gives women incentives to establish themselves on the labour market before considering childbirth; and subsidised child care, which allows women to return to work after parental leave. Fertility has fluctuated during recent decades but—as in the other Nordic countries with similar welfare state setups—it has remained well above the European average. The Swedish institutional context clearly is conducive to such ‘highest-low’ fertility. My review documents the importance of institutional factors in shaping childbearing behaviour and demonstrates some specific impacts of family policies on demographic behaviour.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnafödande i kristider2013In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, no 4, p. 24-26Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Boys, girls, preferences and the links between past and present2016In: The Future of Historical Demography: Upside and Down and Inside Out / [ed] Koen Matthijs, Saskia Hin, Jan Kok, Hideko Matsuo, Leuven: Acco, 2016, p. 67-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing after migration: Fertility patterns of foreign-born women in Sweden2004In: International Migration Review, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 747-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides an investigation of patterns in child¬bearing among foreign-born women in Sweden during the 1960s to 1990s. Event-history techniques are applied to longitudinal population-register data on childbearing and migration of 446.000 foreign-born women who had ever lived in Sweden before the end of 1999. Period trends in parity-specific fertility appear to be quite similar for Swedish- and foreign-born women but important differences exist in levels of childbearing propensities between women stemming from different countries. Most immigrant groups tend to display higher levels of childbearing shortly after immigration. We conclude that migration and family building in many cases are interrelated processes and that it is always important to account for time since migration when fertility of immigrants is studied.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing developments in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden from the 1970s to the 1990s: A comparison2004In: Demographic Research: Special Collections, Vol. SC 3, no 7, p. 155-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative overview of recent trends and patterns in childbearing in the three Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We use indexes produced by applying event-history techniques to register data of the three countries in order to describe and contrast fertility developments by birth order over the last three decades of the 20th century. By combining the same type of data from three countries, we get a very accurate picture of various cross-country differences in fertility levels. We can determine to what extent developments in one country are specific to that country, and to what extent they are part of a more general Nordic pattern of childbearing. We demonstrate how Swedish fertility has fluctuated relatively strongly during the whole period while Danish and Norwegian fertility have evolved more gradually. Nevertheless, trends in Norway and Sweden appear fairly synchronized. A turnaround from decreasing to increasing levels of childbearing is, for example, evident in 1977 in both Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, a similar turnaround occurs considerably later, in 1983. A shift to shorter birth intervals in Sweden during the 1980s is specific to that country and contributed to its stronger increase in fertility during that decade.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Childbearing trends in Sweden 1961-19971999In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to update a system of annual indices of birth rates and to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. Our indices are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data. They enable us to decompose the overall fertility trends, as measured by the period TFR, into its birth-order specific components. Swedish fertility has shown strong fluctuations during our study period and these fluctuations have been particularly dramatic during recent years. A postponement of the age at first birth and a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals are important components in the fertility trends. A peak in the level of childbearing at the beginning of the present decade has now been followed by a sharp drop in the propensity to give birth. This change in behaviour pertains to women of all parities.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Children’s experience of family disruption and family formation: Evidence from 16 FFS countries2002In: Demographic Research, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 343-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a number of descriptive measures on children’s experience of family disruption and family formation. We use data from the Fertility and Family Surveys of 15 European countries and corresponding data from the USA in order to find out what kind of family circumstances children are born into and what experience they subsequently have of various family-transformation events of their mothers. Our presentation reveals some similarities but also striking differences in the family-demographic experience of children in different countries. The USA stands out as one extreme case with its very high proportion of children born to a lone mother, with a higher probability of children who experience a union disruption of their parents than anywhere else, and with many children having the experience of living in a stepfamily. Italy stands out at the other end of the scale. Practically all children here are born to a married mother and very few of them experience the dissolution of their parents’ union before they turn 15.