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  • 1.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flexibility, Boundarylessness and the Strategies of Work2013In: Nordic Lights: Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 1, p. 420-435Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagström, Tom
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work without boundaries: psychological perspectives on the new working life2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Translated and adapted from a Swedish original, Work without Boundaries: Psychological Perspectives on the New Working Life tackles the human impact of the changing nature of work. It brings together strands of research from a variety of disciplines including work psychology, occupational health psychology, social psychology, and psychobiology. Written by two leading international researchers and writers in this field, Work without Boundaries delivers new levels of understanding in the field and charts the way forward for future research.

  • 3. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Den utbredda flexibiliteten: ett försök att beräkna förekomsten av lågreglerade arbetsvillkor2012In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nästan 30 år efter det att begreppet flexibilitet i arbetslivet kom i bruk råder det fortfarande stor osäkerhet om vad begreppet innebär och hur vanligt det egentligen är. I artikeln diskuteras flexibilitet utifrån en representativ studie av den svenska arbetskraften. I studien konstateras att både traditionellt organiserade och helt fria arbeten är relativt ovanliga. Däremot är flexibla arbetsvillkor desto mer vanligt förekommande och spridda i varierande grad bland den svenska arbetskraften.

  • 4.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Diffusion of Flexibility: Estimating the Incidence of Low-Regulated Working Conditions2013In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 99-116Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbete - förbannelse eller livets mening - observationer och reflexioner2015In: Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring / [ed] A Bergman, G Gillberg & L Ivarsson, Stockhom: Premiss förlag, 2015, p. 16-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetslivets oförlösta oro2008In: Ord och bild, ISSN 0030-4492, no 3, p. 90-95Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Oro har enligt olika populationsstudier ökat kraftigt under den senaste 20-årsperioden. Största ökningen finns i de yngre åldersgrupperna och särskilt bland yngre kvinnor. Oro kan ses som en varningssignal, som driver individen till att fokusera tankar och uppmärksamhet på faror som då kan avvärjas - problem upptäcks, hanteras och löses. Oro har i den meningen ett överlevnadsvärde. I artikeln diskuteras hypotesen att orons tillväxt hör samman med att en allt större grupp fått det svårt att omsätta oron i handlingar, som minskar eller avlägsnar osäkerheten eller den upplevda oron eftersom säkerhet och osäkerhet, stabilitet och instabilitet är inneboende systemegenskaper som alltid kännetecknar delar av strukturen. Beredskap blir ett sinnestillstånd som präglar vardagen vilket också kan förväntas ha hälsopåverkan. I osäkerhetsstrukturens perifera delar finns precariatet, de tidsbegränsat anställda, som är själva förutsättningen för systemets flexibilitet.

  • 7.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslösa krav - gränslösa möjligheter2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, 1, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna skrift har vi försökt ringa in en aspekt – gränslöst arbete – i det mångdimensionella och komplexa fenomen som nu allt oftare benämns digitalisering. En del människor associerar ordet snarast med gränslösa möjligheter, och för andra är upplevelsen snarare gränslösa krav. Vi har i skriften mer betonat möjligheterna än farhågorna genom att lägga stor vikt vid forskning och erfarenheter som kan vägleda och stärka de gränslöst arbetandes kontroll över sitt arbetsliv och sin livssituation. I detta avslutande kapitel sammanfattas vissa tendenser och vi tar på nytt upp en del farhågor som blivit knapphändigt behandlade i kapitlen samt försöker urskilja riskgrupper.

  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete - introduktion2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, 1, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den informationstekniska utvecklingen har möjliggjort helt nya sätt att organisera arbete. I rum och på platser som tidigare var reserverade för privatliv har nu det avlönade arbetet tagit sig in, och på den uppkopplade arbetsplatsen finns möjligheter för anställda att via nätet sköta privatlivsärenden. Både på arbetsplatsen, på andra platser och i det uppkopplade hemmet går det att snabbt växla fram och tillbaka mellan arbete och personliga angelägenheter. Denna typ av arbetsvillkor kallas för gränslöst arbete, och det kan också ställas i kontrast till fabriksarbete med höggradig maskinstyrning där arbetaren måste finnas vid sin maskin och genomföra specificerade arbetsuppgifter i tidsintervall som bestäms av maskinernas hastighet. Sådant arbete var vanligt i Sverige för bara några decennier sedan men har nu kraftigt minskat genom teknikutveckling. Höggradigt styrt arbete är dock fortfarande utbrett runt om i världen. De två exemplen är poler i en skala och däremellan finns en stor variation i villkor vad gäller arbetets reglering och tidsmässigt och rumsligt oberoende.

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förord

    Delar av arbetslivet har under de senaste decennierna gått mot mer flexibilitet, inte minst i fråga om när och var man kan utföra sitt arbete. Denna flexibilitet kan innebära fördelar men det gränslösa arbetslivet medför också utmaningar för både arbetsgivare och arbetstagare. 

    I regeringens arbetsmiljöstrategi 2016–2020 fick Arbetsmiljöverket ett uppdrag att i samråd med arbetsmarknadens parter ta fram en vägledning om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv. Den här forskarantologin har tagits fram inom ramen för det uppdraget. Texterna har skrivits av ledande forskare inom området och utgör ett av underlagen till vägledningen. Professor Gunnar Aronsson har varit redaktör för antologin. Både antologin och vägledningen finns att ladda ner från Arbetsmiljöverkets webbplats.

    Projektledare för denna antologi vid Arbetsmiljöverket har varit Tommy Fahlander. Vi vill även tacka övriga kollegor vid Arbetsmiljöverket som varit behjälpliga i arbetet med antologin. 

    De åsikter som uttrycks i denna antologi är författarnas egna och speglar inte nödvändigtvis Arbetsmiljöverkets uppfattning. 

