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  • 1.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken, vilket kan påverka både arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Sektor och yrke behöver därför tas i beaktande när arbetsmiljö och hälsa jämförs mellan kvinnor och män. Denna studie utgår från en modell där arbetsmiljö utgörs av fem dimensioner som tillsammans skapar ett arbetsklimat. De fem dimensionerna består av arbetet, arbetsrollen, arbetsgruppen, ledarskapet och organisationen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som har en liknande arbetssituation, det vill säga som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Dels jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Dels prediceras hälsobesvär utifrån arbetsklimatet för kvinnor och män.

  • 2.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How privatization and corporatization affect healthcare employees’ work climate, work attitudes and ill-health: Implications of social status2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Political liberalization and increased public costs have placed new demands on the Swedish public sector. Two ways of meeting these novel requirements have been to corporatize and privatize organizations. With these two organizational changes, however, comes a risk of increased insecurity and higher demands on employees; the ability to handle these changes is likely dependent on their social status within an organization. The general aim of the thesis is to contribute to the understanding of how corporatization and privatization might affect employees’ work climate, work attitudes and ill-health. Special importance is placed on whether outcomes may differ depending on the employees’ social status in the form of hierarchic level and gender. Questionnaire data from Swedish acute care hospitals were used in three empirical studies. Study I showed that physicians at corporatized and privatized hospitals reported more positive experiences of their work climate compared with physicians at a public administration hospital. Study II showed that privatization had more negative ramifications for a middle hierarchic level (i.e., registered nurses) who reported deterioration of work attitudes, while there were no major consequences for employees at high (physicians) or low (assistant nurses) hierarchic levels. Study III found that although the work situation for women and men physicians were somewhat comparable (i.e., the same occupation, the same organization), all of the differences that remained between the genders were to the detriment of women. The results of this thesis suggest that corporatizations and privatizations do not necessarily imply negative consequence for employees. However, the consequences appear to differ between groups with different social status. Employees whose immediate work situation is affected but who do not have sufficient resources to handle the requirements associated with an organizational change may perceive the most negative consequences.

  • 3.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Social status i arbetslivet: Perspektiv från en forskare inom arbets- och organisationspsykologi2016In: Makt och inflytande i arbetslivet / [ed] Margaretha Holmqvist, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2016, p. 220-239Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslivet är till sin karaktär hierarkiskt. Trots det fokuserar arbets- och organisationspsykologin inte på maktfrågor, utan mer på den anställdes möjligheter till kontroll över den egna arbetssituationen. Här ges ett perspektiv på betydelsen av social status i arbetslivet.

  • 4.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny A.
    Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study2013In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 688-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades.

    Methods: Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999.

    Results: Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  • 5.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Head, Jenny
    University College London.
    How does Control at Work and at Home Relate to the Balance Between Work and Family for Woman and Men in Different Employment Grades?: Results from the Whitehall II Study2014In: Book of Proceedings, 11th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Looking at the past - planning for the future: capitalizing on OHP multidisciplinarity / [ed] Nicholas John Artin Andreou, Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Juliet Hassard and Kevin Teoh, Nottingham, UK: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2014, p. 281-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two domains of major importance for many individuals are the domains of work and family. These domains could put high demands on the individual and when these demands are in conflict there is a risk for negative health consequences (Allen et al., 2000; Amstad et al., 2011). However, research has also shown that the multiple roles of work and family could be a source of satisfaction (Öun, 2012). A major challenge is thus to identify factors that contribute to lessen the potential conflicts between work and family. Control at work has been shown to facilitate for employees to combine work and family (DiRenzo et al., 2011; Grzywacz & Butler, 2005; Thomas & Ganster, 1995; Voydanoff, 2004), but it is not clear if  control  at work relates to the possibility to combine work and family in the same way for women and men in different hierarchic  levels. In a similar vein, control at home could be beneficial for the work-family balance (Lapierre & Allen, 2012), but less is know about if control at home relates to the possibility to combine work and family differently depending on such as gender and socioeconomic status. The aim of this study is first to investigate how gender and employment grade are associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI) and  then to investigate how control at work and at home relate to WFI and FWI for women and men with different employment grades. Data from the Whitehall II study of British Civil servants 1991-1993 (phase 3) and 1997-1999 (phase 5)  were analysed. This included 3551 (841 women and 2710 men) in three non-industrial employment grades (administrative, executive/professional and clerical/support) with mean age 46.65 (SD: 4.79; range 39-62) who had complete data for all variables in the present study. Initial analyses suggests that there are gender differences and that control – both at home and at work – reduces the interference between work and family. Employees in higher grades do report more difficulties in combining work and family. Results of the interactions between gender, employment grade and control in relation to WFI and FWI are yet to be analysed. The results will add to the knowledge of how women and men in different employment grades can combine work and family and how control contributes to enable for employees to combine two important spheres of their lives; that of work and of family.

