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  • 1. Fraser, Magdalena
    et al.
    Sanchez-Quinto, Federico
    Evans, Jane
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Wallin, Paul
    Knutsson, Kjel
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    New insights on cultural dualism and population structure in the Middle Neolithic Funnel Beaker culture on the island of Gotland2018In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 17, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years it has been shown that the Neolithization of Europe was partly driven by migration of farming groups admixing with local hunter-gatherer groups as they dispersed across the continent. However, little research has been done on the cultural duality of contemporaneous foragers and farming populations in the same region. Here we investigate the demographic history of the Funnel Beaker culture [Trichterbecherkultur or TRB, c. 4000–2800 cal BCE], and the sub-Neolithic Pitted Ware culture complex [PWC, c. 3300–2300 cal BCE] during the Nordic Middle Neolithic period on the island of Gotland, Sweden. We use a multidisciplinary approach to investigate individuals buried in the Ansarve dolmen, the only confirmed TRB burial on the island. We present new radiocarbon dating, isotopic analyses for diet and mobility, and mitochondrial DNA haplogroup data to infer maternal inheritance. We also present a new Sr-baseline of 0.71208 ± 0.0016 for the local isotope variation. We compare and discuss our findings together with that of contemporaneous populations in Sweden and the North European mainland.

    The radiocarbon dating and Strontium isotopic ratios show that the dolmen was used between c. 3300–2700 cal BCE by a population which displayed local Sr-signals. Mitochondrial data show that the individuals buried in the Ansarve dolmen had maternal genetic affinity to that of other Early and Middle Neolithic farming cultures in Europe, distinct from that of the contemporaneous PWC on the island. Furthermore, they exhibited a strict terrestrial and/or slightly varied diet in contrast to the strict marine diet of the PWC. The findings indicate that two different contemporary groups coexisted on the same island for several hundred years with separate cultural identity, lifestyles, as well as dietary patterns.

  • 2. Fraser, Magdalena
    et al.
    Sjödin, Per
    Sanchez-Quinto, Federico
    Evans, Jane
    Svedjemo, Gustaf
    Knutsson, Kjel
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Wallin, Paul
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    The stone cist conundrum: A multidisciplinary approach to investigate Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age population demography on the island of Gotland2018In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 20, p. 324-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Late Neolithic period in Scandinavia [LN, c. 2350-1700 cal BCE] marks a time of considerable changes in settlement patterns, economy, and material culture. This shift also lays the foundation for the demographic developments in the Early Bronze Age [EBA, c. 1700-1100 cal BCE]. However, little is presently known regarding the developments from these time-periods on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. During the Middle Neolithic period [MN, c. 3300-2350 cal BCE], Gotland was inhabited by groups associated with the Funnel Beaker culture [TRB, c. 4000-2700 cal BCE], and the sub-Neolithic Pitted Ware culture [PWC, c. 3300-2300 cal BCE]. Some indications of connections with the Bathe Axe/Corded Ware cultures [BAC/CWC, c. 2800-2300 cal BCE] have also been found, but no typical BAC/CWC burials have been located on the island to date. Here, we investigate the chronological and internal relationship of twenty-three individuals buried in four LN/EBA stone cist burials; Haffinds, Hagur, Suderkvie, and Utalskog on Gotland. We present eleven mitochondrial genomes [from 23 X to 1271 X coverage], and twenty-three new radiocarbon dates, as well as stable isotope data for diet. We examine the local Sr-baseline range for Gotland, and present new Sr-data to discuss mobility patterns of the individuals. The genetic results are compared and discussed in light of earlier cultural periods from Gotland [TRB and PWC], and CWC from the European continent, as well as contemporaneous LN secondary burials in the MN Ansarve dolmen. We find that all burials were used into the EBA, but only two of the cists showed activity already during the LN. We also see some mobility to Gotland during the LN/EBA period based on Strontium and mitochondrial data. We see a shift in the dietary pattern compared to the preceding period on the island [TRB and PWC], and the two LN individuals from the Ansarve dolmen exhibited different dietary and mobility patterns compared to the individuals from the LN/EBA stone cist burials. We find that most of the cist burials were used by individuals local to the area of the burials, with the exception of the large LN/EBA Haffinds cist burial which showed higher levels of mobility. Our modeling of ancestral mitochondrial contribution from chronologically older individuals recovered in the cultural contexts of TRB, PWC and CWC show that the best model is a 55/45 mix of CWC and TRB individuals. A 3-way model with a slight influx from PWC [5%] also had a good fit. This is difficult to reconcile with the current archaeological evidence on the island. We suggest that the maternal CWC/TRB contribution we see in the local LN/EBA individuals derives from migrants after the Scandinavian MN period, which possible also admixed with smaller local groups connected with the PWC. Further genomic analyses of these groups on Gotland will help to clarify the demographic history during the MN to EBA time periods.

