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  • 1.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Office design's impact on sick leave rates:  2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 2, 139-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. Practitioner Summary: A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  • 2.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Karasek, Robert
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Factor Structure and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An Evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, e70541- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time.

    RESULTS: FOUR FACTORS: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  • 3.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    A Longitudinal Analysis of Confirmatory Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An evidence from SLOSH2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hamren, Kidist
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hyde, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Religion, spirituality, social support and quality of life: measurement and predictors CASP-12(v2) amongst older Ethiopians living in Addis Ababa2014In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 7, 610-621 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As African populations begin to age developing accurate measures of quality of life (QoL) in later life for use on the continent is becoming imperative. This study evaluates the measurement and predictors of QoL amongst older Ethiopians. Method: The data come from a multi-stage cluster sample of 214 people aged 55 and over living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. QoL was measured using the CASP-12(v2). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the properties of the scale. The relationships between social support, religiosity/spirituality and socio-demographic factors on QoL were tested with linear regression analyses. Results: The CASP subscales exhibited good internal reliability and the CFA provides reasonable support for an 11-item 4-factor model (CFI, 0.954; RMSEA 0.075). Multivariate regression analyses suggest that both religiousness/spirituality and social support have positive relationships with QoL. Conclusion: Older people in Africa can often be socially isolated, marginalised and in extreme poverty. Yet few studies have looked at QoL more generally and there is no accepted gold standard measurement of QoL. Yet such a development would allow researchers to directly compare QoL and the determinants of QoL amongst older Africans and those elsewhere. The results show that a modified 11-item CASP is a meaningful measure of QoL for use with older Ethiopians. Both religiousness/spirituality and social support are positively associated with QoL and might be important buffers against deprivation.

  • 5.
    Hyde, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The impact of psychosocial working conditions on expected and desired retirement ages in a reprentative sample of Swedish workers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hyde, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 5, 381-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Involuntary employment exit in later life has been shown to be a risk factor for poor physical and mental health. This study aims to examine the relationship between involuntary employment exit in later life and subsequent risk of reporting major depression or being prescribed anti-depressant medication (ADM). Method: Data were drawn from four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). This is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey of persons employed in Sweden in 2003 and 2005. The sample was restricted to respondents who had exited the labour market aged 50+ years between 2006 and 2012 (N = 1433). Major depression was measured using the Symptom Checklist Core Depression Scale (SCL-CD6). Prescription ADM redeemed from a pharmacy was based on the National Prescribed Drug Register. Results: After controlling for socio-demographic variables, health, health behaviours, and baseline depression, involuntary employment exit was associated with an increased risk of reporting major depression (OR 3.16; CI 1.32-7.61) and becoming newly prescribed ADM (HR 2.08; CI 1.03-4.21) compared to voluntary employment exit. Conclusion: Involuntary employment exit represents a risk for subsequent depression in later life. Mental health and social services ought to consider identifying these individuals for possible intervention programs to reduce the burden of depression in later life.

  • 7.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Lindqvist, Rikard
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Runnesdotter, Sara
    Smeds Alenius, Lisa
    Tishelman, Carol
    Nurses’ practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility is related to intention to leave due to dissatisfaction: A multi-country, multilevel study2016In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 58, 47-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Nursing turnover is a major issue for health care managers, notably during the global nursing workforce shortage. Despite the often hierarchical structure of the data used in nursing studies, few studies have investigated the impact of the work environment on intention to leave using multilevel techniques. Also, differences between intentions to leave the current workplace or to leave the profession entirely have rarely been studied.

    Objective

    The aim of the current study was to investigate how aspects of the nurse practice environment and satisfaction with work schedule flexibility measured at different organisational levels influenced the intention to leave the profession or the workplace due to dissatisfaction.

    Design

    Multilevel models were fitted using survey data from the RN4CAST project, which has a multi-country, multilevel, cross-sectional design. The data analysed here are based on a sample of 23,076 registered nurses from 2020 units in 384 hospitals in 10 European countries (overall response rate: 59.4%). Four levels were available for analyses: country, hospital, unit, and individual registered nurse. Practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility were aggregated and studied at the unit level. Gender, experience as registered nurse, full vs. part-time work, as well as individual deviance from unit mean in practice environment and satisfaction with work schedule flexibility, were included at the individual level. Both intention to leave the profession and the hospital due to dissatisfaction were studied.

