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  • 1.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Childhood Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to extend knowledge of the interplay between self-regulation (SR) skills during childhood in relation to academic achievement and later adult educational and occupational attainment.

    Previous research has shown that cool SR (i.e., cognitive) is more closely linked to academic achievement than hot SR (i.e., motivational/emotional). However, studies investigating both cool and hot SR in relation to academic achievement have been restricted to young children. Therefore, Study I assessed cool and hot SR in relation to academic achievement over a longer time period. The results showed that cool SR at age 3 was related to achievement already at age 6. Hot SR at age 3 did not predict achievement until later on in elementary school.

    Study II investigated the contribution of interference control and attention skills at age 6 to concurrent and later academic achievement at age 10. As the learning material becomes increasingly more complex throughout elementary school and teachers may give less support, interference control was expected to have a delayed effect on academic achievement relative to attention skills. Results showed that attention skills were related to academic achievement at age 6, whereas interference control only predicted academic achievement at age 10.

    Study III investigated task persistence in young adolescence in relation to academic achievement later in school and educational and occupational attainment in midlife. Results showed that task persistence contributed to change in grades between ages 13 and 16. Further, task persistence predicted later educational and occupational attainment (men only). Importantly, individual differences in intelligence, motivation, social background, and later educational attainment did not account for these effects. The findings point to a fundamental role of self-regulation in childhood for successful academic achievement and later attainment in adulthood.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood2011In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 950-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program entitled Individual Development and Adaptation. In line with previous research, task persistence was found to be related to changes in grades between age 13 and age 16, over and above other childhood factors. Task persistence at age 13 was also a significant predictor of both income and occupational level in middle adulthood for the men, controlling for a number of childhood factors (including intelligence), and even when educational attainment in adulthood was taken into account. Finally, task persistence was related to educational attainment in adulthood. The authors suggest that task persistence is a second fundamental factor besides general mental ability, influencing attainment within the area of working life and education. The influence of task persistence is discussed in form of personality environment selection mechanisms.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grabell, Adam
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Chang, Hyein
    Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Olson, Sheryl
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    The Contribution of Hot and Cool Self-Regulation in Early Childhood to Later Academic AchievementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of hot (emotional/motivational) and cool (cognitive) self-regulation in early childhood to lateracademic achievement in kindergarten (math) and late elementary school (math andlanguage). In a sample of 235 preschoolers, higher levels of cool self-regulation predicted better math achievement in kindergarten and this head-start effect persisted into late elementary school. In contrast, higher levels of hot self-regulation predicted better language but not math achievement in late elementary school. These findings support the notion that cool self-regulation is important for the development of academic skills already inkindergarten, whereas the effects on academic achievement of hot self-regulation are delayed, which may be a result of increasing demands through elementary school.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grabell, Adam
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Olson, Sheryl
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Complex Interference Control in Kindergarten and Concurrent and Later Academic AchievementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown the important role of the self-regulatory skill interference control in early childhood for the development of good academic skills. However, few have investigated this relation longitudinally over the period spanning kindergarten through the late school age years. The present study investigated the contribution of complex interference control in kindergarten to concurrent and later academic achievement at age 10. In a sample of 213 kindergartners, complex interference control predicted later, but not concurrent, academic achievement (language, math). Complex interference control and early math achievement were the only significant predictors of later academic achievement. These results are in line with an increased demand throughout elementary school on the child to handle complex and conflicting information. The results also support the notion that there is a developmental lag between the acquisition of complex interference control skills and the ability to apply them in real-life settings.