    Christina Jonsson

    Chef för enheten för människa och omgivningArbetsmiljöverketStockholm i januari 2018

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete, resiliens och kompensation2016In: Friska arbetsplatser för kvinnor och män i alla åldrar, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2016, p. 22-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationship between a behavioral measure of good long-term health and self-rated health2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to construct a measure of long-term health and investigate its relationship to self-rated health and symptoms. The study group consisted of a large representative sample in full-time paid employment in the age range 20-65. The long term health measure consisted of two item concerning days sickness absence and occasions of sickness presenteeism. When the combined measure was compared with the simple measure of sickness absence with respect to variation in self rated health and complaints it differentiated better. This is a reason for incorporating the presenteeism variable into a measure of long-term good health.

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strategier för det gränslösa arbetet2008In: LOOP: Tidskriften om ledarskap organisation och personal, ISSN 1653-073X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det moderna arbetslivet präglas av att allt fler människor har flextid eller över huvud taget inte har reglerade arbetstider. Allt fler har också möjlighet att arbeta hemma eller på resande fot. Tids- och rumsgränser stabiliseras inte på samma sätt som tidigare av lagstiftning och avtal. När denna yttre reglering försvagas ökar kraven på individen att hantera gränssättandet mellan olika sfärer i livet. I artikeln beskrivs individuella strategier för att skapa balans mellan arbetet och livet i övrigt.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tillit2015In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 22-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Arbetsvillkor, återhämtning och hälsa: En studie av förskola, hemtjänst och socialtjänst2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens övergripande syfte var att undersöka arbetsförhållanden som är förknippade med ackumulering av stress och bristande återhämtning och att studera hur återhämtning är relaterat till hälsoaspekter. Studiegruppen var anställda inom förskola, hemtjänst och socialtjänst och kom från två relativt stora kommuner (n = 193). Återhämtning eller brist på återhämtning antogs vara en betydelsefull förmedlande länk mellan arbetsvillkor och hälsa/ohälsa och sjukfrånvaro. Datainsamling skedde genom en enkät och den totala svarsfrekvensen var 79 %. En klusteranalys gav tre kluster "Återhämtade“ och “Ej återhämtade“ är yttergrupper, som omfattar 36 respektive 25 procent av totalgruppen medan mellangruppen utgjorde 39 procent. Gruppen ej återhämtade får ses som en riskgrupp för ohälsa. Gruppen uppvisar hela kedjan av riskfaktorer - problematiska arbetsvillkor på vilka de svarar med ökad ansträngning och kompenserande strategier. Trots betydligt högre ohälsorapportering har de inte högre sjukfrånvaro, vilket sannolikt hör samman med att de ersätter sjukfrånvaro med sjuknärvaro. I socialtjänsten är det hela 43 procent som tillhör den ej återhämtade gruppen. Regressionsanalyser med kontroll för bakgrundsvariabler visar att den icke återhämtade gruppen hade en signifikant högre relativ risk för sämre självskattad hälsa än personer i den återhämtade gruppen. Ännu kraftigare riskökningar fanns för de fem symtom som därutöver analyserades. Avslutningsvis diskuteras praktiska slutsatser och nya forskningsfrågor.

  • 15.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Work conditions, Recovery and Health: A study among workers within Pre-School, Home Care and Social Work2014In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1654-1672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the working conditions associated with the accumulation of stress and lack of recovery and how recovery is related to health. The study group was employed in pre-school, home care and social work (n = 193). Recovery was assumed to be an explanatory variable for the relations between work and health. The response rate on a survey was 79 per cent. Cluster analysis identified three groups: the ‘Recovered’ (36 per cent of the total group) and ‘Not Recovered’ (25 per cent) and the ‘In-between’ (39 per cent). The Not Recovered displayed the whole chain of risk factors, involving difficult working conditions to which they responded with increased compensatory strategies. Despite this group having significantly greater reports of ill health, work absenteeism was not greater, which is likely related to their substituting sickness absence with sickness presence. As many as 43 per cent of the social workers were found to belong to the Not Recovered group. Multiple regression analyses controlling for background variables revealed that the Not Recovered group had a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health than those in the Recovered group. Even sharper increases in relative risk existed for the other five symptoms that were analysed. Practical implications and new research questions are discussed.

  • 16.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brist på kollegialt inflytande urholkar lojalitet med chef och organisation ... men inte med patienterna2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, p. CM9U-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en enkätstudie undersöktes relationen mellan läkares uppfattning om kollegialt inflytande och lojalitet, protest och sorti.

    Stark lojalitet med organisation och chef är 2–3 gånger vanligare bland dem som har stor tillgång till arenor för kollegialt inflytande. Lojaliteten med profession och patienter är stark och oberoende av tillgång till arenor.

    Bland dem som har stor tillgång till arenor anser 87 procent att de får gehör för synpunkter jämfört med 21 procent bland dem med liten tillgång. 

    Överväganden om att byta yrke, arbetsgivare eller arbetsplats är dubbelt så vanliga vid liten tillgång till arenor.

    Arbetsgivare som vill attrahera läkare måste ha arenor där läkarna får inflytande över verksamheten.

  • 17.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Onödiga och oskäliga arbetsuppgifter bland läkare: Samband mellan illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress kartlagt i enkätstudie2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 48, p. 2216-2219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi riktat fokus på läkaryrket som profession och på sambandet mellan avgränsning av arbetsuppgifter och anspänning och utmattning.