  • 6.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chandola, Tarani
    Head, Jenny
    Do socioeconomic status and gender matter when combining work and family and could control at work and at home help?: Results from the Whitehall II study 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work and family are two domains that are of major importance for many individuals. These domains could put high demands on the individual and when these demands are in conflict there is a risk for negative health consequences (Amstad et al., 2011). However, research has also shown that the multiple roles of work and family could be a source of satisfaction and well-being (McNall, Nicklin, & Masuda, 2010). A major challenge is thus to identify factors that contribute to lessen the potential conflicts between work and family. Control at work has been shown to enable employees to combine work and family (DiRenzo et al., 2011; Grzywacz & Butler, 2005), but it is not clear if control at work relates to the possibility to combine work and family in the same way for women and men on different levels of the occupational hierarchy. In a similar vein, control at home could be beneficial for the work-family balance (Lapierre & Allen, 2012). However, studies about control at home are few and it is not known if control at home relates to the possibility to combine work and family differently depending on such as gender and socioeconomic status.

    The objectives of this study thus are:

    • to investigate how gender and socioeconomic status are associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI)
    • to investigate how control at work and control at home relate to WFI and FWI for women and men with different socioeconomic status.

    Data from the Whitehall II study of British civil servants 1991-1993 (phase 3) and 1997-1999 (phase 5)  were analyzed (Marmot & Brunner, 2005). This included 3484 (827 women and 2657 men) in three non-industrial employment grades (senior administrative, executive/professional and clerical/support) with mean age 46.65 (SD: 4.79; range 39-62) who had complete data for all variables in the present study.

    Results: Women reported more WFI and more FWI than men. There was a gradient in WFI (employees with higher SES reported more WFI). The two-way interactions between gender and SES were significant for both WFI and FWI (see Figures).

    Low control at work was associated with more WFI. Lower levels of control at home was associated with more WFI and more FWI. Non of the three-way interaction effects between gender, SES and control at work or control at home were significant.

    Conclusions: Women, at least in the British Civil service, experienced more interference between work and family (in both directions) than men. Employees in high positions seem to have more difficulty combining work and family. This is especially true for women which might influence their career choices and health. The importance of control at home indicates that the home sphere has to be considered in further research and in the development of policies on work-family balance. Control at work and at home seem to relate to WFI or FWI in similar ways independently of gender and SES.

  • 7.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University College London.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Head, Jenny
    Handling interference between work and family: do gender and socioeconomic status matter and could control at work and at home help?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated how gender and social position were associated with work-family interference (WFI) and family-work interference (FWI) and how control at work and at home related to WFI and FWI for women and men with different social positions. Method: Data from the Whitehall II study collected 1991-1993 and 1997-1999 among 3484 (827 women and 2657 men) British Civil servants in three employment grades were analyzed. Results: Women reported a higher risk of WFI and FWI. There was a gradient in WFI, showing that employees with higher grades reported more WFI. Interactions indicated a stronger gradient in WFI and FWI among women. Low control at work related to more WFI and low control at home related to more WFI and FWI among all groups of employees. Limitations: The data were collected some years ago among British Civil servants, which limit generalizability. There were few women in the high and middle grades and few men in the low grade which reduced the power to analyze gender and grade differences. Implications: Employees in high positions, especially women, could have more difficulties in combining work and family, which might influence their career choices and health. The importance of control at home indicates that the home sphere has to be considered in further research and practical work. Originality: Only few studies investigate gender and status differences in relation to WFI and FWI. Studies that include both control at work and at home in relation to WFI and FWI are scarce.

