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• 1. Alekseeva, Irina
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Reproducing the Aral Sea water budget and sea-groundwater dynamics between 1979 and 1993 using a coupled 3-D sea-ice-groundwater model2009In: Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 296-309Article in journal (Refereed)

We have developed the 3-D sea-ice model, ECOSMO, into a coupled sea-ice–groundwater model and investigated the factors that may have influenced the groundwater–seawater interactions and the water balance of the shrinking Aral Sea. During the simulation period, 1979–1993, the model successfully reproduced the rapid Aral Sea level drop, surface area decrease, coastline position changes and increasing salinization of the Aral Sea. Model predictions of evaporation and groundwater inflow were also consistent with independent estimations. Model results indicated that the net groundwater inflow to the Aral Sea may have increased by 10% or more as a direct effect of the sea level lowering. Furthermore, model scenario tests showed that in comparison with a basic scenario, in which salinity effects were accounted for, not accounting for such effects resulted in considerable changes in ice formation and winter thermal conditions, which in turn influenced the thermo- and hydrodynamics and fresh water air-sea fluxes in the Aral Sea. As a result, the zero-salinity scenario predicted higher evaporation rates and an accelerated sea level lowering by up to 2 cm/yr, in comparison with the basic scenario. Model results showed that increased groundwater inflow to the sea may have influenced the Aral Sea salinity distribution since the 1990's. Our results emphasise the importance of taking into account both baroclinic hydrodynamics, sea-ice dynamics and as well as potentially increased future groundwater-related salinity effects in order to accurately estimate the Aral Sea water balance. More generally, models that can handle such highly dynamic systems may have a realistic potential for making detailed assessments of sea characteristics under the influence of climate and hydrological cycle changes.

• 2.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Appendix to Paper V: Climate model performance versus basin-scalehydro-climatic dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
• 3.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Irrigation eﬀects on hydro-climatic change: Basin-wise water balance-constrained quantiﬁcation and cross-regional comparison2014In: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 879-895Article in journal (Refereed)

Hydro-climatic changes driven by human land and water use, including water use for irrigation, may be diﬃcult to distinguish fromthe eﬀects of global, natural and anthropogenic climate change. This paper quantiﬁes and compares the hydro-climatic change eﬀects ofirrigation using a data-driven, basin-wise quantiﬁcation approach in two diﬀerent irrigated world regions: the Aral Sea drainage basinin Central Asia, and the Indian Mahanadi River Basin draining into the Bay of Bengal. Results show that irrigation-driven changesin evapotranspiration and latent heat ﬂuxes and associated temperature changes at the land surface may be greater in regions withsmall relative irrigation impacts on water availability in the landscape (here represented by the MRB) than in regions with severe suchimpacts (here represented by the Aral region). Diﬀerent perspectives on the continental part of Earth’s hydrological cycle may thus implydiﬀerent importance assessment of various drivers and impacts of hydro-climatic change. Regardless of perspective, however, actualbasin-wise water balance constraints should be accounted to realistically understand and accurately quantify continental water change.

• 4.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Vapor flux by evapotranspiration: effects of changes in climate, land-use and water-use2010In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, no D24Article in journal (Refereed)

Enhanced evapotranspiration (ET) over irrigated land and associated latent heat flux change can modify the climate. Model studies of such climate change effects of irrigation are commonly based on land use parameterizations, in terms of irrigated land area, or land area equipped for irrigation. Actual ET change, however, may also be driven by water use change in addition to land use change. This study quantifies and compares ET changes due to changes in climate, land use, and water use from the preirrigation period 1901–1955 to the recent period 1990–2000 (with irrigation) for the example case of Mahanadi River Basin (MRB) in India. The results show that actual water use per unit area of irrigated land may vary greatly over a hydrological drainage basin. In MRB, much higher water use per irrigated land unit in the downstream humid basin parts leads to higher vapor flux by ET, and irrigation‐induced ET flux change, than in the upstream, water‐stressed basin parts. This is consistent with water supply limitations in water‐stressed basins. In contrast, the assumption in land use−based models that irrigation maintains high soil moisture contents can imply higher modeled water use and therefore also higher modeled ET fluxes under dry conditions than under humid conditions. The present results indicate water use as an important driver of regional climate change, in addition to land use and greenhouse gas‐driven changes.