  • 5.
    Hansen, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Privatizing health care in times of new public management: Investigating the role of psychological empowerment using cluster analysis2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 190-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although privatization within health care is usually justified using arguments based on efficiency and productivity, the empirical investigations underpinning such arguments are few and ambiguous in their results. Presenting a new theoretical and analytical approach to this research field, we argue that psychological empowerment, reflecting individuals' intrinsic change motivation state, is a crucial prerequisite for the transformation of a nonprofit health care organization to a for-profit one. The general aims of this study were to explore empowerment cognitions during a privatization, to relate these to a selection of key work-related outcome variables, and to identify the effects of privatization in terms of individual level changes in empowerment after privatization. A sample of health care workers (n = 210) provided survey longitudinal data that were analyzed using cluster analysis. Eight clusters were identified at both pre- and postprivatization with each cluster mirroring specific empowerment patterns: Empowered, In Control, Quasi-Empowered, Competent/Normed, Reference, Underused, Misfit, and Powerless. The clusters discriminated on positive work attitudes, mental health complaints, and turnover intentions. The analysis also revealed the complexity of privatization in that a homogenization as well as a differentiation tendency was observed, thereby implicating both socio-structural equality and inequality effects. The results highlighted the relevance of allocating importance to health care workers' psychological empowerment during the privatization process, and of viewing such organizational transformations not as simple shifts in the state of affairs, but as nonlinear processes involving dynamic changes in individual perceptions over time.

  • 6. Kiuru, Noona
    et al.
    Salmela-Aro, Katariina
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    Zettergren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Lars R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Best friends in adolescence show similar educational careers in early adulthood2012In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N = 476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational expectations and academic achievement at age 16. The results revealed that adolescent best friends ended up pursuing similar educational careers in adulthood. Furthermore, three kinds of partner-effects were found when adolescents' prior career behaviors were controlled for: (1) best friends' intelligence predicted adolescents' later academic performance; (2) best friends' parental education predicted adolescents' educational expectations; and (3) best friends' educational expectations predicted adolescents' educational attainment in early adulthood.

  • 7.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Dropout revisited: Patient- and therapist-initiated discontinuation of psychotherapy as a function of organizational instability2014In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 724-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the association between the stability or instability of services' organizational structure and patient- and therapist-initiated discontinuation of therapy in routine mental health. Method: Three groups, comprising altogether 750 cases in routine mental health care in eight different clinics, were included: cases with patient-initiated discontinuation, therapist-initiated discontinuation, and patients remaining in treatment. Multilevel multinomial regression was used to estimate three models: An initial, unconditional intercept-only model, another one including patient variables, and a final model with significant patient and therapist variables including the organizational stability of the therapists' clinic. Results: High between-therapist variability was noted. Odds ratios and significance tests indicated a strong association of organizational instability with patient-initiated premature termination in particular. Conclusions: The question of how organizational factors influence the treatment results needs further research. Future studies have to be designed in ways that permit clinically meaningful subdivision of the patients' and the therapists' decisions for premature termination.

  • 8.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm.
    Levin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. holm Cty Council, Outpatient Psychiat Clin West, Stockholm.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Everyday Evidence: Outcomes of Psychotherapies in Swedish Public Health Services2013In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 119-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This naturalistic study presents outcomes for three therapy types practiced in psychiatric public health care in Sweden. Data were collected over a 3-year period at 13 outpatient psychiatric care services participating in the online Quality Assurance of Psychotherapy in Sweden (OAPS) system. Of the 1,498 registered patients, 14% never started psychotherapy, 17% dropped out from treatment, and 36% dropped out from data collection. Outcome measures included symptom severity, quality of life, and self-rated health. Outcomes were studied for 180 patients who received cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic, or integrative/eclectic therapy after control for dropout representativity. Among treatment completers, patients with different pretreatment characteristics seem to have received different treatments. Patients showed significant improvements, and all therapy types had generally good outcomes in terms of symptom reduction and clinical recovery. Overall, the psychotherapy delivered by the Swedish public health services included in this study is beneficial for the majority of patients who complete treatment. Multilevel regression modeling revealed no significant effect for therapy type for three different outcome measures. Neither did treatment duration have any significant effect. The analysis did not demonstrate any significant therapist effects on the three outcome measures. The results must be interpreted with caution, as there was large attrition and incomplete data, nonrandom assignment to treatment, no treatment integrity control, and lack of long-term follow-up.

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