  • 8.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Problem- and emotion-focused coping in a demanding working life.2006In: The VIth International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health: Miami, 2-4 March 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the constant strive for competitiveness, organizations try to deliver their products and services at a faster pace and with higher quality, resulting in increased demands for employee effectiveness and competence. High demands are known to be a risk factor for stress. Employees who perceive their work situation as stressful are likely to experience negative consequences, such as negative work-related attitudes and deteriorated health. The extent of the negative consequences of a stressful work situation most likely depends on the strategies employees use to cope with the situation. Some studies indicate that problem-focused strategies may be the most effective to cope with stressful situations, while other studies have shown emotion-focused strategies to be more effective. The aim of this study is to further investigate the role of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies in reducing negative consequences of the work stressors quantitative and qualitative workload for work-related attitudes and health. The study also investigates potential synergy effects of a combination of the two coping strategies.

    Data was collected by questionnaires in March 2005. The sample consists of 252 salaried employees (response rate 86 %) who work in a Swedish firm of accountants. Moderated multiple regression analyses were conducted for each outcome (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, well-being and physical health). Age and gender were used as control variables.

    The results showed that both problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies could reduce the negative effects of high workload. Two-way interactions indicated that more problem-focused coping moderated the relation between workload and well-being, while emotion-focused coping moderated the relation between workload and physical health. Three-way interactions indicated that problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies in combination seemed to have the potential to alleviate the negative effects of high workload for organizational commitment and well-being. These results indicate that in order to cope with high workload, both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies are useful, either separate or in combination.

  • 9.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of Abstracts - FALF 2016, 2016, p. 23-23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 10.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Similarities and Differences Between Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 67-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the segregated labor market, gender differences in health are often confounded by factors such as sector or occupation.This study explored similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation. First, work climate and health complaints were compared between women and men. Second, relations between the work climate and health complaints were investigated in both genders. Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden.The results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. However, women physicians reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men physicians.Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men physicians.This explorative study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the large structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation.

  • 11.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

  • 12.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicans2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men. This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 13.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga läkares arbetsmiljö efter bolagisering?2008In: The First National Conference of Working Life: 6-7 May 2008, at Växjö University, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    To transform public administration units into non-profit public stock companies has been one way to meet effectiveness and quality demands in Swedish health care. This kind of change, like other changes, is assumed to increase the feelings of uncertainty among the employees. Uncertainty is associated with a negative work climate, more negative work related attitudes and ill-health. Men have often a higher status than women, which could give men better resources to handle uncertainty, compared to women. The aim of this study is to investigate if there are any differences in work climate, work related attitudes and ill-health between female and male physicians after a change of an acute care hospital from being a public administration unit to be a non-profit public stock company. The first step is, however, to investigate if women and men mean the same thing by the concepts of work climate, work related attitudes and ill-health. This cross-sectional study investigates 191 physicians (92 women and 99 men) who worked at a hospital which had been transformed into a non-profit public stock company. Even tough there were some differences between the genders in the appraisal of the investigated concepts, the underlying structure seem to be similar for women and men. The results of two multivariate analyses of variance showed that female physicians reported worse work climate, less commitment and more ill-health than their male counterparts. This suggests that women (compared to men) could have less access to resources to reduce uncertainty in the case of an organizational change. This should be taken into account when changes are planned and implemented.