• 5.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of New Hampshire, USA. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Climate model performance and change projection for freshwater fluxes: comparison for irrigated areas in Central and South Asia2016In: Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies, ISSN 1070-9428, E-ISSN 1857-8489, Vol. 5, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)

Study region: The large semi-arid Aral Region in Central Asia and the smaller tropical Mahanadi River Basin (MRB) in India. Study focus: Few studies have so far evaluated the performance of the latest generation ofglobal climate models on hydrological basin scales. We here investigate the performanceand projections of the global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) for freshwater fluxes and their changes in two regional hydrological basins, which are both irrigated but of different scale and with different climate. New hydrological insights for the region: For precipitation in both regions, model accuracy relative to observations has remained the same or decreased in successive climate model generations until and including CMIP5. No single climate model out-performs other models across all key freshwater variables in any of the investigated basins. Scale effects are not evident from global model application directly to freshwater assessment for the two basins of widely different size. Overall, model results are less accurate and more uncertain for freshwater fluxes than for temperature, and particularly so for model-implied water storage changes. Also, the monsoon-driven runoff seasonality in MRB is not accurately reproduced. Model projections agree on evapotranspiration increase in both regions until the climatic period 2070–2099. This increase is fed by precipitation increase in MRB and by runoff water (thereby decreasing runoff) in the Aral Region.

• 6. Augustsson, A.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)

This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

• 7. Azcárate, Juan
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Strategic environmental assessment and monitoring: Arctic key gaps and bridging pathways2013In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 044033Article in journal (Refereed)

The Arctic region undergoes rapid and unprecedented environmental change. Environmental assessment and monitoring is needed to understand and decide how to mitigate and/or adapt to the changes and their impacts on society and ecosystems. This letter analyzes the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the monitoring, based on environmental observations, that should be part of SEA, elucidates main gaps in both, and proposes an overarching SEA framework to systematically link and improve both with focus on the rapidly changing Arctic region. Shortcomings in the monitoring of environmental change are concretized by examples of main gaps in the observations of Arctic hydroclimatic changes. For relevant identification and efficient reduction of such gaps and remaining uncertainties under typical conditions of limited monitoring resources, the proposed overarching framework for SEA application includes components for explicit gap/uncertainty handling and monitoring, systematically integrated within all steps of the SEA process. The framework further links to adaptive governance, which should explicitly consider key knowledge and information gaps that are identified through and must be handled in the SEA process, and accordingly (re)formulate and promote necessary new or modified monitoring objectives for bridging these gaps.

• 8.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Scenario-based Transboundary Approach to Shape Arctic Futures2013Conference paper (Refereed)

Technological advances, climate change and increased strategic interest in the Arctic are causing rapid and long lasting transformations that challenge established governance and collaboration practices, and increase information demands to support regional decision making. In the rapidly transforming Arctic, however, scenarios of environmental change risk being insufficiently accounted for in adaptation planning, as monitoring of key environmental parameters has declined or is poorly optimized. Furthermore, application of support instruments for environmental planning, such as strategic environmental assessment, has been limited. This poster presents recent advancements in efforts to combine quantitative analysis of environmental monitoring in the Arctic with strategic governance research to develop instruments, such as scenarios, projections and assessment processes, that can facilitate relevant planning and decision making for change adaptation. that the research explores and aims to improve the preconditions for and links between environmental management, policy-relevant monitoring, and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic. Results include environmental monitoring assessment for the Arctic, and design of a transboundary strategic environmental assessment approach that includes scenarios as a main component for enabling strategic dialogues, information exchange and decision support. In this proposed approach, focus is placed on identifying conflicts of interest, gaps of knowledge and uncertainties, and on developing inclusive scenarios and future projections that could be used by different actors to facilitate improved understanding of climate change impacts on sensitive and unique Arctic ecosystems. The approach can be used to discuss and arrive at shared projections, visions and objectives for the Arctic, and its application and testing in research may aid in enabling Arctic actors to establish networks, interact, share information and develop their capacities to improve decisions on Arctic futures.

• 9. Basu, N. B.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Nutrient loads exported from managed catchments reveal emergent biogeochemical stationarity2010In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 37, no L23404Article in journal (Refereed)