  • 18.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blom, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Work conditions for workers with good long-term health2010In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate which work- and private life factors are associated with long-term health, operationalized as low sickness absence and low sickness presence. Design/methodology/approach – A representative sample of 2,297 individuals responded to a questionnaire on two occasions at an interval of one year. In total, 28 percent were classified as having good long-term health. Findings – Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that some quality-related work environment factors were rather strongly associated with long-term health. For some variables women showed a clear dose-response pattern on the three-level scale alternatives in relation to health, while men had a more asymmetric response pattern. The results are discussed in relation to the symmetry in the work environment factors, i.e. if there are different factors that explain health and illness. Practical implications – Issues concerning health and health-enhancing factors are of considerable interest to practitioners concerned with management issues, organizational structure, and rehabilitation. Originality/value – The paper shows the importance of including a positive health variable within the health research paradigm to supplement the dominance of variables focusing on illness and disease.

  • 19.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Relationship between a long-term health measure and self-rated health and symptoms in the Swedish working population2009In: Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizational psychology: The second report from the Nordic project Positive factors at work / [ed] Marit Christensen, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2009, p. 59-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to construct a measure of good long-term health based on sickness absenteeism (SA)/sickness presenteeism (SP) and to investigate its relationship to self-rated health and self-reported symptoms. The analyses were performed on data from three Swedish projects with representative samples but with some differences in the subjects’ age and type of employment. The result show clear relationships between the measure of long-term health and self-ratings of health and investigated self-reported symptoms. There are differences in the absolute level of self-rated health in the three datasets, but these may be ascribed to differences in the rating scales and distributions. The most interesting result is that the rank for the three sets of data is the same. Of the two intermediate categories, the group with high sickness presenteeism/low sickness absenteeism seems to have a somewhat more problematic health situation than the group with low sickness presenteeism/high sickness absenteeism.

  • 20.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hakanen, Jari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Conclusions2009In: Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizational psychology: The second report from the Nordic project Positive factors at work / [ed] Marit Christensen, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2009, p. 93-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within working life research  there has been a long and strong tradition of focusing on risks, problems, diseases, and other negative aspects of the work environment. Modern reflexive social systems and organizations incorporate, internalize, and apply this knowledge, which creates new conditions for research and reflexivity, and so forth. There are similar processes on the individual level – people reflect and internalize knowledge which changes their perceptions, cognitions and action strategies. In that way our societies have gained much knowledge about what work conditions should be avoided or eliminated.  In the Nordic welfare states, as in many other countries, there exists thinking and politics which hold that work should offer something more than an activity one does for money. According to this view, work should contribute to individual satisfaction, personal development, occupational skills, health, etc. On the road to a more individualized and health and development oriented working life there is need for a research perspective that generates knowledge on how to form “healthy work” and “healthy workplaces”. The positive psychology movement is an inspirational source for occupational psychology to move in that direction and a positive occupational psychology perspective is not in conflict with the traditional and established work psychology or disease model – the role is rather to contribute to a new working life research front with a strong potential for generating knowledge for preventive measures. The Nordic welfare states, with their view that work should contribute to personal growth and health, should have a special interest in research and knowledge for such a development.

  • 21.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sickness presence, sickness absence, and self-reported health and symptoms2011In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 228-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare sickness presence (SP) and sickness absence (SA) regarding the strength of their relationship to health/ill-health. In a previous Canadian study a stronger association between SP and health/ill-health than between SA and health/ill-health was shown.

    Design/methodology/approach - Five Swedish data sets from the years 1992 to 2005 provided the study populations, including both representative samples and specific occupational groups (n=425-3,622). Univariate correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The data sets contained questions on SP and SA as well as on various health complaints and, in some cases, self-rated health (SRH).

    Findings - The general trend was that correlations and odds ratios increased regularly for both SP and SA, with SP showing the highest values. In one data set, SRH was predicted by a combination of the two measures, with an explained variance of 25 percent. Stratified analyses showed that the more irreplaceable an individual is at work, the larger is the difference in correlation size between SP and SA with regard to SRH. SP also showed an accentuated and stronger association with SRH than SA among individuals reporting poor economic circumstances.

    Practical implications - The results support the notion that SA is an insufficient, and even misleading, measure of health status for certain groups in the labor market, which seem to have poorer health than the measure of SA would indicate.

    Orginality/value - A combined measure of sickness presence and absence may be worth considering as an indicator of both individual and organizational health status.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Permanent Employment but Not in a Preferred Occupation: Psychological and Medical Aspects, Research Implications1999In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 152-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a representative sample from Statistics Sweden's Labor Market Survey (N = 1,564), it was found that 28% of permanent employees were not in their preferred occupation. In part, this is attributable to prevailing conditions in the labor market, with a lack of jobs, and to the insecurity of time-restricted employment contracts. In this study, the work conditions and health of persons in such a "locked-in" position were investigated. Participants reported significantly more headaches and greater fatigue and slight depression than did those in comparison groups. Results are discussed in relation to psychological theories of control and to a model of individual action strategies. Proposals are made to guide further studies in an area in which research so far has been sparsely conducted.

     

  • 23.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Torbiörn, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbets- och organisationspsykologi: Individ och organisation i samspel2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken anlägger ett brett perspektiv på individen i arbetslivet som spänner över både arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Författarna tar upp de ramar som modernt arbetsliv skapar och hur individen rör sig innanför dessa. De beskriver arbetets roll i livet, samspelet på arbetsplatsen och vilken betydelse det kan ha för individen. Likaså behandlas fenomen som organisationsförändringar, ledarskap och motivation. Författarna har en gedigen erfarenhet av undervisning och forskning inom ämnet vilket gör boken både pedagogiskt upplagd och uppdaterad inom de senaste rönen. Boken är skriven för studerande i psykologi och beteendevetenskapliga utbildningar samt i företagsekonomi med organisationsinriktning. Boken är även lämplig för HR-specialister, chefer och andra med intresse av hur samspelet mellan individ och organisation bidrar till att skapa hållbara arbetsvillkor och effektiva organisationer.