  • 3. Gunther, Torsten
    et al.
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Malmström, Helena
    Urena, Irene
    Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo
    Sverrisdottir, Oddny Osk
    Daskalaki, Evangelia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University, Sweden; Harvard University, USA.
    Naidoo, Thijessen
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Maria Bermudez de Castro, Jose
    Carbonell, Eudald
    Dunn, Michael
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Iriarte, Eneko
    Arsuaga, Juan Luis
    Carretero, Jose-Miguel
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 38, p. 11917-11922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe-one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory-is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalon cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalon individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalon individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalon genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people.

  • 4. Günther, Torsten
    et al.
    Malmström, Helena
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico
    Kılınç, Gülşah M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University, Sweden; Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Fraser, Magdalena
    Edlund, Hanna
    Munters, Arielle R.
    Coutinho, Alexandra
    Simões, Luciana G.
    Vicente, Mario
    Sjölander, Anders
    Jansen Sellevold, Berit
    Jørgensen, Roger
    Claes, Peter
    Shriver, Mark D.
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Netea, Mihai G.
    Apel, Jan
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Skar, Birgitte
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Population genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia: Investigating early postglacial migration routes and high-latitude adaptation2018In: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 16, no 1, article id e2003703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the routes and genetic composition of these postglacial migrants remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated from 9,500-6,000 years before present (BP). Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. Our results suggest two different early postglacial migrations into Scandinavia: initially from the south, and later, from the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along which novel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups met and mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns of genetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These potential adaptations include high frequencies of low pigmentation variants and a gene region associated with physical performance, which shows strong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans.

  • 5.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Price, Neil
    Günther, Torsten
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics2017In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 164, no 4, p. 853-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.

    Materials and methods

    Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.

    Results

    The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.

    Discussion

    The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.

  • 6. Juras, Anna
    et al.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Nikitin, Alexey G.
    Ehler, Edvard
    Chylenski, Maciej
    Lukasik, Sylwia
    Krenz-Niedbala, Marta
    Sinika, Vitaly
    Piontek, Janusz
    Ivanova, Svetlana
    Dabert, Miroslawa
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 43950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to huntergatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians.

  • 7.
    Kilinç, Gülşah Merve
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Koptekin, Dilek
    Atakuman, Çiğdem
    Sümer, Arev Pelin
    Dönertaş, Handan Melike
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Bilgin, Cemal Can
    Büyükkarakaya, Ali Metin
    Baird, Douglas
    Altinişik, Ezgi
    Flegontov, Pavel
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Togan, Inci
    Somel, Mehmet
    Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1867, article id 20172064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather than immigrants from the Levant or Iran. We further study the emergence of post-7000 cal BCE north Aegean Neolithic communities. Although Aegean farmers have frequently been assumed to be colonists originating from either central Anatolia or from the Levant, our findings raise alternative possibilities: north Aegean Neolithic populations may have been the product of multiple westward migrations, including south Anatolian emigrants, or they may have been descendants of local Aegean Mesolithic groups who adopted farming. These scenarios are consistent with the diversity of material cultures among Aegean Neolithic communities and the inheritance of local forager know-how. The demographic and cultural dynamics behind the earliest spread of Neolithic culture in the Aegean could therefore be distinct from the subsequent Neolithization of mainland Europe.