  • 14.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in physicians’ psychological climate, work-related attitudes and healthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gender segregated labor market makes it difficult to investigate gender differences without confounding gender with such as sector, occupation or position. The present study aims to 1) investigate if psychological climate can be measured in the same way for women and men working in the same occupation, 2) compare whether levels of psychological climate as well as work-related attitudes and ill-health differ between the genders, and 3) investigate how psychological climate relates to work-related attitudes and ill-health for women and men. Questionnaire data were collected at one occasion from women (95) and men (105), working as physicians at one acute care hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. When taking gender differences in the appraisal of psychological climate into account (along with background variables), all differences found (in workgroup climate, organizational commitment, mental- and physical health complaints) were to the disadvantage of women. Role stress appeared as an important factor for negative work-related attitudes and ill-health among both women and men, while workgroup was related to better well-being and organizational characteristics to more positive attitudes only among men. More research is needed to study the often taken for granted similarities of genders’ appraisal of psychological climate. Gender should definitely be taken into account when psychological climate, work-related attitudes and ill-health are investigated. Organizations need to intensify their work with status aspects in relation to gender.

  • 15.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personalens arbetsattityder och hälsa vid privatisering: en jämförelse mellan två svenska akutsjukhus2008In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 29-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Increased effectiveness and quality are often given as reasons for privatization, but the outcome of the change is likely dependent of how the employees react. In spite of this, it is still unclear what consequences a privatization process has for the employees. This study investigates how the privatization of an acute care hospital affects the employees’ work attitudes and self reported ill-health. Data is analyzed both at hospital level and at three different hierarchic levels (physicians, registered nurses, and assistant nurses).

  • 16.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How are employees at different levels affected by privatization?2013In: Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF) - Changes in Working Life: Individual, Organizational, and Methodological Perspectives, Stockholm, Sweden, June 17-19, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Privatizations have been carried out all across the world in recent decades, but there is still a lack of research about the psychological and health-related consequences of this kind of change on employees. As with other types of organizational change, privatization can be considered a stressful event that may result in impaired work attitudes and strain. However, such effects are likely to vary depending on the individual’s position in the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate how privatization may affect work-related attitudes and strain of employees, and to analyze whether the effects of privatization differ between employees at various hierarchic levels. Results based on questionnaire data collected at two Swedish hospitals both before and after one of the hospitals underwent privatization suggests only limited effects of privatization on a general level, but that employees at various hierarchic levels may be affected differently. While employees at a high level (physicians) and low level (assistant nurses) reported only marginal differences over time in work attitudes and strain, as compared with their colleagues at the comparison hospital, the work attitudes of employees at the intermediate level (registered nurses) declined after privatization. The knowledge that some occupational groups could be affected more negatively than others and that special attention should be paid to intermediate occupational groups can be useful information for different actors in a privatization process, such as the politicians who make decisions regarding privatizations and the management executives who may carry them out.

  • 17.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    How are employees at different levels affected by privatization?: A longitudinal study of two Swedish hospitals2009In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 45-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the amount of privatizations around the world in recent decades, only limited research attention has been paid to how privatization affects the employees. The effects are likely to vary depending on the individual’s position in the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate how employees’ work-related attitudes and strain changed after privatization of a Swedish acute care hospital, and to analyze whether the effects of privatization differed between employees at various hierarchic levels. Questionnaire data collected at a hospital 1 year before and 2 years after privatization, as well as at a hospital which remained a public administration unit, suggest only limited effects of privatization on a general level, but that employees at various hierarchic levels may be affected differently. While employees at a high level (physicians) and low level (assistant nurses) reported only marginal differences over time in work attitudes and strain, also in comparison with their colleagues at the comparison hospital, work attitudes of employees at the intermediate level (registered nurses) decreased after privatization. These results emphasize the importance of taking hierarchic level into account when a privatization is implemented and analyzed.