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Demographic trends in Sweden: An update of childbearing and nuptiality up to 20022004In: Demographic Research, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Dissolution of unions in Europe: A comparative overview2002In: Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 27, p. 493-504Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a number of descriptive measures of couples’ experience of union dissolution in a wide range of European countries. We use data from the last round of Fertility and Family Surveys in order to get a broad cross-country comparison of levels and basic patterns of union disruption in countries considered. We use corresponding data from the USA in order to find out to what extent patterns in Europe differ from those at the other side of the Atlantic. With a number of life-table estimations we display levels of union dissolution of couples in different types of unions. Evidently, the picture looks different if one follows marriages from the date of marriage formation than if one follows any union from the date when a couple moves together. In addition, the stability of unions that start as cohabitation differs from the stability of unions that begin with a direct marriage. Our presentation reveals that unions in any European country are much more stable than unions in the US. The latter country stands out as an extreme case no matter what type of union we choose to study. Nevertheless, a high degree of variation also exists within Europe; a number of Catholic countries in Southern and Eastern Europe impress with particularly low levels of union dissolution.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Divorce-risk trends in Sweden 1971-19931995In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an updated system of annual indexes of divorce risks and to use the sys¬tem to display trends in divorce risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Divorce-risk trends turn out to have been quite dif¬ferent for women at different parities. Trends for women in their first marriage (the majority) are also somewhat differ¬ent from trends in later marriages. After a spurt in divorces at parity 0 connected with a divorce reform in 1974, divorce risks have been quite stable for women at this parity, but they have increased steadily among married mothers, mostly as an effect of an increasing prevalence of premarital childbear¬ing. Our indexes are produced by an indirect standardization of register data with respect to a woman's age at marriage, du¬ration of marriage, and order of marriage. We also re¬commend standardization with respect to an indicator of premari¬tal childbearing, which is particularly important in a population with extensive nonmarital cohabitation.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Familienpolitik und soziale Sicherung in Schweden2007In: Familienpolitik und soziale Sicherung in Europa: Erfahrungen aus Europa - Vorbild für Deutschland?, 2007, p. 9-11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family policies and fertility in Sweden2011In: Fertility and Public Policy: How to Reverse the Trend of Declining Birth Rates / [ed] Noriyuki Takayama and Martin Werding, Cambridge MA: MIT Press , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Europe where most countries exhibit low or “lowest-low” fertility, the experience of Sweden and its Nordic neighbors has become of increasing interest to policy makers and social scientists concerned with the causes and consequences of low fertility. Nordic fertility can be labeled as “highest-low”: the fertility of Sweden and its neighbors is below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman but still high as compared to many other developed countries. Fertility in Sweden has fluctuated during recent decades but, as in the other Nordic countries with a similar welfare-state setup, it has stayed well above the European average. The present chapter provides insights into the recent childbearing developments in Sweden and discusses the role of family policies in shaping childbearing behavior. Evidence is provided that institutional factors appear to be far more decisive than cultural ones in influencing childbearing behavior, and some specific impacts of family policies on childbearing dynamics are demonstrated. In this respect, it is important to note that Swedish family policies have never been aimed directly at encouraging childbirth. Their main goal has rather been to support women’s labor-force participation and to promote gender equality: any fertility-stimulating impact needs to be seen as a side effect of these policies. The reconciliation of family and working life of women in Sweden is supported by the design of the country’s taxation, social-security, and parental-leave systems, and the easy access to high-quality subsidized child-care.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. SUDA.