  • 24.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ishäll, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. (numera verksam vid Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping.
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsuppdrag och återhämtning i välfärdstjänstearbete2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver ett uppdragsperspektiv på arbete, det vill säga en fokusering på hur ett arbetsuppdrag formas och är sammansatt med avseende på resurser och krav med betydelse för att kunna genomföra uppdraget på ett bra sätt. I studien undersöks hur förutsättningarna för att utföra arbetet, i termer av arbetskrav och resurser i arbetet, hänger samman med återhämtning inom välfärdstjänstearbete i två kommuner. Uppdragsförutsättningarna har ett relativt högt förklaringsvärde gentemot återhämtning men de ingående variablerna bidrar i olika grad.

  • 25.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansen, Vegard
    Marklund, Staffan
    Rønning, Rolf
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Sjukfrånvarons dimensioner: svensk-norska jämförelser och analyser2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I både Sverige och Norge baseras sjukersättningarna på principen om inkomstbortfall, som ger sjukskrivna ersättning i förhållande till arbetsinkomsten. Men länderna skiljer sig också åt vilket möjliggör intressanta jämförelser och analyser. I Norge är exempelvis ersättningsnivån 100 procent från första dagen jämfört med 80 procent i Sverige, som också har en karensdag. Frågor som tas upp gäller bland annat hur sjukskrivna upplever sin vardagstillvaro, omgivningens acceptans för sjukskrivning, sjuknärvaro, stigmatisering, framtidstro och synen på hjälpapparat och myndigheter. Boken är värdefull vid utbildningar inom socialt arbete och är intressant i den debatt om sjukfrånvaro som pågår i samhället. Den bygger på ett svensk-norskt forskningsprojekt och använder såväl kvalitativa som kvantitativa data.

  • 26.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jörgen, Eklund
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Randle, Hanne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universtitet.
    Inte bara här och nu utan också där och då: - reflektioner om arbetslivsforskningen och det stora hållbarhetsprojektet2009In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 1, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Arbetet är den primära källan till den hållbarhetskris vi lever i men därmed också nyckeln till hållbar utveckling. I arbetets sfär utvecklas såväl destruktiva som miljövänliga produkter och processer. Arbetet orsakar utslagning, stress, sjukdomar, förkortar liv, skiktar samhällen socialt och förstör livsbetingelser men arbete är också grunden för frihet, välfärd, mening, gemenskap, teknisk och medicinsk utveckling. Arbetet förbinder människan med naturen och strukturerar relationer mellan människor inte bara lokalt utan också globalt.  Arbetets och produktionens sfär är trots den positionen märkligt frånvarande i hållbarhetsdiskussionen.  Arbetslivsforskningen har spelat och spelar en stor roll i generering av kunskaper om organisatorisk och individuell hållbarhet även om aktiviteten inte rubriceras som hållbarhetsforskning. Forskningen är oftast riktat mot verksamhetsnivån, vilket innebär att den hitintills inte har axlat den roll den bör ha i det omställningsprojekt, som nu tar form och som sträcker sig över verksamhets- kunskaps- och nationsgränser. Mycket av den kunskap som genererats inom verksamhetsperspektivet har dock stor relevans också i hållbarhetsprojektet. Det gäller forskning och kunskaper om bland annat organisering, ledning, committment, kultur, styrnings- och omställningskunnande och naturligtvis all den kunskap som genererats om individen ur social, psykologisk och medicinsk synpunkt. 

    Det framväxande stora hållbarhetsprojektet handlar om att rikta fokus mot hela produktionskedjor - alltifrån utvinning ur naturen, över förädling, bearbetning och användning till återvinning. Ett sådant angreppssätt kräver både djup kunskap om och hög grad av specialisering på olika delar i produktionskedjan och systemanalys. Arbetsvetenskaplig forskning är väl rustad och organiserad för det förstnämnda men mindre bra på analys av produktionskedjor ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Uppgiften är inte heller begränsad till att beskriva och analysera utan uppgiften gäller också att studera betingelserna för förändring och utveckling i riktning mot hållbarhet. Detta kräver ett samhällsperspektiv eftersom en rad samhälleliga regleringssystem har inflytande på var produktionen förläggs och därmed produktionskedjans utseende och betingelserna för de som arbetar.

  • 27.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interventioner för återgång i arbete vid sjukskrivning: En systematisk kunskapsöversikt av metaanalyser med inriktning på muskuloskeletala och psykiska besvär2015In: Arbete och Hälsa, ISSN 0346-7821, ISSN 0346-7821, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 1-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 29.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Skam, stigmatisering och framtidstro bland långtidssjukskrivna i ”osynliga” diagnoser2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 519-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka stigma- och skamupplevelser bland långtidssjukskrivna i psykiska och muskuloskeletala diagnoser och om upplevelserna skiljer sig diagnoserna mellan. 2300 personer besvarade en enkät och på basis av enkätsvar bildades även en grupp med båda slagen av besvär. Bland de med psykiatriska och kombinationsdiagnoser tillhörde 33 respektive 34% hög-skamgruppen jämfört med 10% bland de med muskuloskeletala diagnoser. Ju fler tidigare sjukskrivningar desto större andel upplevde skam och stigma och desto vanligare att se förtidspension som en realistisk framtid. Nivåskillnaderna var stora. Bland de med psykiatriska diagnoser och hög grad av stigma var det 16%, som angav förtidspensionsalternativet jämfört med 31% bland de med muskuloskeletal diagnos och 39% bland de med kombinationsdiagnos.