  • 18.
    Hansen, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Predicting burnout from demands and resources: A comparison between private and public hospitals2007In: XIIIth European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout among health-care employees is an issue that has received considerable research attention, and numerous studies have found burnout to be predicted by various work-related demands and resources. However, despite the fact that health-care systems in many countries include public as well as private hospitals, our knowledge is limited when it concerns differences in the burnout process between health-care staff in hospitals with different ownership. Data from nurses at three Swedish acute care hospitals – a privatized for-profit, a publicly owned non-profit stock company, and a traditional public administration unit – were used to test (a) if burnout levels differed between hospitals with different ownership and (b) if demands and resources were differently related to nurses’ burnout in the three hospitals. Preliminary results indicate that the burnout level in the public hospital was lower compared to the private and the public companies. Certain demands, such as workload and role conflict, were consistently associated with burnout across hospitals. There were also important differences between private and public hospitals. While the results have immediate implications for hospital managements and efforts to improve employee work environment, they may also provide important insights for political decisions concerning the advantages and disadvantages of public and private ownership of acute care hospitals.

  • 19.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäst arbetsklimat på sjukhus som bolagiserats eller privatiserats.2006In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 26-27, no 103, p. 2040-2044Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In an attempt to make hospitals more cost effective and improving the quality of medical care, privatization of Swedish hospitals have become more frequent during the past decade. There is a need for knowledge about psychological effects of privatization on health care personnel. We investigated physicians’ perception of their work environment in three hospitals with different forms of ownership — from traditional public administration to for-profit private stock company. The results point towards certain advantages of privatized hospitals. Physicians at the privatized hospital included in the study perceived their work environment in some respects as more positive than did the physicians at the non-privatized hospitals.

  • 20.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuell lönesättning, med en tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön, har blivit ett allt vanligare inslag i verksamheter. Ett grundläggande antagande som ligger bakom denna utveckling är att lön och löneutveckling är motiverande för individen och därmed bidrar till bra arbetsprestationer och god verksamhetsutveckling. Ett annat grundantagande är att lön och lönesystem kan dra till sig individer som är attraktiva för organisationen samt att lönesystemet ger organisationen möjligheter att premiera och därmed behålla de individer som bidrar till verksamheten.

  • 21.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företags- och medarbetarnära lönebildning blir allt vanligare. Den utvecklingen baseras på antaganden om att lön och löneutveckling bidrar till ökad motivation och goda arbetsprestationer, och att den gör det lättare för arbetsgivare att rekrytera och behålla attraktiva medarbetare. En tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön antas alltså  bidra till att verksamheten utvecklas. Samtidigt är lön en av flera olika faktorer som kan bidra till ökad motivation hos medarbetare och det finns andra faktorer än lön som kan ha större betydelse för motivationen. En förutsättning för att lön ska fungera som en motivationsfaktor är att lönesättningen upplevs som legitim och rättvis. Men för att nå dit behövs det kunskap om de psykologiska mekanismerna som ligger bakom upplevelser av legitimitet, liksom om hur lön och lönesättning hänger samman med motivation och prestation i arbetet.

  • 22.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baraldi, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physicians’ work climate at three hospitals under different types of ownership2005In: Change and Quality in Human Service Work: Organizational psychology and health care, München: Rainer Hampp , 2005, p. 47-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to make hospitals more cost effective and improving the quality of medical care, privatization of Swedish hospitals have become more frequent during the past decade. There is a need for knowledge about psychological effects of privatization on health care personnel. We investigated physicians' perception of their work environment in three hospitals with different forms of ownership - from traditional public administration to for-profit private stock company. The results point towards certain advantages of privatized hospitals. Physicians at the privatized hospital included in the study perceived their work environment in some respects as more positive than did the physicians at the non-privatized hospitals.