    Family Policies in Sweden and the Swedish Life-cycle Model2009In: Voneinender lernen - miteinander handeln: Aufgaben und Perspektiven der Europäischen Allianz für Familien, Baden-Baden: Nomos , 2009, p. 159-170Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns in family formation in Sweden display a number of regularities. After nest-leaving and a period of labor-market adjustments, union formation and union dynamics, couples tend to consider having children. A prerequisite for this normally is that both partners are established properly in the labor market. After becoming parents, both women and men remain active in the labor force. These patterns in behavior are supported by the impact of Swedish family policies whose main goal it is to support women’s and men’s labor-force participation and to promote social and gender equality. A side effect of these policies seems to be a relatively high fertility as the policy setup removes many of the obstacles for women to combine work and family life. The reconciliation of family and working life is facilitated by (i) individual taxation and individual-based social-security systems, which makes it less attractive for couples to pursue gendered segregation of work and care, (ii) an income-replacement based parental-leave system, which gives women incentives to establish themselves in the labor market before considering childbirth, and (iii) subsidized child-care, which allows women to return to work after parental leave. In this review, I discuss the role of Swedish family policy in shaping life-cycle behavior and demonstrate some specific impacts of family policies on childbearing dynamics.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fecundidade e contextos sociais: o caso dos países nórdicos2012In: Roteiros do Futuro – Conferência “Nascer em Portugal" / [ed] Casa Civil da Presidência da República, Lisbóa: Oficinas Gráficas da Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda , 2012, p. 49-64Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Fertility developments in Norway and Sweden since the early 1960s2002In: Demographic Research, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of recent trends in childbearing in neighboring Norway and Sweden. We use indexes pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data of these two countries in order to describe and contrast their fertility developments over the last four decades. Our indexes enable us to decompose overall fertility trends into birth-order specific components, and by combining the same kind of data from two countries we get a very accurate picture of various cross-country differences in fertility levels. We demonstrate how Swedish fertility has fluctuated relatively strongly during the whole period while Norwegian fertility has evolved more gradually, at least during the last two decades. A turnaround from decreasing to increasing levels of childbearing is evident in 1977 in both countries while a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals is specific to Sweden in the 1980s and contributed to its more spectacular increase in fertility during that decade.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gavin Jones, Paulin Tay Straughan and Angelique Chan (eds.): Ultra-low fertility in Pacific Asia2010In: Journal of Population Research, ISSN 1443-2447, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 241-242Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Giftermålsboom gav stabilare äktenskap1998In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 4, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Låg skilsmässorisk bland medelålders1997In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 5, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Mortality in Stockholm: Recent past, present, and future2001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society, Umeå University , 2001, p. 387-408Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present some features of recent changes in patterns and levels of mortality in the county of Stockholm. Changes in life expectancy at birth and age distribution of deaths for men and women are described, as are patterns of prob¬abilities of death by age and sex of inhabitants of the region. Differentials in mortality patterns between different groups of municipalities in Stockholm are described, and it is shown that the regional variation in mortality is greatest among men of working age. Changes in probabilities of death for men and women between 1990 and 1996 are also presented, revealing a spectacular improvement in the survival chances of children and young adults. These changes do not however have much impact on calculated life expectancies and on the actual number of deceased persons since death rates at younger ages are already extremely low. When making population forecasts, it is therefore more important to consider what assumptions one should make about mortality changes among the elderly in the population. Finally, various assumptions about patterns of future mortality reductions are provided.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Nuptiality Trends in Sweden, 1971-19951997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to introduce a system of annual indexes of divorce risks and marriage risks and to use the sys¬tem to display nuptiality trends for Swedish women over the years since 1971. We give special attention to the effects of children on the nuptiality behavior in that we present parity specific indexes of risks for the various civil-status changes. Our indexes are produced by an indirect standardization of register data. The thesis consists of three separate papers. The first paper displays trends in divorce risks over the years since 1971. A second paper presents a deeper examination of the effect of children on these divorce risks. Separate effects of the number of children, of premarital childbearing, and of the age of the youngest child are examined and disentangled. A final paper displays the trends in risks of marriage formation and re-formation during our study period.