  • 30.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Illegitima arbetsuppgifter och identitet - en introduktion2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 3/4, p. 28-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressreaktioners styrka beror inte bara på hur mycket och hur ofta människor arbetar utan hör även samman med ett arbetsuppdrags sociala innebörd. Forskningen om illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress inkluderar denna sociala aspekt, vilken antas vara relaterad till individens självuppfattning och identitet. I artikeln introduceras en modell om illegitima uppgifter som identitetsrelevanta stressorer. Dessutom redovisas en empirisk studie av tre yrkesgrupper kring sambandet mellan identitetsrelevanta stressorer och ohälsoreaktioner.

  • 31.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Boo
    Albin, Maria
    Torgén, Margareta
    Nylén, Per
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Vingård, Eva
    Håkansta, Carin
    Healthy workplaces for women and men of all ages2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this knowledge compilation is to contribute with knowledge about the work environment in relation to the ever-older workforce. How do employee needs and possibilities change from a course of life perspective? What should the employer and other work environment actors think about in order for the workforce to be able to and want to work to a high age?

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority wishes to give an overarching knowledge profile of different aspects of the work environment and the ageing workforce, and we therefore asked seven researchers to summarise the research-based knowledge within each of their areas, from a course of life and gender perspective. An eighth researcher acted as an editor for the anthology, and has also written the preface.

    In summary, the report shows that we are becoming even healthier, living ever longer and working to an ever higher age. Older people in the workforce are positive for the economy because productivity increases, and the business sector can make use of competent and experienced staff for a longer time. But for the older labour force to be healthy and want to work at higher ages, one needs to take into consideration how ageing influences health and the capacity to work. With age, all people are affected to different degrees by reduced vision, hearing and physical capacity, as well as longer reaction times. Even their cognitive capacity changes. Certain cognitive abilities are strengthened with rising age, while others deteriorate. With an ageing workforce, more employees have chronic illnesses, which, however, seldom affect the actual working ability. Changes in working life also affect health and wellbeing, for example deregulated work and the technical development. Age and previous experiences impact upon our ability to adapt to these changes. One factor that promotes adaptation is partly resilience (that is to say, resistance and the ability to adapt to the new), partly compensation strategies when the mental and physical resources change. There are no great differences between gender when it comes to the consequences of ageing on health and wellbeing in the work. On the other hand, the public health trend shows increasing differences in health between the lower educated and the higher educated - a difference increasing more quickly among women than among men. The gender-segregated labour market also means that more women than men work in physical and mentally burdensome work. Attitudes at the workplace also affect wellbeing and the will to continue working at higher ages. Men tend to be more sensitive to age discrimination while women run the risk of double discrimination, that is to say based upon both gender and age. Work environment and the attitude to an older workforce are central to the considerations that an employee makes in the choice between continuing to work and retiring. Other prerequisites that influence the decision are one’s own health, private finances and self-fulfilling activities.

    The employer can do a great deal to lengthen and improve their employees’ working life. Systematic work environment management benefits everyone, and it can contribute to everyone keeping their working ability and to older people wanting to and being able to work for longer. Occupational health services of good quality also play an important role. Technical aids and adaptation of the working pace and working tasks are other measures that improve the work environment for the older workforce. The employer can also contribute to stimulating work arrangements and organisational support for the employees in order to strengthen their resilience and promote the development of compensation strategies. 

  • 32.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 33.
    Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Örebro universitet.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Läkarkåren en profession med allt mindre stöd och inflytande: Enkätstudie av svenska läkares arbetsmiljö 1992 och 20102011In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 108, no 50, p. 2652-2656Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bejerot, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasselbladh, Hans
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svenska läkares arbetsmiljö 1992 och 2010 – en profession i fritt fall?: Programnummer AR28, 2/12 20112011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En jämförelse av två enkätstudier med läkare från 1992 och 2010 visar att det har skett avsevärda försämringar över tid, särskilt avseende känslan av att ha ett verksamhetsansvar och i upplevelsen av stöd från närmaste chef.

    Indikationer på att läkares villkor är problematiska har funnits i Arbetsmiljöverkets och SCBs återkommande arbetsmiljöundersökningar under 2000-talet. Läkare har här identifierats som ett yrke där man rapporterar hög arbetstakt samt brist på stöd och uppmuntran från chefer.

    För att analysera om det skett förändringar i läkares arbetsvillkor gjordes en enkätstudie under 2010/2011 där det ingick ett antal frågor om arbetsmiljö som också ställts i en enkät år 1992. Utifrån detta material har jämförelser gjorts av läkares position i verksamheten, krav, kontroll och stöd i arbetet, samt frågor som belyser tid för fortbildning, press att följa med i kunskapsutvecklingen och arbetstillfredsställelse. Båda studierna är baserade på ett slumpmässigt urval ur Sveriges läkarförbunds medlemsregister. Antal respondenter år 1992 (n=362) och år 2010 (n=1955), svarsfrekvensen var 70 respektive 68 procent.

    Andelen läkare som upplever sig ha något verksamhetsansvar har minskat med 45 procentandelar över tid, från 76 procent år 1992 till 31 procent år 2010. Läkarnas inflytande över det egna arbetet har minskat något över tid, framför allt har inflytande över beslut på avdelningen minskat över tid. I frågor som avhandlar krav i arbetet rapporterades försämringar avseende mängden arbetsuppgifter, medan tidspress och nödvändig avskildhet för vissa arbetsuppgifter var oförändrad över tid. Resultaten visar också på försämringar avseende arbetsklimat, och att den tid som läggs på forskning och fortbildning har minskat. I området stöd och återkoppling från närmaste chef är förändringarna snudd på dramatiska, exempelvis instämde 45 procent av respondenterna helt i att de hade möjlighet att diskutera svårigheter i arbetet med närmaste chef 1992, jämfört med 14 procent 2010.