    Results

    Regarding intention to leave current workplace, there is variability at both country (6.9%) and unit (6.9%) level. However, for intention to leave the profession we found less variability at the country (4.6%) and unit level (3.9%). Intention to leave the workplace was strongly related to unit level variables. Additionally, individual characteristics and deviance from unit mean regarding practice environment and satisfaction with schedule flexibility were related to both outcomes. Major limitations of the study are its cross-sectional design and the fact that only turnover intention due to dissatisfaction was studied.

    Conclusions

    We conclude that measures aiming to improve the practice environment and schedule flexibility would be a promising approach towards increased retention of registered nurses in both their current workplaces and the nursing profession as a whole and thus a way to counteract the nursing shortage across European countries.

  • 8.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Tishelman, C.
    Lindqvist, R.
    Hospital organizational factors influence work-family conflict in registered nurses: multilevel modeling of a nation-wide cross-sectional survey in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 51, no 5, 744-751 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present shortage of registered nurses (RNs) in many European countries is expected to continue and worsen, which poses a substantial threat to the maintenance of healthcare in this region. Work-family conflict is a known risk factor for turnover and sickness absence. Objective: This paper empirically examines whether the nurse practice environment is associated with experienced work-family conflict. Design: A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analyzed here is based on a national sample of 8356 female and 592 male RNs from 369 hospital departments. Results: We found that 6% of the variability in work-family conflict experienced by RNs was at the department level. Organizational level factors significantly accounted for most of the variability at this level with two of the work practice environment factors examined, staffing adequacy and nurse involvement in hospital affairs, significantly related to work-family conflict. Due to the design of the study, factors on ward and work group levels could not be analyzed, but are likely to account for additional variance which in the present analysis appears to be on the individual level, with private life factors likely explaining another major part. Conclusion: These results suggest that higher level organizational factors in health care have a significant impact on the risk of work-family conflict among RNs through their impact on the nurse practice environment. Lower level organizational factors should be investigated in future studies using hierarchical multilevel sampling.

  • 9.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindqvist, Rikard
    Runesdotter, Sara
    Tishelman, Carol
    Nurses' Practice Environment and Work-Family Conflict in Relation to Burn Out: A Multilevel Modelling Approach2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, e96991- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate associations between nurse work practice environment measured at department level and individual level work-family conflict on burnout, measured as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment among Swedish RNs. Methods: A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analysed here is based on a national sample of 8,620 RNs from 369 departments in 53 hospitals. Results: Generally, RNs reported high values of personal accomplishment and lower values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. High work-family conflict increased the risk for emotional exhaustion, but for neither depersonalization nor personal accomplishment. On department level adequate staffing and good leadership and support for nurses reduced the risk for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Personal accomplishment was statistically significantly related to staff adequacy. Conclusions: The findings suggest that adequate staffing, good leadership, and support for nurses are crucial for RNs' mental health. Our findings also highlight the importance of hospital managers developing policies and practices to facilitate the successful combination of work with private life for employees.

  • 10. Lima, Fabia M.
    et al.
    Hyde, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Correia, Clarice
    Campos, Alexsandra Siqueira
    Campos, Marilia
    Novaes, Moacir
    Laks, Jerson
    Petribu, Katia
    Quality of Life amongst Older Brazilians: A Cross-Cultural Validation of the CASP-19 into Brazilian-Portuguese2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, e94289- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As population ageing becomes a global phenomenon the need to understand the quality of life of older people around the world has become increasingly salient. The CASP-19 is a well established measure of quality of later life. The scale is composed of 19 items which map onto the four domains of control (C), Autonomy (A), Self-Realisation (S) and Pleasure (P). It has already been translated to 12 languages and has been used in a number of national and international studies. However use of the scale outside of Europe has been very limited. The objective of this study was to translate and evaluate the use of the CASP-19 amongst older Brazilians. Methods: The CASP-19 was translated from English to Portuguese, back-translated and submitted to an analysis of equivalence by a committee of judges. The scale was then administered to a sample of community dwelling older people in Recife, Brazil (n = 87), and tested for psychometric properties. The Control and Pleasure domains exhibited good internal consistency. By removing one item from each of the Autonomy and Self Realisation domains their internal consistency was improved. Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.6 +/- 0.7 years, subjects were mainly female (52.9%), white (52.9%), who lived without a partner (54%), and had a monthly income varying from USD 340.00 to USD 850.00. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation permitted good understanding and applicability of final version. Psychometric analyses revealed that the removal of two items improved the internal consistency of the Autonomy and Pleasure domains. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that a 16 item, four factor, model best fits the data. Conclusion: In this small exploratory study the CASP-19 Brazil demonstrated good psychometric properties. It was easy to use for both participants and researchers. Hopefully future studies in Brazil will employ the scale so that more direct cross national comparisons can be made with older people in Europe and the US.