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Rekordlågt barnafödande1996In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 6, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Risken för skilsmässa ökar1996In: Välfärdsbulletinen, no 1, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Selectivity in higher-order childbearing in Sweden2008In: Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1796-6183, Vol. XLIII, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we present relative risks of giving birth for mothers with different numbers of children. We use Swedish register data and study the propensity to continue the childbearing beyond child number two. We pay special attention to births of those higher orders that are studied only rarely in conventional demographic analyses. As the parity increases to higher numbers, we expect to find some kind of selection so that the group of mothers increasingly consists of very birth prone women. For births after a fourth child, we indeed find such an effect in that the relative risk of giving birth to an additional child then increases with the birth order. In our intensity-regression models, we also check whether this selection effect of increasing birth risks can be picked up by the inclusion of a specific factor for unobserved heterogeneity in the mothers’ propensity to give birth. We find that the positive gradient in the propensity to give birth indeed disappears when such a factor is included into our model.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women1997In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 109-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk. We present time series of divorce risks for women with different types of children, showing trends for both the factors parity and age of youngest child. The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers. Our study is performed by indirect standardization of register data and we also control for the effects of age at and duration of marriage.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    The impact of labor-force participation on childbearing behavior: Pro-cyclical fertility in Sweden during the 1980s and the 1990s2000In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 293-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the latest two decades, Sweden has experienced strong fluctuations both in its economy and in its level of childbearing. A period of high employment and increasing fertility has been followed by a period of lower employment and decreasing fertility since the beginning of the 1990s. In this paper, we use register data for Swedish women in order to examine how various types of attachment to the labor market affect women’s propensity to give birth at different parities. Specifically, we show what impact changes in women’s employment status have had on recorded fertility trends in Sweden. We find that women who have relatively low levels of income and women who are enrolled as students generally have lower fertility than other women. We also find that a rise in the number of women with such characteristics can explain part of the decrease in fertility during the 1990s. It is evident, however, that other factors, working at the macro level, also have to be considered when one wants to explain the fluctuating fertility of Sweden. Social policy is one such factor. In sum, we find a pattern of pro-cyclical fertility, where levels of female earnings are positively related to levels of childbearing.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in childbearing and nuptiality in Sweden, 1961(71)-19972001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society, Umeå University , 2001, p. 67-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of a system for presenting trends in family dynamics in contemporary Sweden. We use annual indexes of birth rates in order to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. We use similar annual indexes of marriage risks and divorce risks to display nuptiality trends in Sweden since 1971. We decompose the overall trends in fertility and nuptiality and present separate period indexes for women with different numbers of children. All our indexes are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardisation to register data which cover practically all of the Swedish female population. Our indexes give accurate information about changes in the propensity to give birth, to marry, and to divorce from one year to another.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in Childbearing and Nuptiality in Sweden: A Period Analysis1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One purpose of this thesis is to introduce a system for presenting trends in family dynamics in contemporary Sweden. We use annual indexes of birth rates in order to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. We use similar annual indexes of marriage risks and divorce risks to display nuptiality trends since 1971. We give special attention to the effects of children on the nuptiality behavior in that we present parity specific indexes of risks for the different civil-status changes. Similarly, we present separate period indexes of birth rates for women with different numbers of children. All our indexes are pro¬duced by applying indirect standardization to register data which covers practically all of the Swedish female population. Standardization is performed by estimating intensity-regression models and our indexes give accurate information about changes in the propensity to give birth, to marry, and to divorce from one year to another.

    The thesis consists of seven separate papers. The first paper gives an overview of our system of period indexes. The next four papers give a more detailed presenta¬tion of various aspects of the family dynamics in Sweden. Paper number two displays trends in divorce risks over the years since 1971. A third paper presents a further examination of the effect of children on these divorce risks. Separate effects of the number of children, of premarital childbearing, and of the age of the youngest child are examined and disentangled. A fourth paper displays trends in risks of marriage formation and re-formation during the same period, and a fifth paper displays trends in childbearing over the years since 1961.

