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  • 1. Bourdieu, Pierre
    et al.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University.
    Redelius, Karin
    Larsson, Bengt
    Stockholm University.
    Åhs, Olle
    Svender, Jenny
    Patriksson, Göran
    Nilsson, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Stockholm University.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Backman, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Lindroth, Jan
    Linné, Agneta
    Meckbach, Jane
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Thedin Jakobsson, Britta
    Liljekvist, Åsa
    Gustafsson, Tommy
    Strand, Leif
    Ljung, Bengt-Olov
    Leve idrottspedagogiken: En vänbok tillägnad Lars-Magnus Engström2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vem ägnar sig åt idrott? Vilken betydelse har fritiden i barns och ungdomars liv? Vad innebär hälsa i skolämnet idrott och hälsa?

    Leve idrottspedagogiken! tillägnas Lars-Magnus Engström. Texterna i boken speglar delar av det idrottspedagogiska forskningsområdet i Sverige, vars framväxt Lars-Magnus Engström varit den främste företrädaren för. Läsaren får här ta del av exempelvis idrottskulturen, fritidskulturen och skolans ämne idrott och hälsa. Genomgående handlar texterna om villkoren för barns och ungdomars deltagane och om de olika lärprocesser som sker i anslutning till idrottsutövning.

    Lars-Magnus Engström har gjort betydande insatser som forskare och lärare samt som professor vid Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm och vid Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan. I snart fyrtion år har han arbetat med studier kring påverkans- och lärprocesser i idrott. Hans forskning har främst kretsat kring människors idrottsvanor och vilka som utvecklar en fysiskt aktiv livsstil. Idrotts- och motionsutövningar ger både ett så kallat egenvärde och investeringsvärde. Med dessa begrepp bland många andra har Lars-Magnus Engström bidragit till en fördjupad vetenskaplig förståelse av idrottskulturen.

    De flesta författarna har eller har haft Lars-Magnus Engström som handledare och tillhör forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur. Redaktörer för boken är Karin Redelius och Håkan Larsson.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Idrott och genus - kroppens materialisering2004In: Dansk Sociologi, ISSN 0905-5908, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kroppen är central i all fysisk aktivitet, men vad är en kropp? Finns det en "naturlig kropp"? Hur formas vårt kroppsliga vara genom fysisk aktivitet? I följande artikel ska dessa frågor bearbetas utifrån samtal med tävlingsidrottande ungdomar.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Idrott och hälsa: Manlighetens sista bastion i skolan?2005In: Manlighet i fokus: En bok om manliga pedagoger, pojker, och maskulinitetsskapande i förskola och skola, Liber, Stockholm , 2005, p. 95-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Det behövs fler män i förskolan och skolan", är en vanlig uppfattning. I den här antologin diskuterar framstående forskare och praktiker bl.a. vad som ligger bakom ett sådant uttalande: Varför behövs det fler män? Vad är det männen förväntas tillföra denna antaget kvinnliga värld och vad är det de inte alls förväntas ägna sig åt?

    Hur är det med pojkarna då? Medierna rapporterar om att pojkar presterar sämre än flickor i skolan. Pojkar upplevs som oroligare och mer krävande än flickor, de beskrivs både i förskola och skola som "busiga" och "omogna". Sexistiska tillmälen, provokationer och våldshandlingar från pojkar sägs utgöra ett stort problem. Samtidigt finns en viss oro i debatten för att pojkar och det manliga skall marginaliseras genom övervikten av kvinnlig personal.

    Trots den livliga diskussionen har det hittills saknats svensk litteratur som mer specifikt behandlar maskulinitetsskapandet i förskola och skola.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Iscensättningen av kön i idrott: En nutidshistoria om idrottsmannen och idrottskvinnan2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to disseminate the construction of masculinity and femininity in sport and sports related research. The major research question is how sport and sports related research function, on the one hand in the production of 'women' and 'men' as objects and subjects of knowledge, and on the other as a technique or procedure for regulating men's and women's behaviour and ways of reflecting upon themselves. The interest is thus aimed at how gendered subjects are made. Of particular interest is the concept of equal opportunities between women and men in sport as a new way of creating sexual/gender difference. Michel Foucault's concept 'governmentality', roughly the relation between the histories of the practices of the self and the practices of government, serves as one important tool in this work.

