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  • 1. Birmingham, Elina
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kanan, Christopher
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Exploring emotional expression recognition in aging adults using the Moving Window Technique2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0205341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult aging is associated with difficulties in recognizing negative facial expressions such as fear and anger. However, happiness and disgust recognition is generally found to be less affected. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the diagnostic features of fearful and angry faces are situated in the upper regions of the face (the eyes), and for happy and disgusted faces in the lower regions (nose and mouth). These studies also indicate age-differences in visual scanning behavior, suggesting a role for attention in emotion recognition deficits in older adults. However, because facial features can be processed extrafoveally, and expression recognition occurs rapidly, eye-tracking has been questioned as a measure of attention during emotion recognition. In this study, the Moving Window Technique (MWT) was used as an alternative to the conventional eye-tracking technology. By restricting the visual field to a moveable window, this technique provides a more direct measure of attention. We found a strong bias to explore the mouth across both age groups. Relative to young adults, older adults focused less on the left eye, and marginally more on the mouth and nose. Despite these different exploration patterns, older adults were most impaired in recognition accuracy for disgusted expressions. Correlation analysis revealed that among older adults, more mouth exploration was associated with faster recognition of both disgusted and happy expressions. As a whole, these findings suggest that in aging there are both attentional differences and perceptual deficits contributing to less accurate emotion recognition.

  • 2. Brehmer, Yvonne
    et al.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Bellander, Martin
    Westerberg, Helena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Neural correlates of training-related working-memory gains in old age2011Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 1110-1120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) functioning declines in old age. Due to its impact on many higher-order cognitive functions, investigating whether training can modify WM performance has recently been of great interest. We examined the relationship between behavioral performance and neural activity following five weeks of intensive WM training in 23 healthy older adults (M = 63.7 years). 12 participants received adaptive training (i.e. individually adjusted task difficulty to bring individuals to their performance maximum), whereas the others served as active controls (i.e. fixed low-level practice). Brain activity was measured before and after training, using fMRI, while subjects performed a WM task under two difficulty conditions. Although there were no training-related changes in WM during scanning, neocortical brain activity decreased post training and these decreases were larger in the adaptive training group than in the controls under high WM load. This pattern suggests intervention-related increases in neural efficiency. Further, there were disproportionate gains in the adaptive training group in trained as well as in non-trained (i.e. attention, episodic memory) tasks assessed outside the scanner, indicating the efficacy of the training regimen. Critically, the degree of training-related changes in brain activity (i.e. neocortical decreases and subcortical increases) was related to the maximum gain score achieved during the intervention period. This relationship suggests that the decreased activity, but also specific activity increases, observed were functionally relevant.

  • 3.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Karlsson, Sari
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Per
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    MacDonald, Stuart W. S.
    Farde, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Dopamine D1 receptors and age differences in brain activation during working memory2011Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 1849-1856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an fMRI study, 20 younger and 20 healthy older adults were scanned while performing a spatial working-memory task under two levels of load. On a separate occasion, the same subjects underwent PET measurements using the radioligand [11C] SCH23390 to determine dopamine D1 receptor binding potential (BP) in caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The fMRI study revealed a significant load modulation of brain activity (higher load > lower load) in frontal and parietal regions for younger, but not older, adults. The PET measurements showed marked age-related reductions of D1 BP in caudate and DLPFC. Statistical control of caudate and DLPFC D1 binding eliminated the age-related reduction in load-dependent BOLD signal in left frontal cortex, and attenuated greatly the reduction in right frontal and left parietal cortex. These findings suggest that age-related alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to underrecruitment of task-relevant brain regions during working-memory performance in old age.

  • 4.
    Cortes, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Asperholm, Martin
    Fredborg, William
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Xiao, Shanshan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Dang, Junhua
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Intranasal Oxytocin and Response Inhibition in Young and Older Adults2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal aging, people are confronted with impairment in both socioemotional and cognitive abilities. Specifically, there are age-related declines in inhibitory processes that regulate attention towards irrelevant material. In last years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in several domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin facilitates inhibitory processing in older adults compared to younger adults. In total, 41 older adults (51% women; age range 65-75 years) and 37 younger adults (49% women; age range 20-30 years) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IU of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 45 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants were tested approximately a month apart and mostly at the same hour during both occasions. Inhibition was measured with a Go/NoGo task which included happy and neutral faces as targets (Go stimuli) and distractors (NoGo stimuli) shown on a computer screen. Participants were instructed to press a button any time they saw a target and remain passive when encountering a distractor. Preliminary results indicate effects for happy and neutral faces, but only in the distractor condition. For happy distractors, women rejected correctly happy faces more accurately than men did, both in the placebo and oxytocin conditions. A main effect of age was observed for the neutral distractors, where older adults were more successful in inhibiting responses than younger adults during oxytocin and placebo treatments. We did not observe effects of oxytocin in the different tasks. The role of oxytocin was not clear distinguished in the tasks. In sum, our findings showed that age and gender can influence inhibition but their effects depend on the displayed emotions. This suggests that the ability to inhibit interfering distractors may remain intact despite of age and that deficits in inhibition may be selective. The role of oxytocin in inhibition needs to be further investigated since it is possible that it is context dependent.

  • 5.
    Cortes, Diana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Age differences in judgments of attractiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness of faces2016Inngår i: Program of SANS 2016, 2016, s. 58-58, artikkel-id B-23Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    People constantly evaluate faces to obtain social information. However, the link between aging and social evaluation of faces is not well understood. Todorov and colleagues introduced a data-driven model defined by valence and dominance as the two main components underlying social judgments of faces. They also created a stimulus set consisting of computer-generated faces which systematically vary along various social dimensions (e.g., Todorov et al., 2013, Emotion, 13, 724-38). We utilized a selection of these facial stimuli to investigate age-related differences in judgments of the following dimensions: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness. Participants rated how well the faces represented the intended social dimensions on 9-point scales ranging from not at all to extremely well. Results from 71 younger (YA; mean age = 23.42 years) and 60 older adults (OA; mean age = 69.19 years) showed that OA evaluated untrustworthy faces as more trustworthy, dislikeable faces as more likeable, and unattractive faces as more attractive compared to YA. OA also evaluated attractive faces as more attractive compared to YA, whereas YA did rate likeable and trustworthy faces as more likeable and trustworthy than did OA. In summary, our findings showed that OA evaluated negative social features less negatively compared to YA. This suggests that older and younger persons may use different cues for social evaluation of faces, and is in line with prior research suggesting age-related decline in the ability to recognize negative emotion expressions.