    A sixth paper of this thesis provides a deeper examination of patterns of child¬bearing and of reasons behind the recent strong fluctuations in Swedish fertility. During the 1980s and the 1990s fertility has varied in concert with the business cycle. We use information on registered income of Swedish women during that period and find that women who have relatively low levels of income and women who are enrolled as students generally have lower fertility than other women. We also find that a rise in the number of women with such characteristics can explain part of the decrease in fertility during the 1990s. In sum, we find a pattern of “pro-cyclical” fertility, where levels of female earnings are positively related to levels of childbear¬ing. It is evident, however, that other factors, working at the macro level, also have to be considered when one wants to explain the fluctuating fertility of Sweden. Social policy is one such factor. In a final paper/note, we examine childbearing at higher birth orders. We find strong selection effects in that the relative risk of giving birth to an additional child increases rapidly with the birth order after the birth of a fourth child.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Trends in marriage formation in Sweden 1971-19931998In: European Journal of Population, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 157-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system of annual indexes of the risks of marriage formation and re-formation and to use the system to display such marriage risks for Swedish women over the years since 1971. Our indexes are produced by applying indirect standardization to register data. The propensity to marry decreased considerably during the 1970s and it has continued to decrease also during the first half of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The decrease in marriage risks is mostly due to a decreased propensity to marry among never-married women with no children. The decrease is not so strong for never-married women with chil¬dren and for divorced women. A sharp, but only temporal, deviation from the general pattern of Swedish marriage-risk trends occurred in 1989, when the number of marriages formed increased dramatically in response to the near-abolition of the public widow’s pensions for women who were not married at the beginning of 1990.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Long-Distance Migration and Mortality in Sweden: Testing the Salmon Bias and Healthy Migrant Hypotheses2017In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 23, no 4, article id UNSP e2032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International migrants often have lower mortality rates than the native populations in their new host countries. Several explanations have been proposed, but in the absence of data covering the entire life courses of migrants both before and after each migration event, it is difficult to assess the validity of different explanations. In the present study, we apply hazard regressions to Swedish register data to study the mortality of long-distance migrants from Northern to Southern Sweden as well as the mortality of return migrants to the North. In this way, we can study a situation that at least partly resembles that of international migration while still having access to data covering the full demographic biographies of all migrants. This allows us to test the relative roles of salmon bias and healthy migrant status in observed mortality rates of long-distance migrants. We find no mortality differentials between residents in northern and southern Sweden, and no evidence of a selection of healthy migrants from the North to the South. In contrast, we provide clear evidence of salmon effects' in terms of elevated mortality of the return migrants to northern Sweden, which are produced when migrants return to their place of origin in relation to subsequent death.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnafödande och familjepolitik i kristider2010In: Global kris - Håller välfärdssystemen / [ed] Försäkringskassan, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2010, p. 49-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vårt avsnitt diskuterar vi hur ekonomisk tillbakagång och ekonomiska kristider kan tänkas påverka barnafödandet i ett land som Sverige. Vi diskuterar även hur familjepolitiken påverkar barnafödandet och hur den kan modifiera eventuella samband mellan ekonomisk tillväxt och benägenheten att skaffa barn. Bakgrunden till bidraget är den senaste tidens ekonomiska kris, en utveckling som i Sverige inträffat under en period av relativt höga och stigande fruktsamhetstal.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Do child-care characteristics influence continued child bearing in Sweden?: An investigation of the quantity, quality, and price dimension2004In: Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We link population register data to information on regional child care characteristics in order to estimate the influence of the latter on second and third birth intensities of Swedish couples in 1997-98. Our analysis allows us to distinguish interactions and specific effects of different dimensions of the local day-care infrastructure, namely the provision rate, the child-to-staff-ratio, and the costs of care to parents. However, our results reveal no clear effects of these child care characteristics on Swedish couples’ continued childbearing. We interpret this absence of effects as a reflection of the generally very appropriate level of child care in Sweden, which is complemented by further supportive family policies. In such a context, moderate regional variations in the characteristics of day care may have no decisive impact on parents’ propensity to have another child.