  • 8.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Bäckström, Ylva
    Ingvarsson, Anne
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Rodríguez Varela, Ricardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Elucidating recent history by tracing genetic affinity of three 16th century miners from Sweden2018In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 19, p. 651-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sala Silver Mine in central Sweden was an important manufacturer of silver from at least the 16th till the early 20th century, with production peaking in the 16th, mid 17th and 19th centuries. The job opportunities offered by the mine attracted people to the area resulting in the development of a small township with an associated cemetery in the vicinity of the mining center. People affiliated to the mine were buried on the cemetery for around 150 years. Written sources reveal that common criminal convicts from Sweden-Finland and war prisoners from the numerous wars fought by Sweden during the time were exploited in the mine, and some of them were likely buried on the cemetery. The cemetery has been excavated on several occasions and the recovered human remains were divided into two different groups based on burial custom, demography and biochemical results. One group was believed to contain war prisoners; the aim of this study was to produce and interpret genomic data from these individuals to test if their genetic ancestry is consistent with the hypothesis that they were non-locals. Materials: Teeth from seven different individuals were sampled for dentine. Results: Three of the analyzed teeth contained sufficient amounts of endogenous human DNA for the generation of genomic sequence data to a coverage of 0.04, 0.19 and 0.83, respectively. Discussion: The results show that despite seeming heterogeneity the three individuals grouped within the range of genetic variation of modern and contemporary Swedes, yielding no statistical support to the hypothesis that they were foreign captives. However, due to the lack of contemporary or modern Danish genomic data we cannot refute these individuals originated in Denmark which was suggested as one of possible sources of the 17th century Swedish prisoners of war.

  • 9.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bjørnstad, Gro
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Olason, Pall Isolfur
    Bill, Jan
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hagelberg, Erika
    Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway2015In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 370, no 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  • 10.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Günther, Torsten
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Omrak, Ayça
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Somel, Mehmet
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Evans, Jane
    Knipper, Conine
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Genomic and Strontium Isotope Variation Reveal Immigration Patterns in a Viking Age Town2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 17, p. 2730-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of human mobility on the northern European urban populations during the Viking and Early Middle Ages and its repercussions in Scandinavia itself are still largely unexplored. Our study of the demographics in the final phase of the Viking era is the first comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation that includes genetics, isotopes, archaeology, and osteology on a larger scale. This early Christian dataset is particularly important as the earlier common pagan burial tradition during the Iron Age was cremation, hindering large-scale DNA analyses. We present genome-wide sequence data from 23 individuals from the 10th to 12th century Swedish town of Sigtuna. The data revealed high genetic diversity among the early urban residents. The observed variation exceeds the genetic diversity in distinct modern-day and Iron Age groups of central and northern Europe. Strontium isotope data suggest mixed local and non-local origin of the townspeople. Our results uncover the social system underlying the urbanization process of the Viking World of which mobility was an intricate part and was comparable between males and females. The inhabitants of Sigtuna were heterogeneous in their genetic affinities, probably reflecting both close and distant connections through an established network, confirming that early urbanization processes in northern Europe were driven by migration.

  • 11.
    Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. University of Oslo, Museum of Cultural History, Norway.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Sümer, Arev Pelin
    Yüncü, Eren
    Shergin, Dmitrij
    Ivanov, Grigorij Leonidovich
    Kichigin, Dmitrii
    Pestereva, Kjunnej
    Volkov, Denis
    Mandryka, Pavel
    Kharinskii, Artur
    Tishkin, Alexey
    Ineshin, Evgenij
    Kovychev, Evgeniy
    Stepanov, Aleksandr
    Alekseev, Aanatolij
    Fedoseeva, Svetlana Aleksandrovna
    Somel, Mehmet
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 8969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c. 13,790 BP and c. 1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region. We observed a decrease in genetic diversity over time and a reduction of maternal effective population size (Ne) approximately seven thousand years before present. Coalescent simulations were consistent with genetic continuity between present day individuals and individuals dating to 7,000 BP, 4,800 BP or 3,000 BP. Meanwhile, genetic differences observed between 7,000 BP and 3,000 BP as well as between 4,800 BP and 3,000 BP were inconsistent with genetic drift alone, suggesting gene flow into the region from distant gene pools or structure within the population. These results indicate that despite some level of continuity between ancient groups and present-day populations, the region exhibits a complex demographic history during the Holocene.