  • 23.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A Review of Work-Family Research in the Nordic Region2018In: The Cambridge Handbook of the Global Work–Family Interface / [ed] Kristen M. Shockley, Winny Shen, Ryan C. Johnson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 288-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental issue concerning work and family is the extent that women and men work and take care of children. The Nordic countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland for the purposes of this review) are characterized by a “dual-worker model” in which a majority of both women and men participate in paid work, but are also, to some extent, characterized by a “dual-carer model” in which both women and men actively take part in the upbringing of their children (Edlund & Öun, 2016). The Nordic countries have a history of family policies being directed toward both mothers and fathers, and state provisions for dual-earner family support and childcare were developed in a political context with women’s equality in mind (Ellingsaeter & Leira, 2006). Still, the challenge of combining work and family domains is under continual debate and development in the Nordic countries. In the next sections, we will briefly describe the general trends of women’s participation in the labor market in relation to the development of the welfare system. This historical development is crucial for the understanding of how women and men combine work and family in the Nordic countries today.

  • 24.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) were conducted (N = 2,911). Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner), gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender seems to have a pronounced effect on time use, relative work flexibility seems to have less influence on how time is used. Generally, mothers tend to spend more time on unpaid work while fathers spend longer hours on paid work and report more time for relaxation.

  • 25.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A meta-review of job demands and job resources as related to various health-related outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to investigate the associations between various psychosocial factors at work and a range of health-related outcomes. Specifically, this study investigated how job demands and resources are linked to health-related outcomes such as depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints and whether the linkages varied between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review focuses on meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. These secondary studies were identified through combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were selected to identify a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to health-related outcomes.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. Lining these to outcomes resulted in the identification of 273 potential associations. Taken together, the findings show what is known from previous research, namely that job demands are related to poorer health. As expected resources typically relate to better health outcomes that are beneficial for organizations and individual employees. Separating findings for women and men suggest that the overall linkages between psychosocial factors and health-related outcomes hold for both women and men. However, less is know regarding occupational variations.

    Limitations: A meta-review restricts specificity and detail.

    Research/Practical Implications: Adds to the systematic knowledge of health-related consequences of psychosocial factors at work, for research as well as practice.

    Originality/Value: The use of a meta-approach that discusses issues relating to gender and occupation.

  • 26.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Job demands and job resources as related to job attitudes and work-related health outcomes among women and men with different occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art: Several models, including the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, describe how various psychosocial factors at work relate to different outcomes. This has resulted in abundant empirical research. Such primary research findings have been summarized in reviews and meta-analyses. Overall results show that job demands link to poorer attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes while resources typically link to attitudes, behaviours and health-related outcomes beneficial for both employers and individual employees. However, much secondary research focuses on specific outcomes meaning that few bring together a range of outcomes.

    New perspectives/contributions: Using the JD-R model as a meta-model, this symposium presents how job demands and resources relate a number of outcomes ranging from attitudes and behaviours to health-related outcomes. Additionally, factors such as gender and occupation are addressed. Specifically, two contributions introduce meta-review findings investigating how demands and resources relate to different outcomes while also addressing gender and occupation. The third contribution is a primary study of psychosocial factors at work and health in women and men within one occupation. The fourth contribution is a primary study of another occupation and uses a different design focusing on the interplay between different levels. The symposium ends with a discussion addressing assessment, integration of findings, and the balancing of different levels.

    Research/practical implications: The contributions and the final discussion aim to inform and inspire researchers and practitioners to address thoroughly the impact of psychosocial factors for women and men working in different contexts and occupations.