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Erwerbsstatus und Familienentwicklung in Schweden aus paarbezogener Perspektive2005In: Männer – Das ‚vernachlässigte’ Geschlecht in der Familienforschung, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden , 2005, p. 220-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage nach der Bedeutung von Erwerbsmerkmalen schwedischer Männer und Frauen für den Prozess der Familienentwicklung in Schweden aus paarbezogener Perspektive. Auf der Grundlage von Registerdaten der Jahre 1981 bis 1999 schätzen wir ereignisanalytische Modelle für die Geburt zweiter und dritter Kinder. Es zeigt sich, dass Einkommen und Erwerbstätigkeit beider Partner weitgehend unabhängig voneinander auf die Wahrscheinlichkeit wirken, ein weiteres Kind zu bekommen. Die Richtung der bei Männern und Frauen etwa gleich starken Effekte weist (im Gegensatz etwa zu Annahmen der ‚Neuen Haushaltsökonomie’) auf einen grundsätzlich positiven Zusammenhang zwischen unseren Erwerbsvariablen und der Familienentwicklung hin. Der Befund, dass ein traditioneller Familienkontext Geburten höherer Ordnung in Schweden eher blockiert, weist auf ein vergleichsweise hohes Maß an sozialer Gleichheit zwischen den Geschlechtern hin.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Engelhardt, Henriette
    Stichwort “Zensus”2002In: Wörterbuch der Soziologie, Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart , 2002, p. 714-715Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Rønsen, Marit
    Vikat, Andres
    Gendering family composition: Sex preferences for children and childbearing behavior in the Nordic countries2006In: Demography, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 255-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that a society’s gender system might influence parents’ sex preferences for children. If this was true, one should expect to find no evidence of such preferences in countries with a high level of gender equality. In this paper, we exploit population register data from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden to examine continuities and changes in parental sex preferences in the Nordic countries during the last three to four decades. First, we cannot observe a visible effect of the sex of the first-born child on second birth risks. Secondly, we detect a distinct preference for at least one child of each sex among parents of two children. Next to this combination preference our analysis reveals, thirdly, that Danish, Norwegian and Swedish parents developed a preference for having a daughter, while Finns exhibit a significant son preference. These findings show that modernization and more equal opportunities for women and men do not necessarily lead to parental gender indifference. On the contrary, they might even result in new sex preferences.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Vikat, Andres
    Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland2007In: Demographic Research, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 135-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999) that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among native majorities and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population instead appears to have developed a girl preference. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Moreover, an analysis of regional and educational differentials in child-sex specific fertility behavior in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports various diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents’ sex preferences for children.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Vikat, Andres
    Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland2008In: Girl Child: Issues, Perspectives and Initiatives, The Icfai University Press, Hyderabad , 2008, p. 129-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999) that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among native majorities and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population instead appears to have developed a girl preference. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Moreover, an analysis of regional and educational differentials in child-sex specific fertility behavior in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports various diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents’ sex preferences for children.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hank, Karsten
    Vikat, Andres
    Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland2009In: Gender Ratio Imbalance: Creating Societal Instability, Hyderabad: The Icfai University Press , 2009, p. 154-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999) that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among native majorities and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population instead appears to have developed a girl preference. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Moreover, an analysis of regional and educational differentials in child-sex specific fertility behavior in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports various diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents’ sex preferences for children.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Hoem, Jan