Complexity of heterogeneous catchments poses challenges in predicting biogeochemical responses to human alterations and stochastic hydro‐climatic drivers. Human interferences and climate change may have contributed to the demise of hydrologic stationarity, but our synthesis of a large body of observational data suggests that anthropogenic impacts have also resulted in the emergence of effective biogeochemical stationarity in managed catchments. Long‐term monitoring data from the Mississippi‐Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) and the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) reveal that inter‐annual variations in loads (LT) for total‐N (TN) and total‐P (TP), exported from a catchment are dominantly controlled by discharge (QT) leading inevitably to temporal invariance of the annual, flow‐weighted concentration, $\overline{C_{f}}\mathit{}$ = (LT/QT). Emergence of this consistent pattern across diverse managed catchments is attributed to the anthropogenic legacy of accumulated nutrient sources generating memory, similar to ubiquitously present sources for geogenic constituents that also exhibit a linear LTQT relationship. These responses are characteristic of transport‐limited systems. In contrast, in the absence of legacy sources in less‐managed catchments, $\overline{C_{f}}\mathit{}$ values were highly variable and supply limited. We offer a theoretical explanation for the observed patterns at the event scale, and extend it to consider the stochastic nature of rainfall/flow patterns at annual scales. Our analysis suggests that: (1) expected inter‐annual variations in LT can be robustly predicted given discharge variations arising from hydro‐climatic or anthropogenic forcing, and (2) water‐quality problems in receiving inland and coastal waters would persist until the accumulated storages of nutrients have been substantially depleted. The finding has notable implications on catchment management to mitigate adverse water‐quality impacts, and on acceleration of global biogeochemical cycles.

• 10. Basu, N. B.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Anthropogenic Signatures in Nutrient Loads Exported from Managed Catchments: Emergence of Effective Biogeochemical Stationarity2010In: Abstract H44C-03 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., USA, 13–17 Dec, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 11. Bishop, K.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Skilj inte på vatten och vatten!2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 12. Björck, S
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Uttalande från klimatgruppen inom akademiens klass för geovetenskaper angående Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

Björck S., Backman J., Bengtsson S., Destouni G., Rodhe H., Uttalande från klimatgruppen inom akademiens klass för geovetenskaper angående Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (Statement on Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis; in Swedish), Climate Group of the Class of Geosciences at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 5 June, 2007.

• 13.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Influences of shifts in climate, landscape, and permafrost on terrestrial hydrology2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, article id D05120Article in journal (Refereed)

This study has simulated the terrestrial hydrology associated with different climate, landscape, and permafrost regime scenarios for the field case example of the relatively well characterized coastal catchment of Forsmark, Sweden. The regime scenarios were selected from long-term simulation results of climate, topographical, shoreline, and associated Quaternary deposit and vegetation development in this catchment with a time perspective of 100,000 years or more and were used as drivers for hydrological simulations with the three-dimensional model MIKE SHE. The hydrological simulations quantify the responses of different water flow and water storage components of terrestrial hydrology to shifts from the present cool temperate climate landscape regime in Forsmark to a possible future Arctic periglacial landscape regime with or without permafrost. The results show complexity and nonlinearity in the runoff responses to precipitation changes due to parallel changes in evapotranspiration, along with changes in surface and subsurface water storage dynamics and flow pathways through the landscape. The results further illuminate different possible perspectives of what constitutes wetter/drier landscape conditions, in contrast to the clearer concept of what constitutes a warmer/colder climate.

• 14.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Exchange and pathways of deep and shallow groundwater in different climate and permafrost conditions using the Forsmark site, Sweden, as an example catchment2012In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 225-237Article in journal (Refereed)

This study simulates and quantifies the exchange and the pathways of deep and shallow groundwaterflow and solute transport under different climate and permafrost conditions, considering the example field case of the coastal Forsmark catchment in Sweden. A number of simulation scenarios for different climate and permafrost condition combinations have been performed with the three-dimensional groundwater flow and transport model MIKE SHE. Results show generally decreasing vertical groundwater flow with depth, and smaller vertical flow under permafrost conditions than under unfrozen conditions. Also the overall pattern of both the vertical and the horizontal groundwater flow, and the water exchange between the deep and shallow groundwater systems, change dramatically in the presence of permafrost relative to unfrozen conditions. However, although the vertical groundwater flow decreases significantly in the presence of permafrost, there is still an exchange of water between the unfrozen groundwater system below the permafrost and the shallow groundwater in the active layer, via taliks. ‘Through taliks’ tend to prevail in areas that constitute groundwater discharge zones under unfrozen conditions, which then mostly shift to net recharge zones (through taliks with net downward flow) under permafrost conditions.

• 15.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of New Hampshire, USA.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Split, Croatia. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
Implications of freshwater flux data from the CMIP5 multimodel output across a set of Northern Hemisphere drainage basins2015In: Earths Future, ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)

The multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) synthesizes the latest research in global climate modeling. The freshwater system on land, particularly runoff, has so far been of relatively low priority in global climate models, despite the societal and ecosystem importance of freshwater changes, and the science and policy needs for such model output on drainage basin scales. Here we investigate the implications of CMIP5 multimodel ensemble output data for the freshwater system across a set of drainage basins in the Northern Hemisphere. Results of individual models vary widely, with even ensemble mean results differing greatly from observations and implying unrealistic long-term systematic changes in water storage and level within entire basins. The CMIP5 projections of basin-scale freshwater fluxes differ considerably more from observations and among models for the warm temperate study basins than for the Arctic and cold temperate study basins. In general, the results call for concerted research efforts and model developments for improving the understanding and modeling of the freshwater system and its change drivers. Specifically, more attention to basin-scale water flux analyses should be a priority for climate model development, and an important focus for relevant model-based advice for adaptation to climate change.

