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  • 1. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Dänhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Ekroos, Johan
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Jönsson, Annelie M.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Rusch, Adrien
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Relationships between multiple biodiversity components and ecosystem services along a landscape complexity gradient2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 218, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity (BD) and ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships are key priorities of the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Agricultural landscapes and their associated BD provide multiple ES and it is crucial to understand how relationships between ES and BD components change along gradients of landscape complexity. In this study, we related eight ES potentials to the species richness of five invertebrate, vertebrate and plant taxonomic groups in cereal farming systems. The landscape complexity gradient ranged from areas dominated by annually tilled arable land to areas with high proportions of unfertilized, non-rotational pastures and uncultivated field borders. We show that after accounting for landscape complexity relationships between yield and bird richness or biological control became more positive, but relationships between bird richness and biological control became less positive. The relationship between bird and plant richness turned from positive to negative. Multidiversity (overall biodiversity), was positively related to landscape complexity, whereas multifunctionality (overall ES provision), was not significantly related to either one of these. Our results suggest that multidiversity can be promoted by increasing landscape complexity; however; we found no support for a simultaneous increase of several individual ES, BD components or multifunctionality. These results challenge the assumption that bio-diversity-friendly landscape management will always simultaneously promote multiple ES in agricultural landscapes. Future studies need to verify this pattern by using multi-year data, larger sets of ES and BD components and a study design that is appropriate to address larger spatial scales and relationships in several regions.

  • 2. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dawson, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zimmermann, N. E.,
    Cudlín, P.
    Friberg, N.
    Genovesi, P.
    Guarino, R.
    Helm, A.
    Jonsson, B.
    Lengyel, S.
    Leroy, B.
    Luzzati, T.
    Milbau, A.
    Pérez-Ruzafa, A.
    Roche, P.
    Roy, H.
    Sabyrbekov, R.
    Vanbergen, A.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Direct and indirect drivers of change in biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people2018In: The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia / [ed] M. Rounsevell, M. Fischer, A. Torre-Marin Rando, A. Mader, Bonn, Germany: Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services , 2018, p. 385-568Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Angelstam, Per
    Axelsson, Robert
    Legal Framework for Biosphere Reserves as Learning Sites for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis of Ukraine and Sweden2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels.

  • 4.
    Hahn, T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, C.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social Networks as Sources of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems2008In: Complexity science for a sustainable future, Princeton University Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    An agroecological paradigm shift in agricultural development2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Self-Organized Governance Networks for Ecosystem Management: Who Is Accountable?2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance networks play an increasingly important role in ecosystem management. The collaboration within these governance networks can be formalized or informal, top-down or bottom-up, and designed or self-organized. Informal self-organized governance networks may increase legitimacy if a variety of stakeholders are involved, but at the same time, accountability becomes blurred when decisions are taken. Basically, democratic accountability refers to ways in which citizens can control their government and the mechanisms for doing so. Scholars in ecosystem management are generally positive to policy/governance networks and emphasize its potential for enhancing social learning, adaptability, and resilience in social-ecological systems. Political scientists, on the other hand, have emphasized the risk that the public interest may be threatened by governance networks. I describe and analyze the multilevel governance network of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in Southern Sweden, with the aim of understanding whether and how accountability is secured in the governance network and its relation to representative democracy. The analysis suggests that the governance network of KVBR complements representative democracy. It deals mainly with low politics; the learning and policy directions are developed in the governance network, but the decisions are embedded in representative democratic structures. Because several organizations and agencies co-own the process and are committed to the outcomes, there is a shared or extended accountability. A recent large investment in KVBR caused a major crisis at the municipal level, fueled by the financial crisis. The higher levels of the governance network, however, served as a social memory and enhanced resilience of the present biosphere development trajectory. For self-organized networks, legitimacy is the bridge between adaptability and accountability; accountability is secured as long as the adaptive governance network performs well, i.e., is perceived as legitimate. Governing and ensuring accountability of governance networks, without hampering their flexibility, adaptability, and innovativeness, represents a new challenge for the modern state.

  • 7.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Heinrup, Malena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Landscape heterogeneity correlates with recreational values: a case study from Swedish agricultural landscapes and implications for policy2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 696-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agri-environmental schemes are often targeted at heterogenic landscapes to support several ecosystem services besides food production. The question is whether heterogenic landscapes also support recreation values. Previous studies suggest this but statistical analysis of the relation between heterogeneity and recreation is lacking. To assess this, we used a quantitative Landscape Heterogeneity Index (LHI), developed for biodiversity conservation. We asked five different user groups to score 12 photographs of landscapes depicting different LHI. All user groups, especially conservationists and hunters, preferred the heterogeneous landscapes and this difference was statistically significant for all groups except farmers. Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value conveyed by the photos. The paper provides evidence that the recreational value amplifies biodiversity-based values of heterogeneous landscapes and argues that such landscapes also provide resilience and insurance value buffering against unexpected risks. Implications for policy are discussed.