  • 6.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Age-Related Differences in Evaluation of Social Attributes From Computer-Generated Faces of Varying Intensity2019Inngår i: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 686-697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life throughout the life span, people frequently evaluate faces to obtain information crucial for social interactions. We investigated age-related differences in judgments of a wide range of social attributes based on facial appearance. Seventy-one younger and 60 older participants rated 196 computer-generated faces that systematically varied in facial features such as shape and reflectance to convey different intensity levels of seven social attributes (i.e., attractiveness, competence, dominance, extraversion, likeability, threat, and trustworthiness). Older compared to younger participants consistently gave higher attractiveness ratings to faces representing both high and low levels of attractiveness. Older participants were also less sensitive to the likeability of faces and tended to evaluate faces representing low likeability as more likable. The age groups did, however, not differ substantially in their evaluations of the other social attributes. Results are in line with previous research showing that aging is associated with preference toward positive and away from negative information and extend this positivity effect to social perception of faces.

  • 7.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Lindahl, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id e0178423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection (“remember” hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  • 8.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Oxytocin Induces Brain Activity Reductions to Negative Emotional Stimuli in Younger and Older Adults2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin has mainly been related to improvements in domains such as emotion recognition and memory, but to date the effects of oxytocin in aging remain largely unknown. A major caveat in oxytocin research is that it is almost exclusively based on young men which may reflect an inadequate picture of the potential benefits of oxytocin administration. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects study design, we investigated whether oxytocin affects the recognition of positive and negative stimuli differently in younger and older adults. Forty-four older adults (50% women; M= 69.82) and 44 younger adults (50% women; M= 24.75) participated in this study two times, receiving a single intranasal dose of 40 IUs of placebo and oxytocin in randomized order 40 minutes before engaging in the task. Participants watched short videoclips where actors displayed nine emotions: neutrality, happiness, pride, interest, relief, anger, despair, sadness, and disgust. Preliminary results indicate that oxytocin-induced reductions to negative emotions were found in bilateral fusiform gyrus (Z > 4.16, Family wise error corrected, pFWE < 0.009), hippocampus (Z > 4.53, pFWE < 0.002), insula (Z > 3.69, pFWE < 0.045), and superior temporal gyrus (Z > 4.34, pFWE < 0.008), as well as, right-lateralized reductions in the amygdala (Z = 3.73, pFWE = 0.005). These findings are in line with previous studies showing decreased brain activity to negative stimuli and suggest that this mechanism in not only present in younger adults but it can also be extended to an older population. Future studies should investigate how oxytocin impacts socioemotional and cognitive processes in elderly.

  • 9.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Skragge, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Hovey, Daniel
    Westberg, Lars
    Larsson, Marcus
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Mixed support for a causal link between single dose intranasal oxytocin and spiritual experiences: opposing effects depending on individual proclivities for absorption2018Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 921-932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has previously been found to increase spirituality, an effect moderated by OT-related genotypes. This pre-registered study sought to conceptually replicate and extend those findings. Using a single dose of intranasal OT vs placebo (PL), we investigated experimental treatment effects, and moderation by OT-related genotypes on spirituality, mystical experiences, and the sensed presence of a sentient being. A more exploratory aim was to test for interactions between treatment and the personality disposition absorption on these spirituality-related outcomes. A priming plus sensory deprivation procedure that has facilitated spiritual experiences in previous studies was used. The sample (N = 116) contained both sexes and was drawn from a relatively secular context. Results failed to conceptually replicate both the main effects of treatment and the treatment by genotype interactions on spirituality. Similarly, there were no such effects on mystical experiences or sensed presence. However, the data suggested an interaction between treatment and absorption. Relative to PL, OT seemed to enhance spiritual experiences in participants scoring low in absorption and dampen spirituality in participants scoring high in absorption.

  • 10.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Makower, Irena
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Improving psychotherapeutic competencies using socioemotional perceptual training procedures 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald A.
    Oxytocin’s effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex2016Inngår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 69, s. 50-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin’s central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin’s effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala–mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala–mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest.

  • 12.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    University of Florida, USA.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior2014Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 996Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions play a central role in every human life from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, highlight what should be noticed and remembered, and guide decisions and actions. As emotions are central to daily functioning, it is important to understand how aging affects perception, memory, experience, as well as regulation of emotions. The Frontiers research topic Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior takes a step into uncovering emotional aging considering both brain and behavioral processes. The contributions featured in this issue adopt innovative theoretical perspectives and use novel methodological approaches to target a variety of topics that can be categorized into three overarching questions: How do cognition and emotion interact in aging in brain and behavior? What are behavioral and brain-related moderators of emotional aging? Does emotion-regulatory success as reflected in brain and behavior change with age? In this perspective paper we discuss theoretical innovation, methodological approach, and scientific advancement of the thirteen papers in the context of the broader literature on emotional aging. We conclude by reflecting on topics untouched and future directions to take.

  • 13.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    University of Florida, USA.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Studying the various facets of emotional aging2014Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 1007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study emotional aging is to study a very multi-faceted concept. In particular, the study of emotion and aging covers a wide range of topics. Taking a closer look, domains of functioning can be differentiated such as pertaining to the experiential nature of emotion or its regulation, as well as social-cognitive processes associated with the perception of emotion in others or emotion-related attention and memory retrieval. Importantly, evidence over the last two decades suggests that not all of these functional domains are negatively affected by the aging process. Rather late-life development in emotion-related functional domains is characterized by multi-directionality, in that aging seems to be associated with deterioration in abilities related to emotion perception and increased difficulty remembering (particularly negative compared to positive) emotional information, while emotional experience and emotion-regulatory capacities appear to remain relatively preserved or even improve with age.