    Empirically, the study derives from 22 interviews with teenagers and coaches in track and field athletics. The interviews comprises of three themes: 'me and other boys and girls in sport', 'the body' and 'the coach'. The teenagers' answers can simultaneousl be seen as reproducing and opposing conventional perceptions of men as autonomous and goal achievement oriented, and women as dependent and relation oriented. What historical conditions have made this situation possible?

    A genealogical study of the construction of sport, and of masculinity and femininity in sport and sports related research, show that a patriarchal governmentality, where young men were seen as the only 'appropriate' competitive sportsmen, have successively been transformed into a social-liberal and a neo-liberal governmentality. In patriarchal discourses, a strong emphasis is put on gender differentiation and 'seriousness' (i.e. competition and performance) in sport. The sporting subject is constructed as a decidedly masculine subject. In social-liberal discourses, an emphasis is put on social relations and fellowship, and the sporting subject is constructed as a gender-neutral (and somewhat disembodied) subject. In neo-liberal discourses, the subject is constructed as an individual, however gender-specific (and heterosexual), subject. Neo-liberal does not emphasise difference between subjects (social and physical difference) but difference inside the subject (individual). Modern power relations aim at procedures that occur inside the subject and not so much at what takes place between the subjects.

    The concept of gender equity between women and men has grown strong in sports discourse since the 70s. It can be seen as a practical strategy of guaranteeing women and men the opportunities to do the same things - competitive sport for instance. At the same time it performs two distinct and clearly differentiated gendered subjects, to be equalised. As such gender equity policies might be preceived as an apparatus that produces and regulates sexual/gender difference.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Just sport: Sport and the concept of equal opportunities between women and men2000In: Just Leisure: Equity, Social Exclusion and Identity, 2000, p. 69-81Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Queering physical education: Between benevolence towards girls and a tribute to masculinity2009In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on PE indicates that the subject is marked by rather stable gendered patterns of behaviour and perceptions of the subject. This paper marks an attempt to outline a theoretical approach that makes it possible to interpret what is going on in the gym in a way that might challenge the reproduction of gender.

    Purpose: to scrutinise the heteronormative character of the discourses and practices that, from the point of view of PE teaching, constitute gendered positions and subjectivities in PE and make them susceptible to change.

    Participants, Setting and Research Design: Four schools in Stockholm, Sweden, each with different social-economic and ethnic composition, were selected for the study. In each school, six lessons in physical education were observed, and the five teachers of each class were interviewed. The observed lessons comprised different kinds of physical activities, ranging from dance to fitness training, and from cross-country running to ball games, allowing different ways of gender and body constructions to appear.

    Data Collection: The observations focused on a) what physical activities and methods are selected, and b) what the teachers say to the pupils during the lessons (information, instructions, replies on questions etc.). The interviews revolved around a) the teachers themselves and their work; b) what the teachers see as the aim with the subject; c) the teachers’ view on gender and d) the teachers’ view on issues concerning the body and physical activity.

    Data Analysis: First, a content analysis was carried out, focusing on the teachers’ reflections on action (interviews), and on the teachers’ work in action (observations). Based on this analysis, a discourse analysis was conducted, attempting to reconstruct the discourses that constituted on the one hand the teachers view on the subject, and on girls and boys in the subject, and on the other the observed lessons and the way gender was performed in the gym. The discourse analysis took insights from feminist post-structuralism and queer theory as its starting point.