    HIGHLIGHTS

    Recreational value was positively correlated to landscape heterogeneity.

    This correlation was statistically significant for all user groups except farmers.

    Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value.

    The multi-functionality of heterogeneous agricultural landscapes including resilience and the insurance value should be better acknowledged in policy.

  • 8.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McDermott, Constance
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Green, Tom
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Purposes and degrees of commodification: Economic instruments for biodiversity and ecosystem services need not rely on markets or monetary valuation2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 16, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commodification of nature refers to the expansion of market trade to previously non-marketed spheres. This is a contested issue both in the scientific literature and in policy deliberations. The aim of this paper is to analytically clarify and distinguish between different purposes and degrees of commodification and to focus attention to the safeguards: the detailed institutional design. We identify six degrees of commodification and find that all ecosystem services policies are associated with some degree of commodification but only the two highest degrees can properly be associated with neoliberalisation of nature. For example, most payments for ecosystem services (PES) are subsidy-like government compensations not based on monetary valuation of nature. Biodiversity offsets can be designed as market schemes or non-market regulations; the cost-effectiveness of markets cannot be assumed. To avoid the confusion around the concept 'market-based instrument' we suggest replacing it with 'economic instruments' since relying on the price signal is not the same thing as relying on the market. We provide a comprehensive framework emphasising the diversity in institutional design, valuation approaches and role of markets. This provides flexibility and options for policy integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services in different countries according to their political and cultural context.

  • 9.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations) is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES). According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of desirable that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  • 10.
    Hamann, Maike
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Selomane, Odirilwe
    Polasky, Stephen
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Four perspectives on ecosystem servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johannessen, Åse
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social learning towards a more adaptive paradigm? Reducing flood risk in Kristianstad municipality, Sweden2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 372-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning is often treated as an intervention, a designed process facilitated or even initiated by a third party. We investigated how a social learning process emerged spontaneously from inside Kristianstad, one of the most flood-prone municipalities in Sweden. Twenty key persons were interviewed over 8 years, many of them several times, to assess the process. A small action oriented group of technical professionals perceived the flood risk and were key drivers providing strategic innovative capacity. We identified the process attributes that fostered the learning, the knowledge generated and other learning outcomes adapting a model by Schusler et al. (2003). Despite some elements of double loop learning, this process was not able to change the prevailing stationary principle/paradigm, feeling safe behind the embankments and continuing building on low lying land. We argue that building resilience and adaptive capacity would require a mind shift to a paradigm of flood proofing/living with floods and preparing for the unexpected, acknowledging that water cannot be controlled at a certain level. We conclude that knowledge development is inhibited by the Swedish decentralisation approach and we call for a multilevel learning strategy including learning from international experience and emphasising more active coordination at the national level

  • 12. Kenward, R. E.
    et al.
    Whittingham, M. J.
    Arampatzis, S.
    Manos, B. D.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Terry, A.
    Simoncini, R.
    Alcorn, J.
    Bastian, O.
    Donlan, M.
    Elowe, K.
    Franzen, F.
    Karacsonyi, Z.
    Larsson, Markus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Manou, D.
    Navodaru, I.
    Papadopoulou, O.
    Papathanasiou, J.
    von Raggamby, A.
    Sharp, R. J. A.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Soutukorva, A.
    Vavrova, L.
    Aebischer, N. J.
    Leader-Williams, N.
    Rutz, C.
    Identifying governance strategies that effectively support ecosystem services, resource sustainability, and biodiversity2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 13, p. 5308-5312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation scientists, national governments, and international conservation groups seek to devise, and implement, governance strategies that mitigate human impact on the environment. However, few studies to date have systematically investigated the performance of different systems of governance in achieving successful conservation outcomes. Here, we use a newly-developed analytic framework to conduct analyses of a suite of case studies, linking different governance strategies to standardized scores for delivering ecosystem services, achieving sustainable use of natural resources, and conserving biodiversity, at both local and international levels. Our results: (i) confirm the benefits of adaptive management; and (ii) reveal strong associations for the role of leadership. Our work provides a critical step toward implementing empirically justified governance strategies that are capable of improving the management of human-altered environments, with benefits for both biodiversity and people.