  • 14. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Horta, Marilyn
    Lin, Tian
    Feifel, David
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Cohen, Ronald A.
    Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Attending to and understanding one's own feelings are components of meta mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex.

  • 15.
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Johnson, Marcia K.
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Neural mechanisms of reading facial emotions in young and older adults2012Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, nr 223, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and also expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in happy, neutral, and angry young and older faces. The results suggest a functional dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in reading facial emotions that is largely comparable in young and older adults: Both age groups showed greater vmPFC activity to happy compared to angry or neutral faces, which was positively correlated with expression identification for happy compared to angry faces. In contrast, both age groups showed greater activity in dmPFC to neutral or angry than happy faces which was negatively correlated with expression identification for neutral compared to happy faces. A similar region of dmPFC showed greater activity for older than young faces, but no brain-behavior correlations. Greater vmPFC activity in the present study may reflect greater affective processing involved in reading happy compared to neutral or angry faces. Greater dmPFC activity may reflect more cognitive control involved in decoding and/or regulating negative emotions associated with neutral or angry than happy, and older than young, faces.

  • 16. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Johnson, Matthew R.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Durbin, Kelly A.
    Johnson, Marcia K.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Processing own-age vs. other-age faces: Neuro-behavioral correlates and effects of emotion2013Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 78, s. 363-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Age constitutes a salient feature of a face and signals group membership. There is evidence of greater attention to and better memory for own-age than other-age faces. However, little is known about the neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying processing differences for own-age vs. other-age faces. Even less is known about the impact of emotion expressed in faces on such own-age effects. Using fMRI, the present study examined brain activity while young and older adult participants identified expressions of neutral, happy, and angry young and older faces. Across facial expressions, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and (for older participants) amygdala showed greater activity to own-age than other-age faces. These own-age effects in ventral medial prefrontal cortex and insula held for neutral and happy faces, but not for angry faces. This novel and intriguing finding suggests that processing of negative facial emotions under some conditions overrides age-of-face effects.

  • 17. Ebner, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Maura, Gabriela M.
    MacDonald, Kai
    Westberg, Lars
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends2013Inngår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 7, s. 487-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and-though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging-and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  • 18. Frazier, I.
    et al.
    Lin, T.
    Sondre, S.
    Feifel, D.
    Cohen, R.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Ebner, N.C.
    Older Adults Show More Trust Than Younger Adults Post-Betrayal in Trust/Lottery Game2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults comprise both the fastest growing population segment in industrialized nations and the majority of political and industry leaders. Regardless of social status, older adults face a constant flow of highly consequential decisions. These decisions are often social in nature, even when they primarily concern health, finance, or politics; in particular, they often require putting trust in others. However, older adults’ social decision making processes relating to trust have not been well researched yet. Trust is an important aspect of maintaining social supports and maintenance of social supports is health protective. This is of particular concern in older adults as aging is linked to increased social loss, isolation, and loneliness. Evidence has indicated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is linked to several aspects of socioemotional functioning including trust. There is emerging evidence of a possible deficit in OT in older, specifically male, adults. Intranasally administered OT before a trust game has resulted in young adults acting in a more trusting, but not gullible manner. However, the potential effects of OT administration on trust game performance in older adults is unknown. We compared older (N = 54, 56% female) and younger adults’ (N = 48, 48% female) performance on a Trust/Lottery game after intranasal administration of either OT or placebo (P). Participants played the role of investors with ostensible same age social partners (trust) or a computer (lottery). At the beginning of each game investors received monetary units to invest in increments. They were instructed that if money was sent it would be tripled and then the investee (ostensible social partner) would be able to send an amount, or none, back or the lottery would be played (in the lottery condition). The probabilities of the trustee returning behavior in both the trust and lottery conditions were drawn from the same probability distributions, thus the participants faced the same objective risk but only interacted socially in the trust condition. Twelve trust and 12 lottery games were played in a pseudo-randomly, counterbalanced fashion. After half of the trust and lottery trials were played, a feedback screen was presented informing participants that in both the trust and lottery conditions only 50% of their investments bore returns, signifying 50% chance of trust breach or lottery success. While no effects of OT were detected, trust trials older adults increased their investments post betrayal while younger adults decreased their investments (F = 5.53, p = .021). No such differences were found in the lottery game. These results may indicate that older adults are more forgiving of breaching trust than younger adults. However, these results may also indicate vulnerability to being taken advantage of in a social context. To address these interpretations, research examining older adults’ goals in social decision making contexts is warranted.

  • 19.
    Frick, A
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Howner, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Furmark, T
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Altered fusiform connectivity during processing of fearful faces in social anxiety disorder2013Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 3, s. e312-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with hyper-reactivity in limbic brain regions like the amygdala, both during symptom provocation and emotional face processing tasks. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we sought to examine brain regions implicated in emotional face processing, and the connectivity between them, in patients with SAD (n=14) compared with healthy controls (n=12). We furthermore aimed to relate brain reactivity and connectivity to self-reported social anxiety symptom severity. SAD patients exhibited hyper-reactivity in the bilateral fusiform gyrus in response to fearful faces, as well as greater connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and decreased connectivity between the fusiform gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Within the SAD group, social anxiety severity correlated positively with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, amygdala-fusiform connectivity and connectivity between the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus (STS). These findings point to a pivotal role for the fusiform gyrus in SAD neuropathology, and further suggest that altered amygdala-fusiform and amygdala-STS connectivity could underlie previous findings of aberrant socio-emotional information processing in this anxiety disorder.