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden2006In: Demographic Research, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80%) of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a “speed premium”. In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present article, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  • 40. Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden2006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80%) of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a “speed premium”. In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trends in Childbearing and Nuptiality in Sweden: An Update with Data up to 20072011In: Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1796-6183, Vol. XLVI, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an update of the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, time series of relative risks of childbearing, marriage, and divorce by calendar year are updated with another five years of observation added to previously published series. We demonstrate that fertility in Sweden continued its upward trend during much of the first decade of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. It is driven by the halt in postponement of first childbearing at the younger ages and the continued fertility recuperation at higher ages. Marriage propensities increased as well, reversing a decades-long trend of decreasing marriage rates. The trend reversal comprises first marriages and remarriages alike. Interestingly, the increased popularity of marriage and childbearing is accompanied with a slight decline in divorce risks during the first decade of the new century.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trends in Childbearing, Marriage and Divorce in Sweden: An Update with Data up to 20122015In: Finnish Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1796-6183, E-ISSN 1796-6191, Vol. 50, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an update of the main and parity-specific trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden presented in Finnish Yearbook of Population Research 2011. Based on Swedish register data, previous time series of relative risks of childbearing, marriage, and divorce by calendar year are updated with another five years of observation. We demonstrate that more than a decade of increasing fertility levels turned into moderate fertility declines in 2011. This trend change pertains to all main birth orders. Marriage propensities continued to increase for mothers but stagnated for the childless. Since the turn of the century, trends in divorce risks seem to have leveled off, altogether reflecting a more prevalent role of marriage in recent Swedish family dynamics.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    Mika, Tatjana
    Welfare State Context, Female Labor-market Attachment and Childbearing in Germany and Denmark2014In: Journal of Population Research, ISSN 1443-2447, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 287-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of female labor-market attachment and earnings in childbearing progressions in two very different European contexts. By applying event history techniques to German and Danish register data during 1981-2001, we demonstrate how female earnings relate to first, second and third birth propensities. Our study shows that female earnings are positively associated with first birth fertility in Denmark, while this is not the case in West Germany. We interpret our findings based on the fact that Danish social context and policy encourage women to establish themselves in the labor market before becoming a mother, while the German institutional context during the 1980s and 1990s was not geared towards encouraging maternal employment. For higher order births, the results are less clear-cut. For Denmark we find a slightly positive correlation between female earnings and second birth fertility, while the association is somewhat negative for third order births. In Germany, women tend to exit the labor market when becoming a mother. Non-employed mothers have elevated second and, in particular, third birth rates. For the group of mothers that are employed, we only find a weak association between their earnings and higher order fertility.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Liu, Guiping
    Demographic trends in Sweden: Childbearing developments in 1961-1999, marriage and divorce developments in 1971-19992001In: Demographic Research, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present note, we display the main features of recent trends in family-demographic behavior in Sweden. We update previously published indexes of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year in order to cover the developments up to 1999, adding another two years of observation to our series.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Contemporary Research on European Fertility: Perspectives and Developments2004In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a collection of related studies on different aspects of research on European fertility and family dynamics. The authors who have contributed to this special Volume presented their papers at a working party at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, April 2004. This collection has been produced in honor of Jan M. Hoem for his 65th birthday. It provides an overview of important approaches to, and relevant topics of European fertility research, as well as a number of case studies researching European fertility. In this introduction, we first give a brief summary of the present state of arts in fertility research in Europe, and we then proceed with an overview of the articles of the Volume.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Noack, Turid
    Statistics Norway / SSB.