  • 35. Bergström, G
    et al.
    Bodin, L
    Hagberg, J
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josephson, M
    Sickness Presenteeism Today, Sickness Absenteeism Tomorrow?: A Prospective Study on Sickness Presenteeism and Future Sickness Absenteeism.2009In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 629-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To prospectively investigate whether sickness presenteeism (SP), ie, going to work despite illness, has an impact on future sickness absenteeism. Methods: Two study populations were used, one female dominated from the public sector that included 3757 employees, and one male dominated from the private sector comprising 2485 employees. Results: SP on more than five occasions during the baseline year (2000) was a statistically significant risk factor for future sick leave (2002 and 2003) of more than 30 days among both populations even after adjusting for previous sick leave, health status, demographics, lifestyle, and work-related variables (2002, public sector, relative risk = 1.40; private sector, relative risk = 1.51). Conclusions: SP may be an important phenomenon to consider when evaluating measures aimed at decreasing sickness absenteeism because more SP may lead to future sickness absence.

  • 36.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindh, Tomas
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Does sickness presenteeism have an impact on future general health?2009In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, no 10, p. 1179-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The primary aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether working despite illness, so called "sickness presenteeism", has an impact on the future general health of two different working populations during a follow-up period of 3 years.

    METHODS: The study was based on two bodies of data collected at a number of Swedish workplaces from 1999 to 2003. The first material comprised 6,901 employees from the public sector and the second 2,862 subjects from the private sector. A comprehensive survey was issued three times: at baseline, after 18 months and after 3 years. Apart from the explanatory variable sickness presenteeism, several potential confounders were considered. The outcome variable was good/excellent versus fair/poor self-reported health.

    RESULTS: Sickness presenteeism at baseline was consistently found to heighten the risk of fair/poor health at both the 18-month and 3-year follow ups even after adjusting for the detected confounders.

    CONCLUSIONS: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to show that sickness presenteeism appears to be an independent risk factor for future fair/poor general health.

  • 37. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 38. Christensen, Marit
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, Vilhelm
    Clausen, Thomas
    Guthenberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakanen, Jari
    Lundberg, Ulrika
    Vivoll Straume, Lisa
    Building engagement and healthy organisations: Validation of the Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organisational Psychology (N-POP). The Third Report from the Nordic Project2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the project was to investigate the predictors of positive work-related states and attitudes, e.g. work engagement, meaning at work and personal growth, and healthy organisations. A questionnaire on these positive factors at work were pilot-tested through a data collection in chosen companies in Norway and Sweden. The results of these studies were used as a base for a preliminary validation of the Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organisational Psychology (N-POP) published in this report. It is concluded that the N-POP constitutes a reliable and valid instrument. The concluding summary suggests that the concepts of work environment, health and productivity do indeed seem able to flow together to reach an optimal point at which well-being at the individual level is coexistent with efficient and productive work organisations.

  • 39. Ericsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Rydstedt, Leif W.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Augustinsson, Sören
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Återhämtning bland hockeyspelare i Tre Kronor, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare – om asocialitet, sömnlösa nätter och allvarsam lek – en dygnsberättelse2016In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 2, p. 7-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Återhämtning är den process som återställer individens energi och mentala resurser. Vi betraktar här återhämtning som en dynamisk process av ständig reglering och anpassning av aktivitetsnivån till omgivningens krav. Föreliggande studie är ett första steg i ett projekt som har för avsikt att fördjupa kunskapen om denna process. Vårt antagande är att det finns olika strategier, platser, behov, förutsättningar och möjligheter för återhämtning i arbetslivet. Både vad gäller individuella olikheter men även skillnader som kan hänföras till yrkesgrupp. Fokusgrupper genomfördes med tre olika yrkesgrupper: professionella ishockeyspelare, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare (sammanlagt 29 deltagare). Utgångspunkten för fokusgrupperna var en idé om en dygnsberättelse, inom vilken det fanns tre distinktioner, arbete, fritid och sömn. Samtalen i fokusgrupperna utgick från dygnsberättelsen, men kretsade kring arbetets krav, förväntningar på prestation samt behov och förutsättningar för återhämtning. Vad som exemplifierades var olika strategier för att hantera de psykofysiologiska påfrestningar som de olika yrkesgrupperna ställs inför. Berättelserna från fokusgrupperna är mångfacetterade och förmedlar både bilden av olika ”rum”, likt fönster, för återhämtning men även en avsaknad av sådana förutsättningar. En avsaknad som istället leder till ytterligare energiförbrukning. Det centrala problemet för de nattarbetande bagarna var ofta på ett eller annat sätt relaterat till en fysiologisk nedvarvning och framförallt (bristen på) sömnkvalitet. Det var alltså inte minnet av jobbet som klängde sig kvar hos bagarna när de hade kommit hem efter avslutat pass. Kvardröjande mentala representationer av stressorer, en typ av repetitivt ältande, visade sig däremot hos både ishockeyspelarna och skolledarna. För ishockeyspelarna var återhämtning ofta tätt sammankopplat med prestation. Goda prestationer skapade bättre förutsättningar för att inte ta med arbetet hem. Ältandet och svårigheter att släppa arbetet var ofta relaterat till mindre bra prestationer eller direkta misslyckanden.

  • 40. Floderus, B.
    et al.
    Hagman, M.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S.
    Wikman, A.
    Self-reported Health in Mothers: The Impact of Age, and Socioeconomic Conditions2008In: Women & Health, ISSN 0363-0242, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 63-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present analysis was to study health and well-being in mothers compared to women without children, and to analyze potential interactions with age and socioeconomic conditions.

    The study comprised 5,368 Swedish women born in 1960-1979 who were interviewed in any of the population-based Surveys of Living Conditions during the period 1996-2003. Having children at home was related to self-reported health symptoms and. long-standing illness in multiple logistic regression models. The impact of age, cohabitation status, full-time or part-time work, and income level were analyzed.