• 16.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Arctic Climate and Water Change: Model and Observation Relevance for Assessment and Adaptation2014In: Surveys in geophysics, ISSN 0169-3298, E-ISSN 1573-0956, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 853-877Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The Arctic is subject to growing economic and political interest. Meanwhile, its climate and water systems are in rapid transformation. In this paper, we review and extend a set of studies on climate model results, hydro-climatic change, and hydrological monitoring systems. Results indicate that general circulation model (GCM) projections of drainage basin temperature and precipitation have improved between two model generations. However, some inaccuracies remain for precipitation projections. When considering geographical priorities for monitoring or adaptation efforts, our results indicate that future projections by GCMs and recent observations diverge regarding the basins where temperature and precipitation changes currently are the most pronounced and where they will be so in the future. Regarding late twentieth-century discharge changes in major Arctic rivers, data generally show excess of water relative to precipitation changes. This indicates a possible contribution to sea-level rise of river water that was previously stored in permafrost or groundwater. The river contribution to the increasing Arctic Ocean freshwater inflow is similar in magnitude to the separate contribution from glaciers, which underlines the importance of considering all possible sources of freshwater when assessing sea-level change. We further investigate monitoring systems and find a lack of harmonized water chemistry data, which limits the ability to understand the origin and transport of nutrients, carbon and sediment to the sea. To provide adequate information for research and policy, Arctic hydrological and hydrochemical monitoring needs to be extended, better integrated and made more accessible. Further water-focused data and modeling efforts are required to resolve the source of excess discharge in Arctic rivers. Finally, improvements in climate model parameterizations are needed, in particular for precipitation projections.

• 17.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Divergent prioritization relevance of Arctic hydrological monitoring under climate change2012Conference paper (Other academic)
• 18.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Divergent relevance and prioritization basis for hydro-climatic change monitoring in the Arctic2012Conference paper (Refereed)

Climate change affects society and the Earth System largely through water cycle changes, such as altered precipitation patterns and increased drought and flood pressures. In the Arctic, which undergoes a particularly large and rapid environmental transformation, information on water cycle changes is crucial to plan for societal adaptation. A prioritization strategy is then needed for how (where and when) monitoring should be focused to get the most relevant information and data on Arctic hydro-climatic change with limited available resources. We investigate different possible strategies for a geographic prioritization of hydro-climatic change monitoring in the Arctic. Results show conflicting prioritization basis across 14 major Arctic hydrological basins. The current monitoring density distribution is relevant for the so far observed but not for the projected future changes in Arctic climate. The present and the projected future hot-spots of greatest climate change differ, so that major spatial shifts must be anticipated in the future with regard to climate change severity across the Arctic. Important temporal shifts must further be anticipated in several major Arctic basins with currently decreasing but expected future increasing precipitation.

• 19.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Evaluation of IPCC AR4 climate model performance over 14 major Arctic watershedsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
• 20.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Hydro-climatic change indications of Arctic permafrost thawing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
• 21.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Hydro-climatic changes and their monitoring in the Arctic: Observation-model comparisons and prioritization options for monitoring development2013In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 492, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)

The Arctic undergoes particularly large and rapid hydro-climatic changes, and information on hydrological responses to these changes is crucial to plan for societal adaptation. We investigate hydro-climatic change severity and monitoring in 14 major hydrological basins across the pan-Arctic, in view of different possible strategies for their monitoring prioritization. Results show that the current distribution of monitoring density in these basins is more relevant for so far observed precipitation changes than for observed temperature changes, or for projected future temperature and precipitation changes. Furthermore, present and projected future hot-spots of greatest hydro-climatic change differ spatially, so that major spatial shifts must occur in the future among the different Arctic basins in order for observations and climate model projections to converge with regard to hydro-climatic change severity. Also temporally, observation-model convergence requires that important change direction shifts occur in major Arctic basins, which have currently decreasing precipitation while model projections imply future increasing precipitation within them. Different prioritization options for rational development of hydro-climatic monitoring can be argued for based on the present results. The divergent prioritization options imply a need for an explicit strategy for achieving certain information goals, which must be selected from a larger set of different possible goals based on societal importance.