  • 12. Malmström, Helena
    et al.
    Linderholm, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Durham University, UK.
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Sjödin, Per
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Willerslev, Eske
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherstrom, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process2015In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 370, no 1660, article id 20130373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The earliest farming evidence in Scandinavia is found within the Funnel Beaker Culture complex (Trichterbecherkultur, TRB) which represents the northernmost extension of Neolithic farmers in Europe. The TRB coexisted for almost a millennium with hunter-gatherers of the Pitted Ware Cultural complex (PWC). If migration was a substantial part of the Neolithization, even the northerly TRB community would display a closer genetic affinity to other farmer populations than to hunter-gatherer populations. We deep-sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 from seven farmers (six TRB and one Battle Axe complex, BAC) and 13 hunter-gatherers (PWC) and authenticated the sequences using postmortem DNA damage patterns. A comparison with 124 previously published sequences from prehistoric Europe shows that the TRB individuals share a close affinity to Central European farmer populations, and that they are distinct from hunter-gatherer groups, including the geographically close and partially contemporary PWC that show a close affinity to the European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.

  • 13.
    Naumann, Elise
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Faculty of Humanities.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo,.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Slaves as burial gifts in Viking Age Norway?: Evidence from stable isotope and Ancient DNA analyses2013In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 41, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten Viking Age individuals from the northern Norwegian site at Flakstad were analysed for δ13C, δ15N and ancient mitochondrial DNA fragments. The material derives from both single and multiple burials with individuals treated in different ways. The genetic analyses show that the individuals buried together were unlikely to be maternally related, and stable isotope analyses suggest different strata of society. It is, therefore, suggested that slaves may have been offered as grave gifts at Flakstad. A comparison with the remaining population from single graves shows that the presumed slaves had a diet similar to that of the common population, whereas the high status individuals in multiple graves had a diet different from both slaves and the common population. The results provide an insight into the subsistence of different social groups in a Viking Age society, exposing unexpected patterns of living conditions and food distribution.

  • 14.
    Omrak, Ayca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Günther, Torsten
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Malmström, Helena
    Kiesewetter, Henrike
    Aylward, William
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Genomic Evidence Establishes Anatolia as the Source of the European Neolithic Gene Pool2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anatolia and the Near East have long been recognized as the epicenter of the Neolithic expansion through archaeological evidence. Recent archaeogenetic studies on Neolithic European human remains have shown that the Neolithic expansion in Europe was driven westward and northward by migration from a supposed Near Eastern origin [1-5]. However, this expansion and the establishment of numerous culture complexes in the Aegean and Balkans did not occur until 8,500 before present (BP), over 2,000 years after the initial settlements in the Neolithic core area [6-9]. We present ancient genome-wide sequence data from 6,700-year-old human remains excavated from a Neolithic context in Kumtepe, located in northwestern Anatolia near the well-known (and younger) site Troy [10]. Kumtepe is one of the settlements that emerged around 7,000 BP, after the initial expansion wave brought Neolithic practices to Europe. We show that this individual displays genetic similarities to the early European Neolithic gene pool and modern-day Sardinians, as well as a genetic affinity to modern-day populations from the Near East and the Caucasus. Furthermore, modern-day Anatolians carry signatures of several admixture events from different populations that have diluted this early Neolithic farmer component, explaining why modern-day Sardinian populations, instead of modern-day Anatolian populations, are genetically more similar to the people that drove the Neolithic expansion into Europe. Anatolia's central geographic location appears to have served as a connecting point, allowing a complex contact network with other areas of the Near East and Europe throughout, and after, the Neolithic.

  • 15.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Mallick, Swapan
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Harvard Medical School, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, USA.
    Enk, Jacob
    Rohland, Nadin
    Li, Heng
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Vartanyan, Sergey
    Poinar, Hendrik
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Reich, David
    Dalen, Love
    Complete Genomes Reveal Signatures of Demographic and Genetic Declines in the Woolly Mammoth2015In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1395-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding [1]. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear [2, 3]; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species' demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage and dates to similar to 4,300 years before present, representing one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from an similar to 44,800-year-old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that comprises runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct.