    While mothers were less burdened by long-standing illness, partly due to selection mechanisms (a "healthy mother effect"), they experienced worse self-rated health and more fatigue than women without children, and the odds of poor self-rated. health and fatigue increased by number of children. Conditions that strengthened the association between motherhood and impaired health were young maternal age, full-time employment, high income, and being alone.

    The study indicates a need for improved negotiations between parents regarding a fair share of work and family duties and extended support for lone mothers to prevent adverse health effects in women combining children and work. ne results may be useful to policy-makers and employers in developing new policies.

  • 41.
    Floderus, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagman, M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikman, A
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Work status, work hours and health in women with and without children2009In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 704-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The authors studied self-reported health in women with and without children in relation to their work status (employed, student, job seeker or homemaker), work hours and having an employed partner.

    Methods: The study group comprised of 6515 women born in 1960–1979 who were interviewed in one of the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions in 1994–2003. Self-rated health, fatigue and symptoms of anxiety were analysed.

    Results: Having children increased the odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue in employed women, female students and job seekers. The presence of a working partner marginally buffered the effects. In dual-earner couples, mothers reported anxiety symptoms less often than women without children. Few women were homemakers (5.8%). The odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue increased with increasing number of children in employed women, and in women working 40 h or more. Poor self-rated health was also associated with the number of children in students. Many mothers wished to reduce their working hours, suggesting time stress was a factor in their impaired health. The associations between having children and health symptoms were not exclusively attributed to having young children.

    Conclusions: Having children may contribute to fatigue and poor self-rated health particularly in women working 40 h or more per week. Student mothers and job seeking mothers were also at increased risk of poor self-rated health. The results should be noted by Swedish policy-makers. Also countries aiming for economic and gender equality should consider factors that may facilitate successful merging of work and family life.

  • 42. Floderus, Birgitta
    et al.
    Hagman, Maud
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Disability pension among young women in Sweden, with special emphasis on family structure: a dynamic cohort study2012In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 3, p. e000840-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The influence of family structure on the risk of going on disability pension (DP) was investigated among young women by analysing a short-term and long-term effect, controlling for potential confounding and the ‘healthy mother effect’.

    Design and participants: This dynamic cohort study comprised all women born in Sweden between 1960 and 1979 (1.2 million), who were 20–43 years of age during follow-up. Their annual data were retrieved from national registers for the years 1993–2003. For this period, data on family structure and potential confounders were related to the incidence of DP the year after the exposure assessment. Using a modified version of the COX proportional hazard regression, we took into account changes in the study variables of individuals over the years. In addition, a 5-year follow-up was used.

    Results: Cohabiting working women with children showed a decreased risk of DP in a 1-year perspective compared with cohabiting working women with no children, while the opposite was indicated in the 5-year follow-up. Lone working women with children had an increased risk of DP in both the short-term and long-term perspective. The risk of DP tended to increase with the number of children for both cohabiting and lone working women in the 5-year follow-up.

    Conclusions: The study suggests that parenthood contributes to increasing the risk of going on DP among young women, which should be valuable knowledge to employers and other policy makers. It remains to be analysed to what extent the high numbers of young women exiting from working life may be counteracted by (1) extended gender equality, (2) fewer work hours among fathers and mothers of young children and (3) by financial support to lone women with children.

  • 43. Floderus, Birgitta
    et al.
    Hagman, Maud
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits in women with and without children2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence in Sweden is high, particularly in young women and the reasons are unclear. Many Swedish women combine parenthood and work and are facing demands that may contribute to impaired health and well-being. We compared mothers and women without children under different conditions, assuming increased sickness absence in mothers, due to time-based stress and psychological strain. Methods: All women born in 1960-79 (1.2 million) were followed from 1993 to 2003. Information on children in the home for each year was related to medically certified sickness absence with insurance benefits the year after. We used age and time-stratified proportional hazard regression models accounting for the individual's changes on study variables over time. Data were retrieved from national administrative registers. Results: Sickness absence was higher in mothers than in women without children, the relative risks decreased by age, with no effect after the age of 35 years. An effect appeared in lonely women irrespective of age, while in cohabiting women only for the ages 20-25 years. Mothers showed increased sickness absence in all subgroups of country of birth, education, income, sector of employment and place of residence. The relation between number of children and sickness absence was nonlinear, with the highest relative risks for mothers of one child. The upward trend of sickness absence at the end of 1990s was steeper for mothers compared to women without children. Conclusion: Despite the well-developed social security system and child care services in Sweden, parenthood predicts increased sickness absence, particularly in young and in lone women.

  • 44. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Validation of self-rated recovery items against morning salivary cortisol2009In: Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizational psychology: the second report from the Nordic project Positive factors at work / [ed] Marit Christensen, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2009, 1, , p. 6p. 54-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To describe the associations between physiology and recovery, reliable methods to measure rest and recovery are needed. One of the most common methods to gain information on rest and recovery is to ask people to provide self-ratings in questionnaires. To determine whether the answers to such questions are associated with health, self-ratings can be evaluated with respect to established biomarkers of physiological functioning, such as cortisol. The findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 45. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Does Social Isolation and Low Societal Participation Predict Disability Pension?: A Population Based Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e80655-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine the potential influence of social isolation and low societal participation on the future risk of receiving disability pension among individuals in Sweden. A specific aim was to describe differences depending on disability pension diagnoses, and how the results were modified by sex and age. Method: The study comprised representative samples of Swedish women and men, who had been interviewed in any of the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions between 1990 and 2007. Information on disability pension and diagnoses was added from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's database (1991-2011). The mean number of years of follow-up for the 53920 women and men was twelve years (SD 5.5), and the study base was restricted to the ages 20 to 64 years of age. The predictors were related to disability pension by Cox's proportional hazards regression. Results: Social isolation and low societal participation were associated with future disability pension also after control for age, year of interview, socio demographic conditions and self reported longstanding illness. Lone individuals were at increased risk of disability pension, and the effect of living without children was modified by sex and age. An increase in risk was particularly noticeable among younger women who reported that they had sparse contacts with others, and no close friend. Both women and men who reported that they did not participate in political discussions and who could not appeal on a decision by a public authority were also at increased risk. The effects of social isolation were mainly attributed to disability pension with mental diagnoses, and to younger individuals. Conclusions: The study suggests that social isolation and low societal participation are predictors of future disability pension. Social isolation and low societal participation increased particularly the risk of future disability pension in mental diagnoses among younger individuals.