  • 11.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The Role of Sleep Disturbances in the Longitudinal Relationship Between Psychosocial Working Conditions, Measured by Work Demands and Support, and Depression.2014In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 37, no 12, 1977-1985 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Because work demands and lack of social support seem to be prospectively linked to sleep problems, and sleep problems are linked to depression, sleep problems may play a role in the relationship between these work characteristics and depressive symptoms. In order to shed more light on this relationship, the current study investigated whether disturbed sleep is a mediator in the longitudinal relationships between work demands, social support, and depression.

    Design: Longitudinal cohort study with repeated survey measures on four occasions.

    Setting: Swedish workforce.

    Participants: 2,017 working participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012.

    Measurements and results: Work demands (four items) and social support (six items) were assessed with the Demand Control Questionnaire, disturbed sleep (four items) with the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with a brief subscale (six items) from the Symptom Checklist. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were tested. The work characteristics, and disturbed sleep, were found to be separately associated with depressive symptoms in subsequent waves. However, only demands were found to be longitudinally related to subsequent disturbed sleep. The longitudinal autoregressive models supported a weak mediating role of disturbed sleep in the relationship between demands and depressive symptoms (standardized beta 0.008, P < 0.001), but not between support and depressive symptoms.

    Conclusions: These results indicate that higher demands at work might cause an increase in depressive symptoms, in part, by increasing disturbed sleep, although the mediated effect was relatively small compared to the total effect.

  • 12.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda. L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, India.
    Ferrie, Jane
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Threats of dismissal and symptoms of major depression: a study using repeat measures in the Swedish working population2015In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, no 10, 963-969 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Job insecurity is considered a profound work stressor. While previous research has indicated that job insecurity represents a substantial mental health burden, few studies have examined its relationship with symptoms of major depression. The aim of this study was to assess whether episodic and repeated self-reported threats of dismissal increase the risk of subsequent symptoms of major depression and whether symptoms of major depression are related to subsequent experience of threats of dismissal. Methods The study is based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a cohort study with multiple repeated measurements. The sample consisted of 6275 participants who were in regular paid employment and who provided data in 2008, 2010 and 2012. Severity of depression was assessed with a brief Symptom Checklist scale and categorised according to symptoms of major depression or not. Results Results based on generalised estimating equations logit models showed that prior threats of dismissal predicted symptoms of major depression OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.81) after adjustment for prior depression and major confounders. Especially related threats increased the risk of major depression symptoms (OR 1.74 CI 1.09 to 2.78). Major depression symptoms also increased the odds of subsequent threats of dismissal (OR 1.52, CI 1.17 to 1.98). Conclusions These findings support a prospective association between threats of dismissal and symptoms of major depression, in particular repeated exposure to threats of dismissal. The results also indicate that threats of dismissal are more likely to be reported by workers with symptoms of major depression.

  • 13.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Leineweber, Constance
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Work-home interference and its prospective relation to major depression and treatment with antidepressants2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 40, no 1, 66-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Few longitudinal studies have investigated if "work-home interference" (WHI), conflicts between work and home demands, predicts depressive disorders. We examined if WHI was prospectively associated with indicators of major depression in a nationally representative sample.

    METHODS: We used multiple logistic and Cox regression models to examine if self-reported WHI was related to probable major depression [scoring high on a brief self-report scale based on the (Hopkins) Symptom Checklist] and/or any new antidepressant treatment using the prescribed drug register during a 2-year follow-up. The analytic sample comprised 1576 men and 1678 women, working respondents to the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), free of major depression and prior purchases of antidepressants at baseline.