  • 20. Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Marquand, Andre F.
    Howner, Katarina
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Classifying social anxiety disorder using multivoxel pattern analyses of brain function and structure2014Inngår i: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 259, s. 330-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional neuroimaging of social anxiety disorder (SAD) support altered neural activation to threat-provoking stimuli focally in the fear network, while structural differences are distributed over the temporal and frontal cortices as well as limbic structures. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain at the voxel level using mass-univariate methods which do not enable detection of more complex patterns of activity and structural alterations that may separate SAD from healthy individuals. Support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning method that capitalizes on brain activation and structural patterns to classify individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate if it is possible to discriminate SAD patients (n = 14) from healthy controls (n = 12) using SVM based on (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during fearful face processing and (2) regional gray matter volume. Whole brain and region of interest (fear network) SVM analyses were performed for both modalities. For functional scans, significant classifications were obtained both at whole brain level and when restricting the analysis to the fear network while gray matter SVM analyses correctly classified participants only when using the whole brain search volume. These results support that SAD is characterized by aberrant neural activation to affective stimuli in the fear network, while disorder-related alterations in regional gray matter volume are more diffusely distributed over the whole brain. SVM may thus be useful for identifying imaging biomarkers of SAD.

  • 21. Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Howner, Katarina
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Furmark, Tomas
    Cortical thickness alterations in social anxiety disorder2013Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 536, s. 52-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with aberrant processing of socio-emotional stimuli and failure to adaptively regulate emotion, corroborated by functional neuroimaging studies. However, only a few studies of structural brain abnormalities in SAD have been reported, and among these only one investigated cortical thickness. In the present study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with an automated method to measure cortical thickness in patients with SAD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=12). Results showed significantly increased thickness of the left inferior temporal cortex in SAD patients relative to controls. Within the patient group, a negative association was found between social anxiety symptom severity and thickness of the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The observed alterations in brain structure may help explain previous findings of dysfunctional regulation and processing of emotion in SAD.

  • 22. Furmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Frick, Andreas
    Heurling, Kerstin
    Tillfors, Maria
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Hartvig, Per
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Långström, Bengt
    Eriksson, Elias
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Serotonin synthesis rate and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2: G-703T polymorphism in social anxiety disorder2016Inngår i: Journal of Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0269-8811, E-ISSN 1461-7285, Vol. 30, nr 10, s. 1028-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -11C]tryptophan, [11C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis. Parametric images were generated, using the reference Patlak method, and analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). Blood samples for genotyping of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism were obtained from 16 social anxiety disorder patients (T carriers: n=5, GG carriers: n=11). A significantly elevated [11C]5-HTP accumulation rate, indicative of enhanced decarboxylase activity and thereby serotonin synthesis capacity, was detected in social anxiety disorder patients compared with controls in the hippocampus and basal ganglia nuclei and, at a more lenient (uncorrected) statistical threshold, in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, the serotonin synthesis rate in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex was significantly elevated in TPH2 T carriers in comparison with GG homozygotes. Our results support that social anxiety disorder entails an overactive presynaptic serotonergic system that, in turn, seems functionally influenced by the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism in emotionally relevant brain regions.

  • 23.
    Gavazzeni, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Andersson, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Age, Gender, and Arousal in Recognition of Negative and Neutral Pictures 1 Year Later2012Inngår i: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 1039-1052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with nonarousing stimuli, arousing stimuli enhance memory performance. The most robust effects have been reported for negative stimuli, "the negativity effect," although a number of mediating factors prevent definitive conclusions, for example, age, gender, memory task, retention period, and alternative arousal measures. To clarify whether the negativity effect is robust across age, gender, and time, we studied incidental recognition of neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999) in healthy younger and older adults-women and men-after a 1-year retention interval. Memory performance was related to 2 arousal measures at encoding, skin conductance response (SCR), and intensity rating of unpleasantness. The results showed weaker overall memory performance for older adults compared with younger adults. The negativity effect on accuracy (d') was gender dependent and age independent. In contrast, the negativity effect on response bias (c) interacted with age, but not gender, being weaker for older adults. Despite significant differences in arousal (SCR and arousal rating) between negative and neutral pictures, the correlations between arousal measures and memory performance were weak. Controlling for age and gender, a small negative partial correlation was found between arousal ratings and accuracy. The results extend previous studies by relating long-term recognition to both age and gender as well as to arousal at encoding.

  • 24.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017Inngår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, s. e110-e110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 25.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older adults perform better in tasks which include positive stimuli, referred to as the positivity effect. However, recent research suggests that the positivity effect could be attenuated when additional challenges such as stress or cognitive demands are introduced. Moreover, it is well established that older adults are relatively resilient to many of the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. Our aim was to investigate if the positivity effect in older adults is affected by one night of total sleep deprivation using an emotional working memory task.

    Methods: A healthy sample of 48 older adults (60-72 years) was either sleep deprived for one night (n = 24) or had a normal night's sleep (n = 24). They performed an emotional working memory n-back (n = 1 and 3) task containing positive, negative and neutral pictures.

    Results: Performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times was best for positive stimuli and worst for negative stimuli. This positivity effect was not altered by sleep deprivation. Results also showed that, despite significantly increased sleepiness, there was no effect of sleep deprivation on working memory performance. A working memory load x valence interaction on the reaction times revealed that the beneficial effect of positive stimuli was only present in the 1-back condition.

    Conclusion: While the positivity effect and general working memory abilities in older adults are intact after one night of sleep deprivation, increased cognitive demand attenuates the positivity effect on working memory speed.

  • 26.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Viewing distance matter to perceived intensity of facial expressions2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In our daily perception of facial expressions, we depend on an ability to generalize across the varied distances at which they may appear. This is important to how we interpret the quality and the intensity of the expression. Previous research has not investigated whether this so called perceptual constancy also applies to the experienced intensity of facial expressions. Using a psychophysical measure (Borg CR100 scale) the present study aimed to further investigate perceptual constancy of happy and angry facial expressions at varied sizes, which is a proxy for varying viewing distances. Seventy-one (42 females) participants rated the intensity and valence of facial expressions varying in distance and intensity. The results demonstrated that the perceived intensity (PI) of the emotional facial expression was dependent on the distance of the face and the person perceiving it. An interaction effect was noted, indicating that close-up faces are perceived as more intense than faces at a distance and that this effect is stronger the more intense the facial expression truly is. The present study raises considerations regarding constancy of the PI of happy and angry facial expressions at varied distances.