  • 13.
    Koh, Niak Sian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How much of a market is involved in a biodiversity offset? A typology of biodiversity offset policies2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 232, p. 679-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity offsets (BO) are increasingly promoted and adopted by governments and companies worldwide as a policy instrument to compensate for biodiversity losses from infrastructure development projects. BO are often classified as 'market-based instruments' both by proponents and critics, but this representation fails to capture the varieties of how BO policies actually operate. To provide a framing for understanding the empirical diversity of BO policy designs, we present an ideal-typical typology based on the institutions from which BO is organised: Public Agency, Mandatory Market and Voluntary Offset. With cross-case comparison and stakeholder mapping, we identified the institutional arrangements of six BO policies to analyse how the biodiversity losses and gains are decided. Based on these results, we examined how these six policies relate to the BO ideal types. Our results suggested that the government, contrary to received wisdom, plays a key role not just in enforcing mandatory policies but also in determining the supply and demand of biodiversity units, supervising the transaction or granting legitimacy to the compensation site. Mandatory BO policies can be anything from pure government regulations defining industry liabilities to liability-driven markets where choice sets for trading credits are constrained and biodiversity credit prices are negotiated under state supervision. It is important to distinguish between two processes in BO: the matching of biodiversity losses and gains (commensurability) and the trading of biodiversity credits (commodification). We conclude that the commensurability of natural capital is restricted in BO policies; biodiversity is always exchanged with biodiversity. However, different degrees of commodification are possible, depending on the policy design and role of price signals in trading credits. Like payments for ecosystem services, the price of a biodiversity credit is most commonly based on the cost of management measures rather than the 'value' of biodiversity; which corresponds to a low degree of commodification.

  • 14.
    Koh, Niak Sian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Safeguards for enhancing ecological compensation in Sweden2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 64, p. 186-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological compensation (EC) is being explored as a policy instrument for the European Union's 'No Net Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services' initiative. EC is commonly associated with the Polluter-Pays Principle, but we propose the Developer-Pays Principle as a more comprehensive principle. Safeguards that are relevant to local and national contexts are needed when addressing social-ecological resilience in the face of risks associated with EC. The operationalisation of EC in Sweden is assessed through two case studies: the E12 highway and Mertainen mine. The institutional design and implementation procedures are investigated through semi-structured interviews as well as an analysis of legal and other written documents. Using a multi-level governance framework, we examine four key disputed issues within compensation. Our results suggest that (i) Risk of a license-to-trash can be minimised; (ii) Complementary quantitative and qualitative ecological valuation methods are needed to achieve additionality and No Net Loss; (iii) Compensation pools may be a promising strategy to secure land availability; and (iv) Social safeguards are vital for EC in high-income countries as well, where they are currently understudied. We conclude that EC cannot be the main instrument for nature conservation, but rather complementary to a strong legal framework that protects biodiversity and ecosystems in addition to the sustained and equitable benefits of ecosystem services.

  • 15. Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    The Resilience of a Sustainability Entrepreneur in the Swedish Food System2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational resilience emphasizes the adaptive capacity for renewal after crisis. This paper explores the sustainability and resilience of a not-for-profit firm that claims to contribute to sustainable development of the food system. We used semi-structured interviews and Holling's adaptive cycle as a heuristic device to assess what constitutes social and sustainable entrepreneurship in this case, and we discuss the determinants of organizational resilience. The business, Biodynamiska Produkter (BP), has experienced periods of growth, conservation and rapid decline in demand, followed by periods of re-organization. Our results suggest that BP, with its social mission and focus on organic food, meets the criteria of both a social and sustainability entrepreneurial organization. BP also exhibits criteria for organizational resilience: two major crises in the 1970s and late 1990s were met by re-organization (transformation) and novel market innovations (adaptations). BP has promoted the organic food sector in Sweden, but not profited from this. In this case study, resilience has enhanced sustainability in general, but trade-offs were also identified. The emphasis on trust, local identity, social objectives and slow decisions may have impeded both economic performance and new adaptations. Since the successful innovation Ekoladan in 2003, crises have been met by consolidation rather than new innovations.