  • 27.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Chefens kön och medarbetarens lön: Upplevelsen av individuell prestationsbaserad lönesättning2017In: FALF konferens 2017: Arbetslivets utmaningar i staden och på landsbygden: Abstracts, 2017, p. 21-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska lönebildningen har de senaste decennierna kommit att bli allt mer lokal och tillämpningen av individuella prestationsbaserade lönesystem ökar stadigt. Det grundläggande antagandet bland arbetsmarknadens parter är att löneökningar som baseras på arbetsutförande leder till ökad motivation och prestation hos de anställda. Evidensen gällande hur väl individuella och prestationsbaserade lönesystem lever upp till sitt grundantagande är tvetydig, men en förutsättning för att dessa lönesystem skall verka motiverande och prestationshöjande antas vara att lönesättningen upplevs som rättvis. Det är i de flesta fall den närmaste chefen som gör bedömningen av prestationen, vilket skulle kunna innebära att könsstereotyper får en inverkan vid prestationsbedömningen, och därmed löneökningen, för de anställda. Kunskapen är begränsad om vilken betydelse könet på den lönesättande chefen har för såväl anställdas upplevelser av lönesättningen som för löneutfallet. Kvinnor har generellt en lägre lön än män, även efter justering för individ- och arbetsrelaterade faktorer. Tidigare forskning har visat att skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns lön är större än skillnaden mellan kvinnor och mäns när det gäller bedömningar av deras arbetsprestation. De få studier som har undersökt anställdas upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningen indikerar att kvinnor upplever lönesättningen som mer rättvis än män. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur individuell och prestationsbaserad lönesättning upplevs av anställda på ett företag som 2014 introducerade ett nytt lönesystem. Genom att jämföra kvinnor och män, som har en kvinna respektive man som lönesättande chef, undersöks skillnader mellan dessa fyra grupper när det gäller (1) lönenivå och löneökning (i absolut och relativ nivå), (2) upplevelser av lönesättningen och erfarenheter av lönesystemet samt (3) bedömningar av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningen. Resultatet indikerar att män generellt hade en högre lön och fick en högre lönehöjning i absolut nivå än kvinnor. Resultaten visar att män som var lönesättande chefer generellt gav en högre lön, både i absolut och relativ nivå, jämfört med kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer. Dessutom antyder resultatet att kvinnor som var lönesättande chefer tenderade att ge en högre lön till män. Trots detta rapporterade kvinnor generellt högre grad av upplevd rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen, särskilt i upplevelser av tillgång tilll information samt hur proceduren för lönesättningen gått till, det fanns inga skillnader mellan grupperna när det gällde upplevelsen av distributiv rättvisa (fördelning av lömnemedel) eller mellanmänsklig rättvisa (hur man behandlats av lönesättande chef). Sammantaget bidrar denna studie till en ökad förståelse av hur lönesättningen upplevs av kvinnor och män utifrån om de har en kvinna eller man som lönesättande chef. Medan det är ett välkänt faktum att kvinnor tenderar att ha lägre lön än män, reser denna studie också en mängd nya frågor, exepelvis varför kvinnliga chefer tenderar att ge högre lön till medarbetare som är män snarare än kvinnor och varför kvinnor trots lägre lönenivåer och lönepåslag tycks uppleva lönesättningen som mer rättvis. Genom att diskutera möjligheter till hur könsstereotyper kan inverka i lönesättningen bidrar studien med insikter i vilken utsträckning såväl den lönesättandechefens som den anställdes kön har betydelse för anställdas löneutfall och upplevelse av lönesättningen. 

  • 28.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Pay no attention to my gender: Effects of gender in the pay-setting process2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is well established that women have lower pay than men, it is not known if women and men perceive the justice of a pay setting process differently or if perceptions of justice differ depending on the gender of the supervisor. The aim of this study was to investigate differences between women and men employees, who have a woman or man as pay-setting supervisor, in perceived pay-related justice as well as actual pay level and pay raise (in relative and absolute levels). Questionnaire data were collected from 841 employees in a Swedish private sector company that has implemented a new pay-for-performance system. 2 (employee’s gender) * 2 (supervisor’s gender) MANOVAs indicate that women experienced higher levels of perceived pay justice than men. There was no gender difference in relative pay increase, whereas men, on average, had a higher pay-level and absolute pay increase than women. On average, men pay-setting supervisors gave a higher pay-increase than women pay-setting supervisors. There only significant interaction effects was for pay level. The data derives from one company that has worked hard to implement a new pay-setting system. The study needs replication in other organizational contexts as well as in nationally representable samples. Implementing pay-for-performance systems has the potential to create a more gender equal pay-setting process. This is one of few studies investigating gender equity in pay-related justice and the potential effects of the pay-setting supervisors’ gender in a performance-based pay-system.

