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  • 1.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 5842-5849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  • 2.
    Bergh, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Wise, Stephen
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Organophosphate and phthalate esters in standard reference material 2585 organic contaminants in house dust2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 402, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of 22 phthalate diesters (phthalates) and organophosphate triesters (organophosphates) have been investigated in standard reference material 2585 (SRM 2585) "organic contaminants in house dust." Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction on a Florisil adsorbent were used as the extraction and cleanup steps combined with analysis using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion chemical ionization mode. Seven phthalates were detected in the concentration range 1-570 mu g/g. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the major phthalate present at 570 mu g/g. Ten organophosphates were detected in SRM 2585. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was the predominant organophosphate at 82 mu g/g, and nine organophosphates were determined at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 2.3 mu g/g. Five organophosphates were below the method detection limit, of which two were in level with the procedural blank. The applied extraction and cleanup method was evaluated for the analysis of SRM 2585. The extraction yield was a parts per thousand yen99%, except for tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (97%) and diethyl phthalate (98.5%). The problem of calibration curvature is addressed, and it is shown that the use of deuterated standards improves the analysis. The concentrations of ten organophosphate esters were determined in SRM 2585, and seven of these were compared with existing data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the levels of the seven phthalates esters in SRM 2585 "organic contaminants in house dust.

  • 3.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Chemicals in textiles: A potential source for human exposure and environmental pollution2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide use of chemicals in textile production is common knowledge, whilst very little has been done to disclose the potentially harmful compounds hiding in our closet. The initial part of this work focused on explorative screening of textile materials in common clothing. Non-targeted analysis of a set of sixty garments revealed the presence of thousands of compounds, among which over a hundred were tentatively identified. Depending on the frequency of occurrence in textile, skin penetrating properties and toxicological data, candidate compounds were selected for confirmation. Analytical methods were developed for their identification and quantification, with focus set on four groups of compounds: quinolines, benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and aromatic amines. The analytical methods are based on ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid phase clean-up, combined with GC/MS or LC/MS/MS analysis. Concentrations of many target analytes were notably higher in polyester samples compared to garments made from cotton and blended material. The release during washing was investigated for two of the compounds groups, quinolines and benzothiazoles. The decreased concentrations in the garments suggest that laundry is a source of emission of these chemicals into household wastewater, and possibly further into the aquatic environment. Due to the slow decrease of the concentration in the garments when washed, substantial amounts of the compounds will remain in the textiles for a long time, with the possibility of exposure to the skin of potential harmful compounds as a result.

  • 4.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hongyu, Ren
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 2537-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  • 5.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Moccia, Emanuele
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Aromatic amines in textilesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Quinolines in clothing textiles-a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?2014In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 12, p. 2747-2756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

  • 7.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Non-target screening and confirmation of chemicals in clothing textilesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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