  • 16.
    Nykvist, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spontaneous order of adaptability: An assessment of the literature on social-ecological resilience2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how adaptability is conceptualized (framed) in the literature on resilience and social-ecological systems (SES). SES are sometimes analyzed as complex adaptive systems (CAS) where human responses are seen as spontaneous and self-organized adaptations by autonomous agents with no analysis of their intentions or strategies. However, in other studies of SES, intentions and conflicts are emphasized and analyzed. Research on SES furthermore tends to differ in the degree of normative connotations associated with resilience and adaptability. For these two dimensions – spontaneous vs. intentional, and descriptive vs. normative – we developed a coding scheme and analyzed the complete sample of 183 papers in the field of found in ISI web of science published before 1st of Jan 2011. The results reveal a plurality of framings. We discuss the strengths and problems with this, aiming to provide a better understanding of some of the normative challenges in research on adaptive governance, resilience, and SES. We discuss CAS and find that the problem is not the use of self-organization in relation to scales or levels of governance, e.g. that responses can emerge through leadership and stakeholder interaction at a local level without being forced by external factors. The problem is when such interaction is as assumed to be autonomous and harmonious. Finally we provide our own definition of adaptability as necessarily ecologically informed, but we do not equate adaptability with “successful responses” in order to not confuse the concept with the outcome. Evaluating outcomes is ultimately an empirical question.

  • 17.
    Olsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Galaz, Viktor
    Hahn, Thomas
    Schultz, Lisen
    Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. naturresurshushållning.
    Enhancing the fit through adaptive comanagement: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden2007In: Ecology and Society, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Schultz, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hällström, Niclas
    Deliberative multi-actor dialogues as opportunities for transformative social learning and conflict resolution in international environmental negotiations2018In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 671-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The format for formal international negotiations on environment and development sometimes prevents negotiators from truly listening to each other and adapt pre-existing positions to realize constructive conflict resolution. In this paper we present and analyse Multi-Actor Dialogue Seminars (MADS) as an approach to contribute to transformative social learning and conflict resolution, and the contribution to tangible and intangible outcomes in formal negotiations. Unlike negotiations, the objective of MADS is not to agree on a text, but to identify areas of agreement and disagreement, build trust and understanding and identify policy options that are tailored to different cultural-political and value systems. As a case study we use the breakdown of the negotiations at the formal Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)Conference in 2010 regarding innovative financial mechanisms, and subsequent two international Quito Dialogues using the MADS approach. Through a composite of methods this article reveals the effects of the Quito Dialogues on formal CBD negotiations. The Quito Dialogues contributed to bringing actors out of their deadlock and thereby paving the way for constructive results in the formal CBD negotiations, evident by references in CBD Decisions adopted by 196 CBD Parties. We discuss key design and implementation factors which were decisive for these effects including the importance of a bridging organization, trust building, exploration of both convergences and divergences, involvement of participants with diverse and conflicting views early in the planning, promotion of active listening and addressing diverse knowledge systems and power asymmetries.

  • 19.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Estonian University of Life Science, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rodela, Romina
    Process and Contextual Factors Supporting Action-Oriented Learning: A Thematic Synthesis of Empirical Literature in Natural Resource Management2019In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 731-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a long-term focus on learning in natural resource management (NRM), it is still debated how learning supports sustainable real-world NRM practices. We offer a qualitative in-depth synthesis of selected scientific empirical literature (N=53), which explores factors affecting action-oriented learning. We inductively identify eight key process-based and contextual factors discussed in this literature. Three patterns emerge from our results. First, the literature discusses both facilitated participation and self-organized collaboration as dialogical spaces, which bridge interests and support constructive conflict management. Second, the literature suggests practice-based dialogs as those best able to facilitate action and puts a strong emphasis on experimentation. Finally, not emphasized in existing reviews and syntheses, we found multiple evidence about certain contextual factors affecting learning, including social-ecological crises, complexity, and power structures. Our review also points at important knowledge gaps, which can be used to advance the current research agenda about learning and NRM.

  • 20.
    Suškevičs, Monika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rodela, Romina
    Macura, Biljana
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Learning for social-ecological change: a qualitative review of outcomes across empirical literature in natural resource management2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1085-1112Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is considered as a promising mechanism to cope with rapid environmental change. The implications of learning for natural resource management (NRM) have not been explored in-depth and the evidence on the topic is scattered across multiple sources. We provide a qualitative review of types of learning outcomes and consider their manifestations in NRM across selected empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature (N = 1,223) and a qualitative meta-synthesis of included articles, with an explicit focus on learning outcomes and NRM changes (N = 53). Besides social learning, we found several learning concepts used, including policy and transformative learning, and multiple links between learning and NRM reported. We observe that the development of skills, together with a system approach involving multi-level capacities, is decisive for implications of learning for NRM. Future reviews could systematically compare how primary research applies different learning concepts and discusses links between learning and NRM changes.

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