  • 29.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lu, Chang-qin
    Pienaar, Jaco
    How do we react when our organization changes? Perspectives on employees' appraisal of change, consequences, and mitigating factors2017In: An introduction to work and organizational psychology: An international perspective / [ed] Nick Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 233-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational changes are becoming a common response to financial and operational needs. The changes may be systematic and gradual or dramatic and sudden in an attempt to face various business demands. Different types of organizational changes are discussed in this chapter, focusing on the impact they may have on employees. One factor affecting employees' reactions to an organizational change is how the change is perceived and appraised – whether as a threat or as an opportunity. Individuals' health, well-being, and work-related attitudes may all be impacted, potentially carrying with it negative consequences for the organization as well as the individuals. Various individual and organizational factors that can influence the strength of the consequences of organizational change are also presented. These include individual factors such as personality, coping strategies, social status, and demographic characteristics as well as organizational factors such as organizational justice, opportunities for participation, and social support.

  • 30.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A Meta-Review Of Job Demands And Job Resources As Related To Work-Related Attitudes And Behaviours Among Women And Men With Different Occupations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a starting point for reporting on how various psychosocial factors at work relate to different outcomes. Specifically, the review investigated how job demands and resources associate with job attitudes and behaviours and whether these linkages vary between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review includes meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. The secondary studies were retrieved from combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were chosen to target a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to job attitudes and behaviours.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. These were linked to outcomes resulting in 147 associations being identified. Overall, the findings summarize what is known from previous systematic reviews, namely that job demands are associated with poorer attitudes and behaviours while resources typically relate to attitudes and behaviours that are beneficial both for employers and individual employees. However, for gender and occupation, considerably less is known. Importantly, however, reports of gender specific associations suggest that, overall, linkages between psychosocial factors and job attitudes and behaviours hold for both women and men.

    Limitations: The restriction to the past 10 years.

    Research/Practical Implications: The meta-review adds to understanding consequences of psychosocial factors at work and points up future research needs.

    Originality/Value: The broad approach using a meta-review allows for integrating research on several outcomes.

  • 31.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnors och mäns arbetsvillkor - betydelsen av organisatoriska faktorer och psykosocial arbetsmiljö för arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kunskapssammanställningen tar sin utgångspunkt i den (starka) könssegregeringen på svensk arbetsmarknad och vilken betydelse den har för skillnader i organisatoriska och psykosociala omständigheter för kvinnor och män. Den beskriver kunskapsläget vad gäller likheter och skillnader mellan kvinnor och män med fokus på organisatoriska faktorer (som arbetstid och anställningsvillkor) samt psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer i form av upplevda krav och resurser. Dessa faktorers betydelse för kvinnors och mäns psykiska ohälsa, självrapporterade hälsa, arbetsrelaterade välbefinnande samt sjukskrivning beaktas i kunskapssammanställningen. Utgångspunkt tas i offentlig statistik om arbetsskador och sjuktal, med fokus på ”kvinnodominerade” branscher som vård, skola och omsorg. Rapporten beskriver forskningsläget utifrån internationell och nationell vetenskaplig litteratur från det senaste decenniet.

  • 32.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Women and men and their working conditions: The importance of organizational and psychosocial factors for work-related and health-related outcomes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes a research overview commissioned by the Swedish Work Environment Authority with the aim of detailing relationships between organizational and psychosocial factors at work, and various work-related and health-related outcomes among working women and men. A second aim involved reporting on the prevalence of the different work environment factors among women and men. To fulfil the first aim, systematic research reviews, including meta-analyses and literature reviews, were retrieved from combined searches in different international and national databases. Search terms were chosen to target the broad array of organizational and psychosocial factors, and to retrieve published journal articles and systematic reports of Swedish government agencies linking such factors to various outcomes. The time period was restricted to the past ten years.

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