  • 16.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mallick, Swapan
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Enk, Jacob
    Rohland, Nadin
    Li, Heng
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Vartanyan, Sergey
    Poinar, Hendrik
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Reich, David
    Dalén, Love
    Genome-wide signatures of demographic change and Holocene genetic decline in the extinct woolly mammothManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17. Raghavan, Maanasa
    et al.
    DeGiorgio, Michael
    Albrechtsen, Anders
    Moltke, Ida
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.
    Gronnow, Bjarne
    Appelt, Martin
    Gullov, Hans Christian
    Friesen, T. Max
    Fitzhugh, William
    Malmström, Helena
    Rasmussen, Simon
    Olsen, Jesper
    Melchior, Linea
    Fuller, Benjamin T.
    Fahrni, Simon M.
    Stafford, Thomas, Jr.
    Grimes, Vaughan
    Renouf, M. A. Priscilla
    Cybulski, Jerome
    Lynnerup, Niels
    Lahr, Marta Mirazon
    Britton, Kate
    Knecht, Rick
    Arneborg, Jette
    Metspalu, Mait
    Cornejo, Omar E.
    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo
    Wang, Yong
    Rasmussen, Morten
    Raghavan, Vibha
    Hansen, Thomas V. O.
    Khusnutdinova, Elza
    Pierre, Tracey
    Dneprovsky, Kirill
    Andreasen, Claus
    Lange, Hans
    Hayes, M. Geoffrey
    Coltrain, Joan
    Spitsyn, Victor A.
    Gotherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Kivisild, Toomas
    Villems, Richard
    Crawford, Michael H.
    Nielsen, Finn C.
    Dissing, Jorgen
    Heinemeier, Jan
    Meldgaard, Morten
    Bustamante, Carlos
    O'Rourke, Dennis H.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Nielsen, Rasmus
    Willerslev, Eske
    The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 345, no 6200, p. 1020-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (similar to 3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

  • 18.
    Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Günther, Torsten
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Gillingwater, Thomas H.
    MacCallum, Malcolm
    Arsuaga, Juan Luis
    Dobney, Keith
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory. Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
    Genomic Analyses of Pre-European Conquest Human Remains from the Canary Islands Reveal Close Affinity to Modern North Africans2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 21, p. 3396-3402.e5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5th century BCE [1–3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6–8]. These results are in agreement with some linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological data indicating an origin from a North African Berber-like population [1, 4, 9]. However, to date there are no published Guanche autosomal genomes to help elucidate and directly test this hypothesis. To resolve this, we generated the first genome-wide sequence data and mitochondrial genomes from eleven archaeological Guanche individuals originating from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Five of the individuals (directly radiocarbon dated to a time transect spanning the 7th–11th centuries CE) yielded sufficient autosomal genome coverage (0.21× to 3.93×) for population genomic analysis. Our results show that the Guanches were genetically similar over time and that they display the greatest genetic affinity to extant Northwest Africans, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a Berber-like origin. We also estimate that the Guanches have contributed 16%–31% autosomal ancestry to modern Canary Islanders, here represented by two individuals from Gran Canaria.

  • 19. Skoglund, Pontus
    et al.
    Malmström, Helena
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Raghavan, Maanasa
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Gunther, Torsten
    Hall, Per
    Tambets, Kristiina
    Parik, Jueri
    Sjögren, Karl-Göran
    Apel, Jan
    Willerslev, Eske
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 344, no 6185, p. 747-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer-related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.