• 22.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Hydrological and hydrochemical observation status in the pan-Arctic drainage basin2009In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 28, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)

In order to identify and understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic hydrological cycle, and the impacts on the Arctic Ocean, timely and open access to water and water-chemistry data is essential. By synthesizing and analysing all openly accessible water-discharge and water-quality data, we present an updated, quantitative picture of the status of observational data on hydrological and hydrochemical fluxes from the pan-Arctic drainage basin (PADB) to the ocean. We identify and compare the characteristics of monitored and unmonitored areas, and the differences between them, across the continents in the PADB. Results indicate significant gaps in monitoring data for water chemistry, in particular for high-latitude near-coastal areas. The differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas may bias assessments of hydrological and hydrochemical fluxes to the Arctic Ocean. The reliable identification and understanding of important biogeochemical processes in the PADB require extended monitoring, particularly in high-latitude permafrost ground, and more ready access to harmonized and integrated hydrochemical data.

• 23.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Relevance of Hydro-Climatic Change Projection and Monitoring for Assessment of Water Cycle Changes in the Arctic2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 316-369Article in journal (Refereed)

Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

• 24.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for  assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic2011Conference paper (Refereed)

Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to ﬁnd appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

• 25.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Spatial patterns of decline in pan-arctic hydrological monitoring networks: a vulnerability map2008In: Northern Hydrology and its Global Role: XXV Nordic Hydrological Conference, 2008, p. 60-66Conference paper (Refereed)

The last decades of observed rapid and significant changes to the Arctic hydrological system indicate an ongoing transition to a state not previously observed in recent history, which stresses the need for hydrological and hydrochemical observation networks that are adequate for detecting, understanding and modeling these changes. Recent studies have reported a widespread decline in these networks, but little information is available on where the decline has been most critical, and how it relates to the distribution of socio-economic and climatic pressures on water resources in the pan-Arctic drainage basin. We present a quantitative picture of the spatial patterns of decline in Arctic hydrological monitoring networks. We also analyze which Arctic drainage basins that are left most vulnerable by this decline, due to their combination with socio-economic and climate pressures. Results indicate that for basins where the hydrological monitoring decline has been higher than average, population density and economic production intensity are also frequently above average. Furthermore, diverging spatial patterns in future modeled and recently observed temperature trends makes it difficult to determine the real vulnerability of these basins to temperature change pressures.

• 26.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Current status of Pan-Arctic hydrologic and hydrochemical observing networks2007In: Proceedings from the Arctic Coastal Zones at Risk workshop in Tromsö, Norway, 1-3 October 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)

Access to reliable hydrologic and hydrochemical data is of paramount importance for accurately understanding and modeling ongoing change in the Arctic hydrologic cycle under a warming climate. Recent studies have shown that the availability of and accessibility to such data is limited, and also declining, for some Arctic areas. In particular, there is a lack of consistent monitoring of water chemistry. At the same time, there is little information on where and which data gaps are most critical.

In light of the present decline of monitoring, it is important to compile and quantify the hydrological and water chemistry monitoring in the Arctic. It is further important to investigate whether there are any systematic differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas draining to the Arctic Ocean, as such biases might limit the ability of models to accurately predict hydrologic behavior across basins with different properties.

We present a quantitative assessment of all openly available monitoring data for water discharge and important water chemistry parameters (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment) in the pan-Arctic drainage basin.

Openly accessible pan-Arctic monitoring data were assembled from various databases for discharge and water chemistry, and monitoring station locations were co-referenced to a 30-minute simulated topological network. This allowed the construction of a geographically distributed representation of the temporal and spatial extent of monitoring. By linking this information with spatially distributed basin properties, differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas were analyzed. Finally, spatial patterns in the recent decline of discharge monitoring were compared with recently observed and projected future temperature trends.

Results indicate significant disparity in the spatial and temporal distribution of monitoring data, in particular for water chemistry monitoring, which is both spatially and temporally much less extensive than discharge monitoring. Additionally, there are systematic differences between the characteristics of monitored and unmonitored areas, within and between the different continents in the pan-Arctic drainage basin. The decline in network density has been greatest in four Eurasian basins. In these areas, recent observational temperature trends have been the smallest, while climate models predict the greatest future increases in these areas.

The scarcity of water chemical data and the systematic differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored basins may limit the reliability of assessments of Arctic water and hydrochemical flux changes under a warming climate. Observed and modeled climate trends exhibit diverging spatial patterns, which makes it difficult to determine whether the basins with the greatest decline in discharge monitoring density are really the ones that will experience the greatest future temperature change. Arctic monitoring needs to be extended in certain areas to enable reliable characterization of hydrologic and hydro-chemical variability and change in the region.

