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  • 1.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: a study of adolescents in Stockholm2020In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 2.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2020In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling is not uncommon among adolescents, and a non-trivial minority has serious problems with gambling. Therefore, enhanced knowledge about factors that may prevent against problematic gambling among youth is needed. Prior research has shown that a strong school ethos, which can be defined as a set of attitudes and values pervading at a school, is associated with a lower inclination among students to engage in various risk behaviours. Knowledge about the link between school ethos and adolescent gambling is however scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between teacher-rated school ethos and student-reported gambling and risk gambling, when controlling also for sociodemographic characteristics at the student- and the school-level.

    Methods: Data from two separate cross-sectional surveys were combined. The Stockholm School Survey (SSS) was performed among 5123 students (aged 17–18years) in 46 upper secondary schools, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS) was carried out among 1061 teachers in the same schools. School ethos was measured by an index based on teachers’ ratings of 12 items in the STS. Adolescent gambling and risk gambling were based on a set of single items in the SSS. Sociodemographic characteristics at the student-level were measured by student-reported information from the SSS. Information on sociodemographic characteristics at the school-level was retrieved from administrative registers. The statistical method was multilevel regression analysis. Two-level binary logistic regression models were performed.

    Results: The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of the school’s ethos were associated with a lower likelihood of gambling and risk gambling among students, when adjusting also for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics.

    Conclusions: This study showed that school ethos was inversely associated with students’ inclination to engage in gambling and in risk gambling. In more general terms, the study provides evidence that schools’ values and norms as reflected by the teachers’ ratings of their school’s ethos have the potential to counteract unwanted behaviours among the students.

  • 3.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A study of the long-term health effects of family background and health behaviors across cohorts and gender2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Expressions of context: Studies of schools, families, and health risk behaviours2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the health behaviours of young people. The main focus is on risk behaviours, i.e. those which may have adverse consequences for health. Two fields of interest are looked at. On the one hand, the thesis explores social determinants of such behaviours, with particular focus on the influence of schools’ structural and social environment on health risk behaviours among youth. On the other hand, the thesis addresses the role of such behaviours in the relationship between childhood social inequalities and adult health. In terms of theory, the study sets out from Coleman's view of the association between structure and agency and the assumption that macro level structures and patterns can be understood on the basis of individual actors’ actions. The thesis consists of four studies addressing different, but related, aspects of the above areas of interest. The overall conclusion of studies I-III is that the school context has direct and indirect effects on young people's risk behaviours. The results of multilevel analyses indicate, more specifically, that students who attend more advantaged schools report more risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol- and drug use than students at more disadvantaged schools. Self-reported crime is however higher in the more disadvantaged school settings. Further analyses show that a school's social and normative climate also is important for the extent to which youth consume alcohol, smoke, or have used drugs. These risk behaviours are most prevalent in schools where a large proportion of the parents have a more permissive attitude towards alcohol and smoking, and where teacher-rated levels of trust and informal social control (collective efficacy) are high. The results show, further, that school contexts also act indirectly on youth risk behaviours. Young people who reports weak bonds with their parents tend generally to be more involved in risk behaviours than those who report strong bonds. This tendency is reinforced in more advantaged school settings. Finally, Study IV demonstrates that youth risk behaviours act accumulatively and indirectly on later health, rather than directly. Moreover, the importance of risk behaviours for later health varies between the birth cohorts. Health behaviours explain a larger part of the relationship between socioeconomic conditions in childhood and health as an adult in the younger cohort.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Problematic familial alcohol use and adolescents’ heavy drinking: can conditions in school compensate for the increased risk of heavy drinking among adolescents from families with problematic alcohol use?2019In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 307-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to assess the association between problematic alcohol consumption in the family and youth alcohol consumption and to explore the extent to which this association is moderated by conditions in school in terms of schools’ degree of student focus. We use data from the Stockholm School Survey performed among 10,757 ninth grade students and the Stockholm Teacher Survey performed among 2,304 teachers in the same schools. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed. The results showed that problematic alcohol consumption in the family was associated with a higher likelihood of heavy drinking among adolescents. The association was weaker in schools with a strong student focus, indicating a compensatory effect of conditions in school.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 1607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    A cohort study exploring the role of health behaviours in the association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and midlife healthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many studies on the socioeconomic gradient in health, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains incomplete This study used path analysis to explore the association between childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health and the extent to which this association is mediated by health behaviours. The study used information from two cohorts, a central aim was to explore the extent to which the associations examined in the study changed over time. A sample of 825 people aged 15 to 20 in 1968 and 1981 was derived from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU). In our examination of individual-level life-course data, we found evidence that disadvantage was transmitted from parents to children and from childhood to adulthood, at least in the later-born cohort. The results of our cohort analyses suggest that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was not related to health or health behaviours in the same way in the two cohorts. Specifically, the social patterning of both health and health behaviours was stronger in the later-born cohort. The health behaviours included in the analyses were thus not equally important mediators of the association between childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and midlife health in the cohorts. Because health behaviours in adolescence did not directly affect midlife health in either of the two cohorts, the results also suggest that it is the accumulated effects of health behaviours that have the greatest influence on midlife health.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    A Multilevel Study on Ethnic and Socioeconomic School Stratification and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Stockholm2015In: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 871-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    This study examines the extent to which high alcohol consumption, drug use, and delinquency vary between schools with different socioeconomic characteristics, over and above the pupil's own sociodemographic background.