  • 20. Skoglund, Pontus
    et al.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Accurate sex identification of ancient human remains using DNA shotgun sequencing2013In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 4477-4482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate identification of the biological sex of ancient remains is vital for critically testing hypotheses about social structure in prehistoric societies. However, morphological methods are imprecise for juvenile individuals and fragmentary remains, and molecular methods that rely on particular sex-specific marker loci such as the amelogenin gene suffer from allelic dropout and sensitivity to modern contamination. Analyzing shotgun sequencing data from 14 present-day humans of known biological sex and 16 ancient individuals from a time span of 100 to similar to 70,000 years ago, we show that even relatively sparse shotgun sequencing (about 100,000 human sequences) can be used to reliably identify chromosomal sex simply by considering the ratio of sequences aligning to the X and Y chromosomes, and highlight two examples where the genetic assignments indicate morphological misassignment Furthermore, we show that accurate sex identification of highly degraded remains can be performed in the presence of substantial amounts of present-day contamination by utilizing the signature of cytosine deamination, a characteristic feature of ancient DNA.

  • 21. Svensson, E. M.
    et al.
    Hasler, S.
    Nussbaumer, M.
    Rehazek, A.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Uppsala University.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Medieval cattle in Bern (Switzerland): An archaeozoological, genetic and historical Approach2014In: Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, ISSN 0036-7281, E-ISSN 1664-2848, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with genetic analyses of an assemblage of mediaeval (1361 century) cattle metapodials from Bern that had previously been osteometrically examined regarding sex, shape and wither height. The results from the genetic sexing of these small (height 100 to 120 cm) cattle correlate well with the osteometric interpretations. Some few exceptions we interpreted as cows used as draft animals with stouter bones and thus osteometrically determined as males. Two morphologically different groups of cow metatarsals however, we took as proof of the historical fact that Bern relied on livestock from different geographical origins: the town's vicinity and the alpine pastures with their favourable grazing conditions. It was not possible to distinguish them genetically. An analysis of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) showed that predominant coat colour most likely was red-brown. Furthermore, an analysis of the SNP in the Y-chromosomal intron UTY19 that divide modern taurine cattle in two major haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) showed that the mediaeval cattle belonged to the haplogroup Y2 with one single exception of a Yl.

  • 22. Sverrisdottir, Oddny Osk
    et al.
    Timpson, Adrian
    Toombs, Jamie
    Lecoeur, Cecile
    Froguel, Philippe
    Miguel Carretero, Jose
    Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Thomas, Mark G.
    Direct Estimates of Natural Selection in Iberia Indicate Calcium Absorption Was Not the Only Driver of Lactase Persistence in Europe2014In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 975-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose-the main carbohydrate in milk-and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP-that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe.

  • 23. Valdiosera, Cristina
    et al.
    Gunther, Torsten
    Carlos Vera-Rodriguez, Juan
    Urena, Irene
    Iriarte, Eneko
    Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory. Universidad Complutense de Madrid–Instituto de Salud Carlos III de Evolución y Comportamiento Humanos, Spain.
    Simoes, Luciana G.
    Martinez-Sanchez, Rafael M.
    Svensson, Emma M.
    Malmström, Helena
    Rodriguez, Laura
    Bermudez de Castro, Jose-Maria
    Carbonell, Eudald
    Alday, Alfonso
    Hernandez Vera, Jose Antonio
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Carretero, Jose-Miguel
    Luis Arsuaga, Juan
    Smith, Colin I.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Four millennia of Iberian biomolecular prehistory illustrate the impact of prehistoric migrations at the far end of Eurasia2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 13, p. 3428-3433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants. Partly due to climatic conditions that are unfavorable for DNA preservation, regional studies on the Mediterranean remain challenging. Here, we present genome-wide sequence data from 13 individuals combined with stable isotope analysis from the north and south of Iberia covering a four-millennial temporal transect (7,500-3,500 BP). Early Iberian farmers and Early Central European farmers exhibit significant genetic differences, suggesting two independent fronts of the Neolithic expansion. The first Neolithic migrants that arrived in Iberia had low levels of genetic diversity, potentially reflecting a small number of individuals; this diversity gradually increased over time from mixing with local hunter-gatherers and potential population expansion. The impact of post-Neolithic migrations on Iberia was much smaller than for the rest of the continent, showing little external influence from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. Paleodietary reconstruction shows that these populations have a remarkable degree of dietary homogeneity across space and time, suggesting a strong reliance on terrestrial food resources despite changing culture and genetic make-up.

1 - 23 of 23
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