• 27.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Pan-Arctic drainage basin monitoring: current status and potential significance for assessment of climate change effects and feedbacks2007In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Climate & Water, 2007, p. 88-93Conference paper (Other academic)

Access to reliable hydrologic data is of paramount importance for accurately understanding and modeling ongoing change in and climate feedbacks of the Arctic hydrologic cycle. The accessibility to such data is limited, and continues to decline for some Arctic areas, but there is little information on where and which data gaps are most critical. We present a quantitative assessment of openly accessible monitoring data for water discharge and chemistry in the pan-Arctic drainage basin. We also quantify differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas, and analyze spatial patterns in reported decline of discharge networks in relation to recently observed and future modeled temperature trends. Results indicate that there is significant disparity in the spatial and temporal distribution of monitoring data, in particular for water chemistry monitoring. Additionally, there are systematic differences between the characteristics of monitored and unmonitored areas, within and between the different continents in the pan-Arctic drainage basin. Discharge network density has declined the most in four Eurasian drainage basins, which show the smallest recently observed temperature trends but the greatest modeled future temperature changes. Differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas may limit the reliability of assessments of Arctic water and solute flux change under a warming climate. Arctic monitoring needs to be extended in certain areas to fully enable characterization of the hydrologic variability and change in the region.

• 28.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Pan-Arctic Drainage Basin Monitoring: Current Status and Potential Significance for Assessment of Climate Change Impacts and Feedbacks2007In: Arctic Forum Abstract Volume, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)

Access to reliable hydrologic data is of paramount importance for the accurate understanding of changes in the arctic hydrologic cycle, and is also vital to policymakers as a base for sound environmental decisions. Accessibility to such data is limited and continues to decline for some arctic areas, while little information exists on which data gaps are most critical. This study presents a quantitative assessment of openly available monitoring data for water discharge and chemistry in the pan-arctic drainage basin. Results indicate that there is significant disparity in the spatial and temporal distribution of accessible monitoring data, in particular for water chemistry monitoring. Additionally, there are systematic differences between the characteristics of monitored and unmonitored areas. These differences may limit the reliability of assessments of arctic water and solute flux changes under a warming climate. Arctic monitoring needs to be extended in certain areas, and data needs to be disseminated more efficiently, to fully enable characterization of the hydrologic variability and change in the region.

• 29.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Pan-Arctic drainage basin observation networks: current status and potential significance for assessment of climate change effects and feedbacks2007In: 1st IPY workshop on Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)

Hydrological observation networks are integral for understanding and modeling present and future changes in and climate feedbacks to the Arctic environmental system. Recent studies have reported a widespread decline in these networks, but patterns of decline and location of critical data gaps are less certain. We present an updated and quantitative status of openly accessible observation network data for discharge and water chemistry in the pan-Arctic drainage area. We also compare relevant hydrological and socio-economic characteristics of monitored and unmonitored areas, and analyze the decline in network density in relation to recently observed and future modeled temperature trends. Results indicate that there are significant temporal and spatial variations in accessible data, and that there is a critical lack of accessible water chemistry data for large shares of the pan-Arctic. Furthermore, there are systematic differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas, within and between pan-Arctic regions. Discharge network density has declined the most in four Eurasian drainage basins, which show the smallest recently observed temperature trends but the greatest modeled future temperature changes. Differences in characteristics between monitored and unmonitored areas may limit the reliability of assessments of Arctic water and solute flux change under a warming climate. Improved understanding of the Arctic hydrological system requires less restricted access to monitoring data, extended network coverage of unmonitored areas, and a commitment to sustaining and improving existing networks.

• 30.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Water Information and Water Security in the Arctic2015In: The New Arctic / [ed] B. Evengård, J. Nymand Larsen, Ø. Paasche, Springer, 2015, p. 225-238Chapter in book (Refereed)

Water is common to many environmental changes that are currently observed in the Arctic. To manage environmental change, and related water security challenges that are rising in the Arctic, adequate water information and monitoring is critical. Although water information systems have been deteriorating in the Arctic, there are still opportunities to combine existing data to inform policy decisions on how to manage water security. Furthermore, implementing a set of water security indicators can help identify areas of concern within the region. However, accessible climate change information is not always relevant for the scales of policymaking. In addition, improved representation of water on land in climate models is needed to better inform adaptation.

• 31. Bring, Arvid
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Variability in climate change simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)

Changes to runoff due to climate change may influence management of nutrient loading to the sea. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of changing runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan. For several countries, climate projections point to large variability in load changes in relation to reduction targets. These changes either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in climate projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countries with more limited commitments. In the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of climate change on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in climate projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow changes.