  • 27.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The effect of sleep loss on emotional working memory2016Inngår i: Abstracts, 2016, Vol. 25(S1), s. 17-18Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Emotional stimuli differently affect working memory (WM) performance. As sleep deprivation has a known impact on both emotion and WM our aim was to investigate how one night without sleep affects emotional WM performance. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 56; age 18–30 years) were randomized to a total sleep deprivation (TSD) or a rested control (RC) condition. Subjects rated their affective state and performed a 1 and a 3-back WM task consisting of neutral, positive and negative pictures at 3 pm or 6 pm (balanced) the day after sleep manipulation. Accuracy (d’) and target response time (RT) were used as outcomes. Results: In the TSD condition, subjects rated themselves as less positive (P = 0.006) but not more negative than in the RC condition. In the WM task, TSD had a detrimental effect on accuracy (P = 0.03) regardless of difficulty. Moreover, accuracy was higher in the 1-back than in the 3-back (P < 0.001) and higher for neutral compared to both negative and positive stimuli (Ps < 0.05). RT was faster for positive compared to negative and neutral stimuli (Ps < 0.05). The latter effect was particularly pronounced in the TSD condition as shown by a condition*valence interaction (P < 0.03). Conclusions: One night of total sleep loss impaired emotional WM accuracy. Noticeable, RT was faster for positive stimuli compared to negative and neutral stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced after sleep loss. This suggests that sleep loss strengthens the opposing effects of positive and negative stimuli on WM performance, possibly due to increased emotion reactivity.

  • 28.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory2019Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 1, artikkel-id e12744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high‐complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Sixty‐one healthy participants (mean age: 23.4 years) were either sleep deprived for 1 night (n = 30) or had a normal night’s sleep (n = 31). They performed an N‐back task with two levels of working memory load (1‐back and 3‐back) using positive, neutral and negative picture scenes. Sleep deprivation, compared with full night sleep, impaired emotional working memory accuracy, but not reaction times. The sleep‐deprived participants, but not the controls, responded faster to positive than to negative and neutral pictures. The effect of sleep deprivation was similar for both high and low working memory loads. The results showed that although detrimental in terms of accuracy, sleep deprivation did not impair working memory speed. In fact, our findings indicate that positive stimuli may facilitate working memory processing speed after sleep deprivation.

  • 29. Gulliford, Desiree
    et al.
    Chen, Huaihou
    Porges, Eric
    Lin, Tian
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, David
    Cohen, Ronald
    Ebner, Natalie
    Gender-differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on resting-state anterior cingulate activity2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As individuals age, there is an increased focus on social relationships (Carstensen, 2006). However, age-related changes in the brain can interfere with social functioning (Ebner, et al, 2012; Mather, et al, 2005; Ruffman, et al, 2008). While age-related changes in cognition are well studied, social-cognitive changes in aging are still underinvestigated, especially the brain mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The administration of intranasal oxytocin (OT) has the potential to modulate social cognition (De Dreu, 2014) by altering BOLD signal in regions of the social brain (eg. amygdala and vmPFC) (Ebner, et al, 2016). Currently, there is very little known about the role of OT in human development in aging (Campbell, et al, 2014; Huffmeijer, et al, 2012). Methods: 40 young (18–31 years, 50% female) and 39 older (63–81 years, 59% female) were randomly assigned (in a double-blind design) to self-administer either 24 UIs of intranasal OT or placebo (P) 70-90 minutes prior to resting-state fMRI. T1-weighted anatomical reference images, using an MP-RAGE sequence (sagittal plane, FOV = 240 mm × 240 mm × 170; 1 × 1 × 1 mm isotropic voxels), and functional gradient-echo-planar imaging (EPI) data, during an open-eye, white cross-hair on black background, 8 minute resting-state scan (38 interleaved slices, TR 2 sec, TE 30 msec, FOV 252 × 252 × 133 mm, 80 × 80 × 38 mm matrix, flip angle 90°, in plane resolution of 3.15 × 3.15 mm, slice thickness 3.5 mm, 0 mm skip), were acquired with a 3T Philips Achieva MR Scanner using a 32-channel head coil. Preprocessing, including slice time correction, motion correction with artifact rejection, spatial normalization, and smoothing with an 8 mm Gaussian kernel, were implemented with Functional Connectivity Toolbox (Whitfield-Gabrieli, et al, 2012; http://www.nitrc.org/projects/conn/). Results: Younger individuals showed significantly greater overall anterior cingulate (AC) activity in P condition (p=.044). Intranasal OT administration significantly increased activity in the AC in both younger and older women (p=.024), but not men, when compared to P. The effect was slightly greater in older women than younger, but this effect was not significant potentially due to sample size.There were no significant gender effects in AC activity during rest between males and females in either younger or older P control groups. Conclusions: Intranasal OT has differential gender effects on AC activity during resting-state, increasing activity in women but not men. Additionally, there is evidence for age differences in overall AC activity at rest.

  • 30. Harmat, Laszlo
    et al.
    de Manzano, Örjan
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Physiological correlates of the flow experience during computer game playing2015Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 97, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow is the subjective experience of effortless attention, reduced self-awareness, and enjoyment that typically occurs during optimal task performance. Previous studies have suggested that flow may be associated with a non-reciprocal coactivation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and, on a cortical level, with a state of hypofrontality and implicit processing. Here, we test these hypotheses, using the computer game TETRIS as model task. The participants (n = 77) played TETRIS under three conditions that differed in difficulty (Easy < Optimal < Difficult). Cardiac and respiratory activities, and the average oxygenation changes of the prefrontal cortex were measured continuously with functional near infrared spectroscopy (INIRS) during performance. The Optimal condition was characterized by the highest levels of state flow, positive affect, and effortless attention. The associations between self-reported psychological flow and physiological measures were investigated using a series of repeated measures linear mixed model analyses. The results showed that higher flow was associated with larger respiratory depth and lower LF. The higher respiratory depth during high flow is indicative of a more relaxed state with an increased parasympathetic activity, and thus provides partial support for the main hypotheses. There was no association between frontal cortical oxygenation and flow, even at liberal thresholds; i.e. we found no support that flow is related to a state of hypofrontality.