    METHODS

    Analyses are based on data on 5484 ninth-grade students distributed over 93 schools in Stockholm, from the 2010 Stockholm School Survey. School-level information was retrieved from the Swedish National Agency for Education. School disadvantage was determined by combining information on the level of education among parents and the share of pupils with a nonnative background, 2 aspects that have been shown to be central to school segregation in Sweden.

    RESULTS

    Results indicate significant school-to-school differences in relation to all outcomes. The risk for high alcohol consumption and drug use is greater in more advantaged school settings, adjusting for individual characteristics, whereas the opposite is true in relation to criminal behavior. The school's level of collective efficacy also seems to play an important, albeit not mediating, role.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Regardless of an adolescent's own background, the risk of having adverse health behaviors is higher at certain schools compared to others. However, school socioeconomic factors do not influence health behaviors consistently; instead, it seems as if the association varies depending on the behavior under study.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A multilevel study on ethnic and socio-economic school stratification and risk behaviors among students in Stockholm2014In: Growing Up and Growing Old: Health Transitions Throughout the Lifecourse: Abstract Book / [ed] Jane Raimes, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Family Composition and Youth Health Risk Behaviors: the Role of Patental Relation and the School Context2017In: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 403-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children not residing with both parents have been shown to be more at risk of negative developmental outcomes than children residing in two-parent families. Few studies have explored how other central contexts may interact with family characteristics to hinder or facilitate youth adjustment. This study examines how aspects of family structure and family processes are associated with youth health risk behaviors and interact with the structural characteristics of schools. The analyses are based on data from the Stockholm School Survey and consist of 5 002 ninth-grade students distributed over 92 schools in the Stockholm area in 2010. School information has been gathered from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Random intercept and fully random models have been used. Results show that adolescents not living with both their parents are more involved in health risk behaviors than adolescents that do. Poor parent–child relations accounts for more of the disadvantage associated with non-traditional family structures than differences in socioeconomic background. Results further suggest that health risk behaviors are more prevalent in more advantaged school settings, net the effect of individual background characteristics. Moreover, advantage school settings are found to accentuate the detrimental effects of poor parent–child relations on health risk behaviors. In conclusion, the study suggests that the effect of family type and family processes on youth behavior is susceptible to contextual effects of the school environment and that more advantage school settings have detrimental direct and indirect effects on youth health risk behaviors.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School stratification and risk behaviours among students in Stockholm2012In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 19, no suppl 1, p. 285-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hemström, Örjan
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Identifying factors associated with good and ill health. Not just opposite sides of the same coin2009In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 323-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background  Work-related health research has traditionally focused on identifying risks rather than determinants of good health. Our knowledge of variation in ill health is thus greater than our understanding of such variations in good health. Purpose  In this study, the associations between work-environment exposures and good health are examined. We are especially interested in contrasting our indices of ill health with a narrow measure of good health. Moreover, the salutary effect of sense of coherence (SOC) is explored, focusing particularly on its moderating role. Method  Data stem from the panel of Swedish level of living surveys for 1991 and 2000. The analysis is based on a sample of 2,334 employed men and women. Logistic regressions are used. Results  Assessed work-environment factors are to a large extent related, in a mirrored way, to good health and ill health. The models' fit are, however, generally better for the latter. Our findings also indicate that SOC has a protective role for individuals exposed to work risks such as stress and high physical demands. Conclusion  To improve our understanding of what promotes good health, research needs to focus on salutary factors. One such salutary factor explored in this paper is sense of coherence.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    School-level (dis)advantage and adolescents’ health risk behaviours: the role of school collective efficacy and normsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon ideas stemming from Social Disorganization Theory (SDT), this study explores how structural and social aspects of the school context affect youth health risk behaviours (HRB) in terms of smoking, alcohol and/or drug use. A key focus is to investigate the joint effect of school collective efficacy and schools’ substance use norms on students’ HRB. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2014 among ninth grade students (n=5122) and teachers (n=1105) in 81 senior-level schools in Stockholm. Results from multilevel analyses suggested that the proneness to engage in HRB varies depending on the socioeconomic profile of the school. Youth in socioeconomically advantaged schools were more prone to engage in HRB than youth in disadvantaged school settings. Furthermore, collective incentives for exerting social control against HRB seem to be weaker in schools were conventional values towards substance use (anti-substance use norms) are suppressed.

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