• 32. Carstens, C.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Groundwater flow partitioning in near-coastal catchments of central Scandinavia2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts,  Vol. 13, EGU2011-7880, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
• 33.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Scenario simulations of CO(2) injection feasibility, plume migration and storage in a saline aquifer, Scania, Sweden2011In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1303-1318Article in journal (Refereed)

Deep saline aquifers have large capacity for geological CO(2) storage, but are generally not as well characterized as petroleum reservoirs. We here aim at quantifying effects of uncertain hydraulic parameters and uncertain stratigraphy on CO(2) injectivity and migration, and provide a first feasibility study of pilot-scale CO(2) injection into a multilayered saline aquifer system in southwest Scania, Sweden. Four main scenarios are developed, corresponding to different possible interpretations of available site data. Simulation results show that, on the one hand, stratigraphic uncertainty (presence/absence of a thin mudstone/claystone layer above the target storage formation) leads to large differences in predicted CO(2) storage in the target formation at the end of the test (ranging between 11% and 98% of injected CO(2) remaining), whereas other parameter uncertainty (in formation and cap rock permeabilities) has small impact. On the other hand, the latter has large impact on predicted injectivity, on which stratigraphic uncertainty has small impact. Salt precipitation at the border of the target storage formation affects CO(2) injectivity for all considered scenarios and injection rates. At low injection rates, salt is deposited also within the formation, considerably reducing its availability for CO(2) storage.

• 34. Conley, Daniel J.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
Tackling hypoxia in the Baltic Sea: Is engineering a solution?2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 3407-3411Article in journal (Refereed)
• 35. Cvetkovic, V.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Lagrangian modeling of advective solute transport along hydrological pathways2012Conference paper (Refereed)
• 36. Cvetkovic, V.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Water and solute transport along hydrological pathways2012In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 48, no 6, p. W06537-(15 pp)Article in journal (Refereed)

A Lagrangian framework for material transport along hydrological pathways is presented and consequences of statistically stationary space-time flow velocity variations on advective transport are investigated. The two specific questions addressed in this work are: How do temporal fluctuations affect forward and backward water travel time distributions when combined with spatial variability? and Can mass transfer processes be quantified using conditional probabilities in spatially and temporally variable flow? Space-time trajectories are studied for generic conditions of flow, with fully ergodic or only spatially ergodic velocity. It is shown that forward and backward distributions of advective water travel time coincide for statistically stationary space-time variations. Temporal variability alters the statistical structure of the Lagrangian velocity fluctuations. Once this is accounted for, integration of the memory function with the travel time distribution is applicable for quantifying retention. Further work is needed to better understand the statistical structure of space-time velocity variability in hydrological transport, as well as its impact on tracer retention and attenuation.

• 37.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Dissecting the variable source area concept - Subsurface flow pathways and water mixing processes in a hillslope2012In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 420, p. 125-141Article in journal (Refereed)

This study uses an instrumented (trenched) 0.5 ha hillslope in the southern tier of New York State, USA, to provide new data and insights on how variable source areas and associated flow pathways form and combine to connect rainfall with downstream water flows across a hillslope. Measurements of water fluxes in the trench, upslope water table dynamics, surface and bedrock topography, and isotopic and geochemical tracers have been combined for a four-dimensional (space-time) characterization of subsurface storm flow responses. During events with dry antecedent conditions infiltrating rainwater was found to percolate through a prevailing fragipan layer to deeper soil layers, with much (33-71%) of the total discharge of the hillslope originating from deeper water flow below the fragipan. During storm events with wet antecedent conditions and large rainfall amounts, shallow lateral flow of event and pre-event water above the fragipan occurred and was one magnitude greater than the deeper water flow contribution. Spatial surface and subsurface water quality observations indicate that water from a distance of up to 56 m contributed runoff from the hillslope during storm events. In addition, mobilization of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) with subsurface flow played a greater role than with overland or near-surface flow. During all events TDP loads were highest in the total discharge during peak flows (8-11.5 kg ha(-1) d(-1)), except during the largest storm event, when TDP concentrations were highly diluted. These results have implications for strategies to protect streams and other downstream water recipients from waterborne nutrient and pollutant loading.

• 38.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Physical versus biogeochemical interpretations of nitrogen and phosphorus attenuation in streams and its dependence on stream characteristics2007In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, no GB3003Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate the influence of biogeochemical nutrient attenuation rates versus physical solute travel times on nutrient transport and attenuation in streams with different characteristics. Comparative results indicate smaller biogeochemical in-stream attenuation rate and greater decrease of this rate with stream depth for phosphorus than for nitrogen. Because physical solute travel times also decrease with stream depth, equally for both nutrients, the resulting relative nutrient mass attenuation becomes essentially independent of stream depth for phosphorus but decreases with stream depth for nitrogen. Coarse interpretation models, without relevant representation of subgrid physical transport variability may lead to systematic misinterpretation of relative nitrogen mass attenuation behavior as a predominantly biogeochemical attenuation rate effect instead of a physical transport time effect. Incorrect understanding and distinction between

physical and biogeochemical processes and effects may generally induce misleading cause-effect conclusions on environmental loads and prevent us from reaching environmental goals of worldwide importance.