  • 31. Henningsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Zettergren, Anna
    Hovey, Daniel
    Jonsson, Lina
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Melke, Jonas
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Westberg, Lars
    Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2SNPs and social memory.

  • 32. Holding, Benjamin C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies2017Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 40, nr 11, artikkel-id zsx145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task.

    Methods: Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization.

    Results: Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1).

    Conclusions: The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep.

  • 33. Holding, J. B. C.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Axelsson, John
    Sundelin, Tina
    Total sleep deprivation does not impact emotion categorisation in dynamic stimuli2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have highlighted a deficit in facial emotion recognition after sleep loss. However, while some studies suggest an overall deficit in ability, others have only found effects in individual emotions, or no effect at all. The aim of this study was to investigate this relationship in a large sample and to utilise a dynamic test of emotion recognition in multiple modalities. 145 individuals (91 female, ages 18–45) participated in a sleep-deprivation experiment. Participants were randomised into: one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or normal sleep (8–9 h in bed). The following day participants completed a computerised emotional recognition test, consisting of 72 visual, audio, and audio-visual clips, representing 12 different emotions. The stimuli were divided into “easy” and “hard” depending on the intensity of emotional display. A mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects of modality and difficulty, P < 0.001, but no main effect of condition, P = 0.31, on emotional recognition accuracy. Additionally, there was no interaction between condition and difficulty, P = 0.96, or modality, P = 0.67. This study indicates that sleep deprivation does not reduce the ability to recognise emotions. Given that some studies have only found effects on single emotions, it is possible that the effects of sleep loss are more specific than investigated here. However, it is also possible that previous findings relate to the types of static stimuli used. The ability to recognise emotions is key to social perception; this study suggests that this ability is resilient to one night of sleep deprivation.

  • 34. Horta, Marilyn
    et al.
    Ziaei, Maryam
    Lin, Tian
    Porges, Eric C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Feifel, David
    Spreng, R. Nathan
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Oxytocin alters patterns of brain activity and amygdalar connectivity by age during dynamic facial emotion identification2019Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 78, s. 42-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with increased difficulty in facial emotion identification, possibly due to age-related network change. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) facilitates emotion identification, but this is understudied in aging. To determine the effects of OT on dynamic facial emotion identification across adulthood, 46 young and 48 older participants self-administered intranasal OT or a placebo in a randomized, double-blind procedure. Older participants were slower and less accurate in identifying emotions. Although there was no behavioral treatment effect, partial least squares analysis supported treatment effects on brain patterns during emotion identification that varied by age and emotion. For young participants, OT altered the processing of sadness and happiness, whereas for older participants, OT only affected the processing of sadness (15.3% covariance, p = 0.004). Furthermore, seed partial least squares analysis showed that older participants in the OT group recruited a large-scale amygdalar network that was positively correlated for anger, fear, and happiness, whereas older participants in the placebo group recruited a smaller, negatively correlated network (7% covariance, p = 0.002). Advancing the literature, these findings show that OT alters brain activity and amygdalar connectivity by age and emotion.

  • 35. Hovey, Daniel
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Zettergren, Anna
    Melke, Jonas
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Westberg, Lars
    Emotion recognition associated with polymorphism in oxytocinergic pathway gene ARNT22018Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 173-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to correctly understand the emotional expression of another person is essential for social relationships and appears to be a partly inherited trait. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been shown to influence this ability as well as face processing in humans. Here, recognition of the emotional content of faces and voices, separately and combined, was investigated in 492 subjects, genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes encoding proteins important for oxytocin and vasopressin neurotransmission. The SNP rs4778599 in the gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2), a transcription factor that participates in the development of hypothalamic oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, showed an association that survived correction for multiple testing with emotion recognition of audio–visual stimuli in women (n = 309). This study demonstrates evidence for an association that further expands previous findings of oxytocin and vasopressin involvement in emotion recognition.

  • 36. Howner, Katarina
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dierks, Thomas
    Federspiel, Andrea
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria
    Kristoffersen Wiberg, Marianne
    Brain processing of fearful facial expression in mentally disordered offenders2011Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, ISSN 2160-5866, E-ISSN 2160-5874, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 115-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional facial expressions are important cues for interaction between people. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain function when processing fearful facial expressions in offenders with two psychiatric disorders which include impaired emotional facial perception; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy (PSY). Fourteen offenders undergoing forensic psychiatric assessment (7 with ASD, and 7 psychopathic offenders) and 12 healthy controls (HC) viewed fearful and neutral faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Brain activity (fearful versus neutral faces) was compared both between HC and offenders and between the two offender groups (PSY and ASD). Functional co-activation was also investigated. The offenders had increased activity bilaterally in amygdala and medial cingulate cortex as well as the left hippocampus during processing fearful facial expressions compared to HC. The two subgroups of offenders differed in five regions compared with each other. Results from functional co-activation analysis suggested a strong correlation between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the left hemisphere only in the PSY group. These findings suggest enhanced neural processing of fearful faces in the amygdala as well as in other facial processing brain areas in offenders compared to HC. Moreover, the co-activation between amygdala and ACC in the PSY but not the ASD group suggested qualitative differences in amygdala activity in the two groups. Since the sample size is small the study should be regarded as a pilot study.

  • 37. Howner, Katarina
    et al.
    Fristed Eskildsen, Simon
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Dierks, Thomas
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Thinner cortex in the frontal lobes in mentally disordered offenders2012Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 203, nr 2-3, s. 126-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antisocial and violent behaviour have been associated with both structural and functional brain abnormalities in the frontal and the temporal lobes. The aim of the present study was to assess cortical thickness in offenders undergoing forensic psychiatric assessments, one group with psychopathy (PSY, n = 7) and one group with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 7) compared to each other as well as to a reference group consisting of healthy non-criminal subjects (RG, n = 12). A second aim was to assess correlation between scores on a psychopathy checklist (PCL-SV) and cortical thickness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface-based cortical segmentation were used to calculate cortical thickness. Analyses used both regions of interest and statistical maps. When the two groups of offenders were compared, there were no differences in cortical thickness, but the PSY group had thinner cortex in the temporal lobes and in the whole right hemisphere compared to RG. There were no differences in cortical thickness between the ASD group and RG. Across subjects there was a negative correlation between PCL-SV scores and cortical thickness in the temporal lobes and the whole right hemisphere. The findings indicate that thinner cortex in the temporal lobes is present in psychopathic offenders and that these regions are important for the expression of psychopathy. However, whether thinner temporal cortex is a cause or a consequence of the antisocial behaviour is still unknown.