  • 46. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Peripheral labour market position and risk of disability pension: a prospective population-based study2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 8, p. e005230-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate what impact individuals' position in a labour market core-periphery structure may have on their risk of disability pension (DP) in general and specifically on their risk of DP based on mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Methods: The study comprised 45 567 individuals who had been interviewed for the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1992-2007). The medical DP diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (1993-2011). The assumed predictors were studied in relation to DP by Cox's proportional hazards regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age, controlling for social background and self-reported long-standing illness at baseline. Results: All three indicators underlying the categorisation of the core-periphery structure: employment income, work hours and unemployment, increased the risk of DP in all strata. The risk of DP tended to increase gradually the more peripheral the labour market position was. The risk estimates for DP in general and for DP based on mental diagnoses were particularly high among men aged 20-39 years. Conclusions: The core-periphery position of individuals, representing their labour market attachment, was found to be a predictor of future DP. The association was most evident among individuals below 40 years of age with regard to DP based on mental diagnoses. This highlights the need for preventative measures that increase the participation of young people in working life.

  • 47. Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Wikman, Anders
    Hagman, Maud
    Floderus, Birgitta
    Social integration, Socioeconomic Conditions and Type of ill Health Preceding Disability Pension in Young Women: a Swedish Population Based Study2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability pension has increased in recent decades and is seen as a public health and socioeconomic problem in Western Europe. In the Nordic countries, the increase has been particularly steep among young women.

    Purpose: The aim was to analyze the influence of low social integration, socioeconomic risk conditions and different measures of self-reported ill health on the risk of receiving disability pension in young women.

    Method: The study comprised all Swedish women born in 1960 to 1979, who had been interviewed in any of the annual Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions (1990–2002). The assumed predictors were related to disability pension by Cox proportional hazard regression. The mean number of years of follow-up for the 10,936 women was 7 years (SD 3.8), and the study base was restricted to the ages 16 to 43 years of age.

    Results: An increased risk of receiving a disability pension was found among lone women, those who had sparse contacts with others, job-seeking women, homemakers, as well as women with low education, and poor private financial situations. A tenfold increase in the risk of receiving a disability pension was found among women reporting a long-standing illness and poor self-rated health, compared to women without a long-standing illness and good self-rated health. Psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms/unspecified illness were the strongest predictors of disability pension, particularly before 30 years of age.

    Conclusion: The study suggests that weak social relations and weak connections to working life contribute to increase the risk of disability pension in young women, also after control for socioeconomic conditions and self-reported ill health. Self-rated health was the strongest predictor, followed by long-standing illness and not having a job (job seekers and homemakers).

  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Biologisk psykologi.
    Relationship between Self-Ratings of Recovery and Morning Salivary Cortisol2007In: The XIII th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of how self-ratings of work-related rest and recovery relate to cortisol output is poor. This study aimed to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol measured every second hour during two work days. Data came from 12 female and 13male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed that poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol. The strongest relationships between single items and salivary cortisol emerged for ”rested in the morning”,

    ”rested after a weekend”, ”feel energetic during the working day”, ”tired during the working day”, ”sufficient sleep” and ”worry about something”. Furthermore, significant interaction effects were found between sex and “rested after a weekend” and “worry about something”. To conclude, the findings show linkages between self-ratings of rest and recovery and cortisol levels, particularly morning cortisol. This suggests that self-ratings of rest and recovery provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Relationships between self-rating of recovery from work and morning salivary cortisol2008In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, the understanding of how recovery from work relates to cortisol output is poor. Considering this, the present study set out to investigate the associations between self-ratings of 15 items of rest and recovery and salivary cortisol sampled every second hour across two working days. Data came from 12 female and 13 male white-collar workers and were analyzed by linear regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Poor rest and recovery was associated with high levels of morning cortisol, with the strongest relationships emerging for "rested in the morning", "rested after a weekend", "feel energetic during the working day", "tired during the working day", "sufficient sleep" and "worry about something". Moreover, significant interaction effects emerged between sex and "rested after a weekend" and "worry about something". To conclude, the findings show that self-ratings of rest and recovery are related to cortisol, particularly to morning cortisol, and that self-ratings provide important information on physiological recovery in terms of cortisol output.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Validation of questions on recovery2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive psychology investigates the positive aspects of human life. Positive psychologists contend that it is difficult to understand the factors that create health, balance and meaningful lives through studying sickness, dissatisfaction and suffering. Accordingly, positive psychology represents a turn for a more positive approach to psychology.

    The ideas of positive psychology are also applicable within the sphere of work and organisational psychology. It is a central contention of this report that positive psychology may provide interesting answers to some of the challenges that are confronting the Nordic welfare states in the years ahead.

    The aim of this report is to give a theoretical and methodological overview of existing Nordic research about positive factors at work. The report contains a series of operationalised concepts that measure positive factors at work. These measures of positive factors at work are brought together in a theoretical model that the authors of this report will use as a starting point for further research into positive psychology at work in a Nordic context.

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