• 39.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Water resource informatics, management and adaptation under a warming climate2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

International Workshop on The Sustainable City - Technologies and Systems for Sustainable Development, School of Environmental Studies, CUSAT-Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala State, India, December 10-12, 2008

• 40.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Quantification of advective solute travel times and mass transport through hydrological catchments2010In: Environmental Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1567-7419, E-ISSN 1573-1510, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)

This study has investigated and outlined the possible quantification and mapping of the distributions of advective solute travel times through hydrological catchments. These distributions are essential for understanding how local water flow and solute transport and attenuation processes affect the catchment-scale transport of solute, for instance with regard to biogeochemical cycling, contamination persistence and water quality. The spatial and statistical distributions of advective travel times have been quantified based on reported hydrological flow and mass-transport modeling results for two coastal Swedish catchments. The results show that the combined travel time distributions for the groundwater-stream network continuum in these catchments depend largely on the groundwater system and model representation, in particular regarding the spatial variability of groundwater hydraulic parameters (conductivity, porosity and gradient), and the possible contributions of slower/deeper groundwater flow components. Model assumptions about the spatial variability of groundwater hydraulic properties can thus greatly affect model results of catchment-scale solute spreading. The importance of advective travel time variability for the total mass delivery of naturally attenuated solute (tracer, nutrient, pollutant) from a catchment to its downstream water recipient depends on the product of catchment-average physical travel time and attenuation rate.

• 41.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Scale and model resolution effects on the distributions of advective solute travel times in catchments2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1697-1710Article in journal (Refereed)

Advective solute travel times and their distributions in hydrological catchments are useful descriptors of the dynamics and variation of the physical mass transport among and along the different source-to-recipient pathways of solute transport through the catchments. This article investigates the scale dependence and the effects of model and data resolution on the quantification of advective travel times and their distributions in the Swedish catchment areas of Norrström and Forsmark. In the surface water networks of the investigated (sub)catchments, the mean advective travel time increases with (sub)catchment scale, whereas the relative travel time variability around the mean value (coefficient of variation, CV) is scale-invariant and insensitive to model resolution. In the groundwater and for the whole (sub)catchments, both the mean value and the CV of travel times are scale-invariant, but sensitive to model resolution and accuracy. Such quantifications and results of advective travel times constitute important steps in the development of improved understanding and modelling of nutrient, pollutant and tracer transport through catchments.

• 42.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Integrated hydrological systems2010In: Invited paper presented at the Conference Thirty years of stochastic subsurface hydrology: Where do we stand and what are the emerging challenges?, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, June 27-July 2, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 43.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Interactions between climate change and groundwater flow and quality2010In: Keynote presented at the 7th Int. Groundwater Quality (GQ10) Conference, Zürich, Switzerland, June 13-18, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 44.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Nutrient load: Getting the figures right2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 45.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Nutrient loadings from land: identifying and resolving diverging interpretations of their development2010In: Keynote presented at 2010 Nordic Marine Sciences Conference, Strömstad, Sweden, September 13-16, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 46.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Vattenkartläggning kan förhindra miljökatastrof2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 47.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Water and Energy – Environmental Limitations2010In: European Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, April 20-23, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 48.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Björklund kör över experterna om geografi2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 49.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Mälardalens högskolan.
Renewable Energy2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no Supplement 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)

The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee’s Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee’s scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

• 50.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
General quantification of catchment-scale nutrient and pollutant transport through the subsurface to surface and coastal waters2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 2048-2055Article in journal (Refereed)

This study develops a general quantification framework for consistent intermodel and intercatchment comparison of the nutrient and pollutant mass loading from multiple sources in a catchment area to downstream surface and coastal waters. The framework accounts for the wide spectrum of different transport pathways and travel times through the subsurface (soil, groundwater, sediment) and the linked surface (streams, lakes, wetlands) water systems of a catchment. The account is based on key flow partitioning and mass delivery fractions, which can be quantified differently by different flow and transport and reaction models. The framework application is exemplified for two Swedish catchment cases with regard to the transport of phosphorus and of a generic attenuating solute. The results show essential differences in model quantifications of transport pathways and temporal spreading, with important implications for our understanding of cause and effect in the catchment-scale nutrient and pollutant loading to downstream waters.

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