  • 38. Johansson, Anette
    et al.
    Hellsing, Anna-Natalia
    Harmat, Laszlo
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Severity of past aggression coupled to higher baseline oxygenated hemoglobin in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Are there differences in working memory task related oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in those with schizophrenia, who had committed instrumental violence as opposed to reactive aggression? Is there any relationship to the severity of such aggression?

    Methods: 22 stable forensic psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (20 schizophrenia) were rated on symptom scales. Their most severe aggressive act was rated according to Cornell’s classification of instrumental or reactive aggression. The severity of aggression was also noted. Subjects completed a computerized Corsi-block-tapping test during functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Correlation analyses and GLM were used to identify factors that correlated with oxygenated hemoglobin signal in optodes 1 and 15 (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC).

    Results / Discussion: Spearman Rank correlations with task-minus-baseline HbO in optode 1(left DLPFC) were found for total antipsychotic daily dose and scores on block 5 of the Corsi task, as well as between daily dose and negative symptom scores. Correlations were found between baseline HbO in optode 1 and 15, as well as in task-minus-baseline.  There was no effect of type of aggression on optode 1 or 15 baseline or task-minus-baseline HbO when controlled for the above. Past severe aggression, controlled for SANS, daily dose and Corsi correct responses correlated with higher HbO at baseline in optode 15 (F=9.45 p=0.007, adj R2=0.33, p=0.032) as opposed to task related HbO. Baseline and task-minus baseline optode 1 HbO correlated only with antipsychotic dose and Corsi score.

  • 39.
    Johnell, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Drug Use: A Nationwide Register-Based Study of Over 1 300 000 Older People2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. e23750-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the use of dopaminergic and serotonergic drugs in elderly people. Methods: We analyzed data on age, sex and dispensed drugs for individuals aged >= 65 years registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register from July to September 2008 (n = 1 347 564; 81% of the total population aged >= 65 years in Sweden). Main outcome measures were dopaminergic (enhancing and/or lowering) and serotonergic (enhancing and/or lowering) drugs and combinations of these. Results: Dopaminergic and serotonergic drugs were used by 5.6% and 13.2% the participants, respectively. Female gender was related to use of both dopaminergic and, particularly, serotonergic drugs. Higher age was associated with use of dopamine lowering drugs and serotonergic drugs, whereas the association with use of dopamine enhancing drugs declined in the oldest old. The occurrence of combinations of dopaminergic and serotonergic drugs was generally low, with dopamine lowering + serotonin lowering drug the most common combination (1.6%). Female gender was associated with all of the combinations of dopaminergic and serotonergic drugs, whereas age showed a mixed pattern. Conclusion: Approximately one out of ten older patients uses serotonergic drugs and one out of twenty dopaminergic drugs. The frequent use of dopaminergic and serotonergic drugs in the elderly patients is a potential problem due to the fact that aging is associated with a down-regulation of both these monoaminergic systems. Future studies are needed for evaluation of the impact of these drugs on different cognitive and emotional functions in old age.

  • 40.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    MacDonald, Stuart W. S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults2012Inngår i: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5145, E-ISSN 1662-5145, Vol. 6, nr 74, s. 1-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (“negativity effect”) is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after 1- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false, and true recognition. This study revealed four key findings: (1) increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, canceling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only) on discrimination in both younger and older adults; (2) in younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; (3) engagement of amygdala (AMG) was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits vs. misses) in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to AMG activity and performance; and (4) after 3 weeks, but not after 1 week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits vs. false alarms). As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making recognition judgments.

  • 41. Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Hovey, Daniel
    Zettergren, Anna
    Jonsson, Lina
    Cortes, Diana S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Melke, Jonas
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Westberg, Lars
    Social memory associated with estrogen receptor polymorphisms in women2016Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 877-883Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR. Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice.

  • 42. Kraus, Jakub
    et al.
    Frick, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Howner, Katarina
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Amygdala reactivity and connectivity during social and non-social aversive stimulation in social anxiety disorder2018Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 280, s. 56-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by exaggerated amygdala reactivity in response to symptom provocation, but it is unclear if such hyper-reactivity is elicited by disorder-specific challenges only or characterizes reactions to aversive stimuli in general. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 14 patients with SAD, as compared to 12 healthy controls, we found that amygdala hyper-reactivity is confined to disorder-relevant social stimulation. SAD patients displayed increased amygdala reactivity to fearful as compared to neutral facial pictures, but not in response to generally aversive but mainly non-social stimulation when compared to neutral pictorial stimuli taken from the International Affective Picture System. The increased amygdala reactivity was not mediated by an altered prefrontal inhibition among SAD patients as compared to controls, suggesting increased bottom-up processes rather than attenuated top-down control. In conclusion, the enhanced amygdala reactivity in SAD seems specific to socially relevant stimuli rather than aversive stimuli in general.