    RESULTS: Altogether, 7% experienced high (very often/the whole time) and 32% moderate (sometimes) WHI. Overall, the analyses indicated prospective associations between especially high WHI and major depression and/or antidepressant treatment also when adjusting for work characteristics (demands, control, support, overtime). However, the estimates for major depression differed by sex. Separate analyses indicated that only women with high WHI were significantly more likely to have subsequent major depression. Analyses further indicated an elevated rate of antidepressant treatment for men in particular, partly explained by work characteristics and that major depression was related to subsequent high WHI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on a two-year follow-up, this study indicated that high WHI prospectively predicted major depression and/or antidepressant treatment, though effects appeared to differ to some extent by sex.

  • 14.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Psychosocial work characteristics, sleep disturbances and risk of subsequent depressive symptoms: a study of time-varying effect modification2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, no 3, 266-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job strain and low social support at work are recognized risk factors for depression. However, people with poor sleep may represent a high-risk group more likely to benefit from interventions against work stress. The present study examined whether the associations between these work stressors and depressive symptoms differed by strata of sleep disturbances (effect modification/effect moderation) considering repeat measures of work characteristics and sleep. The study was based on five biennial measurements of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 1537 respondents recurrently in paid work, from an originally representative sample of the Swedish working population. High work demands, low decision authority and low social support were measured waves 2 and 4, sleep disturbances (putative moderator/modifier) waves 1 and 3, and depressive symptoms (outcome) wave 5. Causal effect modification, whether the effect of working conditions differed by strata of sleep disturbances, was analysed by structural nested mean modelling estimated using a regression-with-residuals with inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting approach. High demands and low social support, but not low decision authority, influenced subsequent depressive symptoms. The relationship between social support and depressive symptoms was not apparently modified by sleep disturbances. However, disturbed sleep wave 3 modified the effect of high demands wave 4 (coefficient 1.77, P<0.05) on depressive symptoms wave 5. The results indicate that high job demands is a stronger risk factor for depressive symptoms in people with pre-existing sleep disturbances, suggesting that targeted workplace interventions may be more effective when it comes to preventing negative effects of job demands.

  • 15.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, India.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, e0169276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.

  • 16.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Northwest University, South Africa.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Purchases of prescription antidepressants in the Swedish population in relation to major workplace downsizing2016In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 27, no 2, 257-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational downsizing may be a risk factor for morbidity among both the displaced and those who remain in work. However, the knowledge is limited regarding its impact on clinically relevant mental health problems. Our objective was to investigate purchases of prescription antidepressants across 5 years in relation to workplace downsizing. We studied all Swedish residents 2004 throughout 2010, 22–54 years old in 2006, gainfully employed, and with a stable labor market position up to 2006. People primarily employed at a workplace with ≥18% staff reduction were considered exposed to major downsizing (in 2006–2007, 2007–2008, or 2008–2009). We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations, calculating odds of any purchase of prescription antidepressants (inferred from the prescribed drug register) within five 12-month periods from 2 years before to 2 years after the period of major downsizing and compared the trends for newly exposed (n = 632,500) and unexposed (n = 1,021,759) to major downsizing. The odds of purchasing prescription antidepressants for exposed increased more than for nonexposed, mainly peridownsizing (1 year before to 1 year after), and postdownsizing (1 year after to 2 years after) for survivors (odds ratio 1.24 vs. 1.14 peridownsizing and 1.12 vs. 1.00 postdownsizing) and those changing workplace (odds ratio 1.22 vs. 1.14 peridownsizing and 1.10 vs. 1.00 postdownsizing) with no previous sickness absence or disability pension (≥7% more than unexposed peri- and postdownsizing). This large-scale study indicates that downsizing is associated with a slight increase in the odds of purchasing prescription antidepressants among people without previous sickness absence or disability pension.

  • 17.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Vahtera, J.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Alexandersson, K.
    Treatment with antidepressants in the Swedish population in relation to major workplace downsizing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny
    Stenholm, Sari
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Zins, Marie
    Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort2017In: Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 1679-7817, E-ISSN 1679-7825, Vol. 74, no 3, 176-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease. Methods The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50-75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989-2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade. Results Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed. Conclusions Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation.

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