    Findings: The observed teaching was underpinned by essentialist and functionalist assumptions, exposed through a pragmatic approach to teaching. The teachers were aware of the dominance of (some of the) boys in the gym, but this dominance seemed to be regarded as something normal or natural, and something to be managed logistically rather than challenged. It seemed equally important for the PE teachers to manage the pupils in such a way that physical activity for the majority was promoted. In doing so, they leaned on traditional ideas about gender in relation to sport and physical activity, and avoided challenging gender stereotypes. These strategies, which we label benevolence towards girls and a tribute to masculinity, are successful insofar as the pupils adhere to the same traditional ideas and do not resist gender stereotypes that are called upon by the teachers.

    Conclusions: The strategies of benevolence towards girls and making a tribute to masculinity among boys is, as we see it, different ways of reproducing ideas about the sexes as naturally different and attracted to each other. Based on our studies, it seems as if it is the queer pupils, however not necessarily the non-heterosexual pupils, that are positioned ‘at the margins’ in the gym. Any real attempt to challenge gender stereotypes in PE would then also be an attempt to challenge heteronormativity in the gym

  • 7.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Swedish physical education research questioned: Current situation and future directions2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 381-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on the school subject of physical education and health in Sweden has proliferated in the early part of the 21st century. Several large research programmes have been conducted that shed light on the history of physical education and health in this country and that provide a research-based description of the current situation in the subject, particularly with regard to teachers' and pupils' view of the subject and which activities dominate the lessons.

    Purpose: to review the main results of two of these research programmes, highlight some of the practical challenges facing people working with the development of physical education and health as identified by the research, and point to some of the research challenges arising from how the reviewed research was actually conducted.

    Findings: The reviewed research reveals an uncertainty about the subject’s educational purpose. Teachers maintain that the main purpose of physical activity is to 'have fun' and the majority of pupils report a positive attitude towards the subject. However, those favouring the subject, mostly boys, are also members of a sports club in their leisure time. Both teachers and pupils have difficulties in articulating what the pupils are supposed to learn in physical education and health. Some of the pupils report that they are supposed to learn the skills and rules of different kinds of sports. Observation studies also confirm that conventional sports activities, particularly ball games, tend to dominate the subject in terms of the use of language heavily loaded with competitive sport connotations.

    Conclusions: The results of the research programmes highlight a number of practical challenges with regard to a physical education and health that according to the national syllabus is supposed to emphasise teaching and learning (for) health: what, more exactly, are pupils supposed to learn and what does a teaching that facilitates such learning look like, what does a teaching that is equitable for all pupils look like and what is the relation between physical education, sport and health? The results of the research also highlight a number of research challenges. Much of the research was carried out without an elaborated theoretical framework that emphasised the teaching processes and the relation between teaching and learning. In addition, most of the research was undertaken from a point of view considered alien to most physical education teachers. There seems to be a need for studies that aim to reduce the gap between theory/researchers and practice/practitioners. Finally, there seems to be a need for researchers to change focus from studying activities to studying learning outcomes.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Education in Arts and Professions. Idrott, fritid och lärande.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Fagrell, Birgitta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    "Jag känner inte för att bli en ... kille": Om heteronormativitet i ämnet idrott och hälsa2007In: Utbildning & Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, no 2, p. 113-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article concerns gender, sexuality and heteronormativity in physical education (PE). The aim is to elucidate girls’ and boys’ conditions in relation to the heteronormative culture of the subject. 24 pupils in grade 8 and 9 were interviewed about their view on PE and on girls and boys in the subject. A discourse analysis of the interviews was conducted, aiming at pinpointing the discursive rules as to how girls and boys can act ‘normal’ in PE teaching. The analysis show how different kinds of activities, notably dance and ball games, subjectify girls and boys in different ways. In order to act ‘normal’, girls and boys seem to have to conform to a heterosexual matrix. This means that boys might be viewed as queer should they be skilled dancers, and conversely that girls might be viewed as queer should they be skilled ball players. Every attempt to challenge the gender order in PE, must also be an attempt to challenge the heteronormative culture of the subject.

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