  • 43. Letellier, Isabelle
    et al.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Neal, Emma
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Makower, Irena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Assessing the impact of attachment on emotion recognition: accuracy scores and types of confusion2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44. Letellier, Isabelle
    et al.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Neal, Emma
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Makower, Irena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Avoidant attachment impairs global accuracy in emotion recognition2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45. Letellier, Isabelle
    et al.
    Döllinger, Lillian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Högman, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Neal, Emma
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Makower, Irena
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The role of the psychotherapist’s perception of emotion in therapy: Presentation of a Forte-Marie Curie Project2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46. Lin, T.
    et al.
    Horta, M.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Feifel, D.
    Cohen, R.
    Ebner, N.
    Effects of Intranasal Oxytocin on Perceptions of Trustworthiness in Aging2016Inngår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, nr S3, s. 361-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of trustworthiness in others influence thought and behavior during social interactions. Growing evidence suggests that intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin increases perceived trustworthiness of unfamiliar faces, with particularly pronounced effects for in-group compared to out-group faces. To date, prosocial effects of oxytocin have been mostly investigated in young adults, and the majority of studies comprised men. Recent evidence that older adults experience increased difficulty in determining trustworthiness in faces highlights the importance of examining the potentially beneficial role of oxytocin on perceptions of trustworthiness in aging. In the present study, 48 young and 54 older participants evaluated the trustworthiness of young and older male and female unfamiliar faces, while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were randomly assigned to either self-administer intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before engagement in the task. Behavioral analysis suggested that female faces were generally rated as more trustworthy than male faces. This effect was particularly pronounced in older participants in the oxytocin group but young participants in the placebo group. Functional connectivity analysis between amygdala and prefrontal cortex is currently underway and will identify the underlying brain mechanism of oxytocin’s effect on trustworthiness perceptions. Findings from this study emphasize the importance of considering age and sex of participants and faces when examining effects of oxytocin on perceptions of facial trustworthiness. Results will be discussed in the context of an emerging literature on oxytocin’s age-by-sex modulatory role in social and affective information processing.

  • 47.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet.
    Age-Related Differences in Sensitivity to Emotional Facial Stimuli but Age-Independent Association between Arousal Ratings and Visual Search Efficiency2013Inngår i: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 271-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The latter part of the lifespan is commonly associated with a decline of cognitive functions, but also with changes in emotional responding. To explore the effect of age on processing of emotional stimuli, we used a two-task design. In a stimulus-rating task, we investigated the emotional responses to 15 different schematic facial emotional stimuli (one neutral, seven positive, seven negative) on Arousal, Valence and Potency measures in 20 younger (21-32 yrs, M=26, SD=3.7) and 20 older (65-81 yrs, M=72, SD=4.9) participants. In a visual attention task, we used the same 15 stimuli in a visual search paradigm to investigate differences between younger and older participants in how the emotional properties of these emotional stimuli influence visual attention.The results from the stimulus-rating task showed significantly reduced range in responses to emotional stimuli in the older compared to the younger group. This difference was found on both emotional Arousal and Potency measures, but not on emotional Valence measures; indicating an age-related flattening of affect on two of the three emotional key dimensions. The results from the visual search task showed – apart from the general extension of response latencies in older – no general emotion-related differences between how emotional stimuli influences attention in the younger and older groups.Analysis of the relationships between attention and emotion measures showed that higher ratings on Arousal and Potency were associated with both shorter reaction times and fewer errors in the attention task. This correlation was age-independent, indicating a similar influence from emotional Arousal on detection of angry faces in younger and older adults.

  • 48. Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Patients with Parkinson’s disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli2017Inngår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 605-612Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. Method: In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. Results: The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Conclusions: Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses.

  • 49. Lussier, Desiree
    et al.
    Hayes, Rita
    Horta, Marilyn
    Lin, Tian
    Frazier, Ian
    Weir, Devon
    Perez, Eliany
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Feifel, David
    Ebner, Natalie
    Four-week Intranasal Oxytocin vs Placebo Administration Modulation of Amygdala and Accumbens Volume2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Gray matter (GM) volumes of limbic and striatal structures, including the amygdala (AMY)1 and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)2, are associated with socioemotional phenotypes. For instance, GM atrophy accompanies some dementias in which socioemotional processing is impaired2,3. Evidence suggests that intranasally administered oxytocin (OT) exerts a modulatory effect on socioemotional processing4, with the AMY5,6 and NAcc7 constituting strong potential targets for this in the brain modulatory process. There, further, is evidence that AMY volume is associated with endogenous OT levels in young adults8. However, the generalizability of this finding to older adults is currently unknown. Additionally, literature describing the effects of long-term OT administration on the aging brain is lacking.

    Methods: Twenty-four healthy male participants, aged 55 years and older, were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to self-administer intranasally either 24IUs of OT or placebo (P) twice daily for four weeks as part of an ongoing clinical trial conducted at the University of Florida. A structural T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) (1 mm3 isotropic voxels) scan was acquired at baseline and again posttreatment using a 3T Phillips scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Freesurfer was used for whole-brain structural segmentation9. Subcortical segmentation statistics (aseg.stat) volumetrics were extracted and analyses were conducted with Rstudio. The Stats10 package for R was used to run paired t-tests within each of the two treatment conditions (OT vs. P) to determine volume changes in amygdala and nucleus accumbens pre- to post-treatment. All analyses were conducted blind to the experimental conditions. Unblinding will be undertaken prior to the presentation of the final results.

    Results: T-tests resulted in a significant increase in bilateral NAcc GM volume for one (t = -5.60, df = 12, p-value < 0.001 left; t = -4.2851, df = 12, p-value = 0.001 right) but not in the other (t = -1.58, df = 10, p-value = 0.149 left; t = t = -1.78, df = 10, p-value = 0.105 right) treatment condition. Additionally, there was a trend-wise decrease in total GM volume from pre- to post-treatment in the right AMY in one (t = 3.20, df = 12, p-value = 0.008) but not in the other (t = 0.89, df = 10, p-value = 0.396) treatment condition. However, this observation was reversed for the left AMY (t = 1.130, df = 12, p-value = 0.280 and t = 3.2065, df = 10, p-value = 0.009, respectively).

    Conclusions: The results of this project suggest that 4-week intranasal OT vs. P administration differentially modulates brain volume in AMY and NAcc in healthy older men, with these modulatory effects possibly lateralized for the AMY. These findings are in line with previous literature showing that there may be hemispheric differences in socioemotional task-related AMY activation. Future extensions of this work will include a larger sample size to confirm the robustness of the findings and investigation into associations with socioemotional functioning.

  • 50.
    Lövén, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Svärd, Joakim Lång
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Ebner, Natalie C
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Face gender modulates women’s brain activity during face encoding2014Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 1000-1005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces.

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