    Legal advances and demographic developments of same-sex unions in Scandinavia2010In: Partnerschaft und Elternschaft bei gleichgeschlechtlichen Paaren: Verbreitung, Institutionalisierung and Alltagsgestaltung / [ed] Marina Rupp, Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich , 2010, p. 87-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Norway and Sweden completed their process of granting same-sex couples the same rights to marriage as those granted to couples of opposite sexes. Following the introduction of a specific civil status for couples of the same sex, the registered partnership, in 1993 and 1995, both countries adopted fully gender-neutral marriage legislation in 2009. In the present article, we describe the road to gender-neutral marriage in Scandinavia and map out some of the demographic developments of same-sex partnerships and marriages. We demonstrate a recent switch to higher female than male same-sex union formation, and also a higher level of female than male same-sex marriage dissolution. These demographic patterns are similar across all countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Noack, Turid
    Seierstad, Ane
    Weedon-Fekjær, Harald
    The demographics of same-sex marriages in Norway and Sweden2006In: Demography, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 79-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides an investigation into the demographics of same-sex marriages, that is registered partnerships, in Norway and Sweden. We give an overview of the demographic characteristics of the spouses of these partnerships, and study patterns in divorce risks. A comparison with similar dynamics of heterosexual marriages is provided. Our study is based on longitudinal information from the population registers of the two countries, covering all persons in partnerships. Our demographic analyses involve information on the characteristics such as age, sex, geographical background, experience of previous opposite-sex marriage, parenthood, and educational attainment of the partners involved. We find that in many respects the distributions of married populations as to these characteristics differ by the sex composition of couples. Patterns in divorce risks are rather similar in same-sex and opposite-sex marriages, but divorce-risk levels are considerably higher in same-sex partnerships. The divorce risk for female partnerships is practically double that of the risk for male partnerships.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Obucina, Ognjen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Scott, Kirk
    Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden2015In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 33, p. 31-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Immigrants and their second-generation descendants make up more than a quarter of the current Swedish population. Their nuptiality patterns can be viewed as crucial indicators of their integration into Swedish society. OBJECTIVES This study provides data on levels of and patterns in marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage of people in Sweden, by country of origin. METHODS The study is based on analyses of longitudinal register data that cover all residents born in 1951 and later who ever lived in Sweden during 1983-2007. Kaplan-Meier survivor functions demonstrate levels in nuptiality; multivariate event-history analyses demonstrate relative risks of marriage formation and divorce, by country group of origin. RESULTS We find evidence of variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born people in marriage and divorce patterns. A few groups of migrants have relatively high churning rates in family dynamics, with high levels of marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage. CONCLUSIONS Many factors relate to the nuptiality behavior of immigrants in Sweden. Differences in family systems seem to have some influence on behavior in the contemporary Swedish context. Other factors relate to the migration process itself and to the selectivity of migrants to Sweden.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Lotta
    Obucina, Ognjen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Depressed fertility among descendants of immigrants in Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 1149-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Previous research shows evidence of an interrelation between family formation and the migration of immigrants in Europe. Less research has been conducted on the fertility and family behavior of the descendants of immigrants. OBJECTIVES Our study provides analyses of the childbearing behavior of daughters of immigrants in Sweden. The context is that of a country with near-replacement-level fertility and social policies oriented towards social equality. METHODS The study is based on register data covering 1998-2012, which allows for highly detailed analyses of the childbearing behavior of 20 country origin groups of second-generation women. By means of event history techniques, we analyze the transition to any first, second, and third births. RESULTS Our analyses show that most groups of descendants of immigrants have lower fertility than those with a full Swedish background. The risk of having a first child is particularly depressed, and the risk of having a second child is also lower for daughters of immigrants than for women with two Swedish-born parents. In contrast, many groups of immigrant-descendant two-child mothers display elevated third-birth risks. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the necessity to account for parity-specific differences in fertility when studying the fertility of descendants of migrants.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Demografi (SUDA).
    Philipov, Dimiter
    Life-table representations of family dynamics in Sweden, Hungary, and 14 other FFS countries: A project of descriptions of demographic behavior2002In: Demographic Research, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 67-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we present a system of descriptions of family-demographic behavior in developed countries. We use life-table techniques in order to describe the experience of men, of women, and of children in processes related to family formation and family dissolution. We develop a large number of descriptive measures, and apply them to survey data from Sweden, Norway, Finland, France, the USA, Austria, Germany (East and West Germany separately), Flanders, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, in order to describe patterns in the family-demographic behavior during the late 1980s - early 1990s. We use Sweden and Hungary as examples when presenting the outline of our system of tabulations and provide results for the whole set of countries in an Appendix to the paper.

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